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Full text of "The Albany hand-book for 1881"

Class 
Book- 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT 



1 



\ 



FE-ICE, 



iiiO <^JtiJJ>J J-fcD. 



r^-fci^ ALBA^;^ 




FOR 



"^i^^l 88 1.'^'^^^ 



A STRAMERS' EUIDE AND RESIDENTS' MANUAL, 

Containing a Chronicle of Local Events; Information 

ABOUT THE CiTY GOVERNMENT, SCHOOLS AND ChURCHES; 

Description and History of Public Buildings 

AND Institutions, with Special Reference 

TO Washington Park,, the Rural 

Cemetery and 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND A MAP. 



ALBANY, N. Y.: 

No. 30 North Pearl Street 

1 880. 



K Book About American Ictors. 



PLAYERS OF R CENTURY. 



By H. p. PHELPS. 



Ov^er ^OOjpcigeSj/iZZecZ lArttTt STzetcTieSj Crttt- 
ctsrrts, and, A^ixecdotes, 



N. V. World, (April 5, 1880). _ 
Modestly professes to be only a record of the Albany stage since the Revolutionary era. But 
Its pages really contain crisply written and clearly arranged sketches of all the famous actors and 
actresses who have played in New York within the period covered by this record. One especial 
excellence is its painstaking accuracy, and another is an index so complete that Mr. Phelps's book 
may almost be used as a dramatic encyclopaedia. 

Springfield Republican (March i, 1880). 
We don't doubt that, with a single exception (Ireland's Record of the New York Stage, now out 
of print), it is the fullest and the best dramatic history yet published in America, besides being 
the latest. 

N. Y. r/wzf^J (November 7, 1880). 
There are few players of any note that have been admired during the last half century who are 
not referred to in a pleasant and sympathetic spirit by this excellent compiler, and many of the 
facts related of popular actors are fresh and novel. 

7yz^A^«2'/<?« (April 27, 1880). 
The local history of the theatre in the United States is slowly getting itself written. What Mr. 
Ireland has done admirably and at length for New York, and what Mr. Clapp and Mr. Blake have 
more briefly attempted for Boston and Providence, Mr. Phelps has accomplished for the Albany 
stage. 

{London Theatre (July, 1880). 
It is a history of the drama in America of rare interest. 

Sent by mail on receipt of Sl.BO. 



McDONOUGH, Publisher, 

JO NORTH PEARL STREET, 




AT ALBANY.N.V. 



THE 




LBANY SaND-JoOK 



FOB 



1881. 



Strangers^ Guide and Residents' Manual, 

Containing a Chronicle of Local Events; Information about the City 

Government, Schools and Churches; Description and History 

OF Public Buildings and Institutions, with Special 

Reference to Washington Park, the Rural 

Cemetery and 



THE NEW CAPITOL. ,^;-:-^ 




Compiled ap^ Alphabetically Arranged by 
Author of "Players of a Century ; a record of the Albany Stage. 



ALBANY, N. Y. : 
No. 30 North Pearl street. 
1880.; • 



iHhJ6 r 



Copyright by 
H . P . P H E I^ P S , 

18S0. 



N. B.— Any suggestions relative to the next volume of the Hand-Book (lor 18S2) may 

be addressed to 

Editor Albany Hand-Book, 30 N. Pearl st., 

Albany-, N. Y. 



Chas. van Benthuysen & Rons, 

Printers, Elkctrotypers and Binders, 

Albany, N. Y. 



1 



INSURE IN THE 

^\ ir^ i\fr %M( ^^ 13) fi^'' J2> 

'I 



COMMEEC 

INSURANCE COMPANY, 

OF AliBANY, 

Office, No. 57 State St. 

CAPITAL. INVESTED IN 

UNITED STATES BONDS 

Abundant Indemnity, 

Low Rates of Premmm. 

Equitable Adjustment of Losses. 

Prompt Payment of Approved Claims. 



ZDIIREOTOI^S. 



ADAM VAN ALLEN, President, 

G. A. VAN ALLEN, Vice-President, 
C. P. WILLIAMS, ROYAL BANCROFT, 

M. H. READ. B. R. WOOD, 

C. B. LANSING, E. DARWIN JONES, 

JAMES W. EATON, > SAMUEL SCHUYLER, 

JESSE C. POTTS, ROBERT L. JOHNSON, 

I. A. CHAPMAN, NATHAN B. PEPdlY, 

C. H. ADAMS, O. H. DAVENPORT, 

GEORGE DAWSON, ISAIAH PAGE, 

CHARLES SEDAM, S. DE LA GRANGE, 

R. V. DE WITT, Secretarv. 



14 



STREET index;- A; 



Jrh» ilrMh will l» found at cr near the intersietion ef imaffirtarf 

linn drawn bttwetn the letters and figurti (in- SerdtrJ 

follpwiny the names lelow. 



Clir.ton ave... 
Clinton square. 

Colby ;... 

Colonic 

Colnnil)i». . ., . 

Congi'e:>3 

CQi'tlanil 

CortlHnU place, 

Cross 

Cuylei-. ...... 

D.-iIlius 

Daniel 

Dean 

Delaware 

Delaware ave. . 

Do Witt 

Ditson place. . 

Divisiou 

Dove '. 

Dove cont'd .. 
Droogan place, 
Dudley ave. .. 

Kagle 

East Exchange, 
Elizabeth ... 

Elk : 

Elm 

Eric 

Erie 

Exchange. ... . 

First 

First ave 

Fourth ave. . . 

Franklin 

Frisbio ave. .. 

Fulton : 

OHiisevoort. .. i 

Garden ] 

Garden 



Gnnt P. 1 

Green J. 18 

Hall place.... a li 

Hamilton Ti. 17 

Hamilton cont. K. > 6 
Hamittonpl... E. 14 

Hawk L. U 

Herkimer.... K, 18 

High L. 15 

High continued, J. 14 
Hoffman ave..- C. 13 
Howard. ..;...' L. 15 
Hudson ave.... L. 17 
Had.av. cont., E. -1 
Hunter ave. ..0. 3 

Button X. 13 

Irving J. 13 

Jackson P. 10 

James , M. 18 

Jay L. 12 

Jefferson E. 13 

John K. 18 

Judson 0. 9 

Kimball place, D. 18 
Kings place... P. 13 
Kirk's alley... R. 15 

Kuox N. 11 

Krank....... P. IS 

La Fayette... M. 14 . 
Lancaster.. .. L. 12 

Lark ...:... K. J3 

Laughlin , U. 14 

Lawrence Q. 15 

Learned...... E. IS 

Leonard. ..... E. 18 

Lexington ave: N. 10 

Liberty L. IB 

Lincoln avo ..' N. % 

Lodse M. IS 

Liviiifrsion av. P. IS 
Lumber DiaL. &.' 18 




M 



kLien 



WIST LAWfftNC£ 



MAIM 



PARTRlbcC 



QUAIL 





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STREET INDEX, t-M. 

■STu Sfnets will It fouml at or near tlie \nUr$uticnof ininainary 

lirut drawn, hetiveen the UUers and fit/uret (in herder) 

follcwing the- namet below. 



Madison av6'. . ] 
Madison place,' ^ 
Maiden Lane.' 1 
Main ave. . .° .. 
Main.'.. ...'...' 

Maple... ...... ' 

Martin. . .-.'. . 
Martin ave... 
McCarty ave.. 
McKowii.... .' 

Mercer. .' 

Merchant pi... '. 

Moliawk 

Monroe 

Montgoiaery.. 
Moore. ... ' • 
•Morris .... 

Morton 

•Mulberry 

Myrtle ave 

N. Y. C't'l ave., 

North 

Kortli Ferry,. 
North Fifth... 
■North First.. 
•North Fourtli 
North IjaOieing 
•North Pearl. . . 
North Second, . 
North Third.. 

Norton 

Oak.... 

O'Connell. ... 

Odell.. ' 

Oner's alley. . 

Ontario :. '. 

Orange...... '. 

Osboinel ..... 

Park. 

Park avo 

•Paik placo. ... 



Partridge. .;. .. J. 
Pcniienliary .,• J. : 
Perrv....;;.. G. 

Pliilip ..-.. J. 

Phcenix place. K. ' 

Pier :. P. 

Pine •'. M. 

Plaiir. »..,... K 
Pleasant;...". R. 

Plum ..;. H; 

Prospect ftve. . Q^ 
Providence... H. 

Priiyn.. . L. 

Qnack'cnbnsh. 0. 

Quail H. 

Quay' .■ .... H. 
'Railroad ave. . Q. 

Rath bone R. 

Rawson..'., .. P. 
Rensselaer:... J. 
Rensselaer ave X. 



Road, 



N. 



Robin.: N. 

Rose....;.:.. K. 

Sand E; 

Sanders E. 

Schuyler.-,.. H. 
Second., ..... 0. 
Second ave. .. E. 
.Shciman ...... N. ' 

Sligo '., D. 

Slingeiland. .. £. 

Sloan.... .\ F. 

South X. 

South Ferry.. J: 
South Jackson F. 
South. Lansing K. 
South Pearl. ... U. 

Spencer P. 

Spring.....;. M.. 
Spring cont'd.. M. 



Sprnce. N. 13 

State M. 17 

State M. \% 

Si'boat L'd'ng, L. l8 

Stephen F. 17 

Steuben...... N. IS 

Swan L. 13 

Ten Broeck:. 0. 15 

Tennis F. 17 

Thacher R. 15 

Third P. 13 

Third ave.... G. 16 

Thornton P. 9 

Tivoli •. .;. S. 13 

Trinity place.. J. 17 
Trotter's alley M. 19 

Union.: L. 18 

Van Tromp. . N. 16 
Van Woert:..: Q. 12 
Viin Zandt.,. K. 15 

Vine G. 18 

Walter X. 14 

Warren H. 13 

Warren alley.. H. 15 
Wasb'ton ave. M. 12 
Wash'lon ave. M. ft 
Wash'ton Park L. lO 

Water 0.17 

Watervliet.... -X. 13 
Watervliet ave Q. 1 

Wendell L. 15 

West M.. 8 

Westerlo K. 13 

Western ave. . L. 6 
W. Lawrence. H. 2 

Wilbur. J. 15 

Willett L. a 

William L. 16 

Wilson 0. 15 

Yates J. 6 

Zimmerman .. F. IS 



.•'C 






p/?OAOJ^ 



it-r 



I ^/?/l THeOf*^ 



STREET MAP OP ALBANY. 



\A/ 




a^i^ K^:^'/^'^<^^ ^ i^^^^ ^yri-iS^ 





/ 






G. A. Van Allsn. R. V. De Witt. 



THK 




V 



-L ^ I 



Aaron Burr, wlio beg-aii his legal 
career in this city, in 1782, is said to 
have had an office on the north side 
of Store Lane, now Norton st., the 
second building" from Pearl. He 
lived for a time in what is now James 
St., in the rear of the store of Van 
Heusen, Charles & Co. His early 
man'ied life was silent in Albany, 
and here his only legitimate daughter, 
Theodosia was born; and although 
removed to New York when an in- 
fant, she was also mariied here, her 
father at that time, again residing in 
Albany, being a member of the Leg- 
islature. Later in life he passed con- 
siderable time in this city. (See Fort 
Orange Club.) 

Abattoir, The, or public slaughter- 
house is situated on Brevator st., 
nearly thi'ee miles west of the City 
Hall. Slaughtering is prohibited (ex- 
cept by consent of the Common Coun- 
cil) within the limits of 160 rods west 
of Allen St., on the west ; Warren st., 
Delaware ave., Second ave.and Ganse- 
voort st. on the south ; the city line 
on the east ; and North Ferry, Van 
"Woert sts., Lexington and Livingston 
aves. on the north. The ordinance, 
however, is not strictly observed, 
and many of the butchei's have their 
own slaughter-houses. The question 
whether the power given the city 
government by the Legislature to 
regulate slaughter-houses, included 



the power to prohibit them has been 
raised, and decided in the affirmative 
by the Court of Appeals. 

Academy of Music. — The name 
under which the South Pearl Street 
Theatre (now Leland Opera House) 
was opened by John M. Trimble, 
December 22, 1863. It was burned 
January 29, 1868. The Division 
Street Theatre opened October 4, 
1869, was also called by that name 
while under Frank Lawlor's man- 
agement. It was burned December 
8, 1876, and its site is now occupied 
by dwellings. 

Academy Park, consists of one 

and eighty-two one-hundredths acres, 
bounded by Elk and Eagle sts., 
"Washington ave., and Park place, 
and just now is in a dilapidated con- 
dition. As soon as the old Capitol is 
removed, and Capitol Park laid out 
anew. Academy Park will also be 
improved. A little distance west of 
this spot used to be a ravine running 
north and south, where, tradition 
says, tories, in the time of the revo- 
lution^ were stiipped of their coats, 
hats and shoes, and a bandage put 
over their eyes, in which condition 
they were executed and buried on the 
spot. It was in Academy park that 
the building of the Army Relief Ba- 
zaar was erected in 1864. 



AFR — ALB 



African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, The, is at 8G5 Hamilton st. 
Colored fc>lks worship here, but white 
people are also welcome so long" as 
they behave themselves. 

Agricultural and Arts Associa- 
tion. — A society started a few years 
ag-o for the purpose of offering- in- 
ducements to the State Agricultural 



first session was held September 11, 
181.5, in a dwelling on the souih-east 
cor. of State and Lodge sts. The pre- 
sent brown freestone building, front- 
ing on Academy Park, north of the old 
capitol, was erected by the city. The 
corner-stone was laid July 2U, 1810. 
The main building is 70 by 80 feet, 
^^dth wings 30 by 45 ; is three stories 
high including basement. (See cut.) 




Society to hold its fair here as often 
as possible, and also to establish a 
local fair. The association bought the 
g-i'ounds, and erected the build- 
ings on the Troy road (see Fair 
Grounds), but now only exists as an 
expensive memory. 

Albany Academy, The, or the 

Boys' Academy as it is often called, 
was incoi-porated March 4, 1813. Its 



Cost, $90,000. It was in the upper 
rooms of this building that Joseph 
Heniy, who from 1826 to 1832, -was one 
of the professoi*s, first demonsti*ated 
the theory of the magnetic telegraph 
in transmitting intelligence, by ring- 
ing a bell through a mile of wii'e strung- 
around the room. It only i*emained 
for Prof. Morse to invent the code of 
signals, and the machine for making- 
them, and the thing- was done. As 



ALB — ALM 



has been well said, "The click 
heard from every joint of those mys- 
tic wires which now link tog-ether 
every city and village all over this 
continent, is but the echo of that little 
bell which first sounded in the upper 
* room of the Albany Academy." It 
was in this building that the well- 
known Bullions g-rammai's wei-e 
written and first used as text-books, 
by their author. Professor of Latin 
and Greek in the institution. For 
many years, T. Romeyn Beck, who 
created the science of medical juris- 
prudence, was the princix')al, and at 
all times the institution has main- 
tained an enviable reputation. On 
the 2Gth of June, 1803, a semi-cen- 
tennial celebration was held, when it 
was found that more than 5,000 stu- 
dents had been educated here. 

Present Condition. The present 
principal, Prof. Merrill Edwards 
Gates, Ph. D,, assumed charg-e in 
1870, and since then the academy has 
seemed imbued with new life. It 
was never in a moi'e prosperous con- 
dition then now ; its course was never 
more thorough ; its results were 
never more satisfactory. There is a 
primary department for the youngest 
boys; a prex^aratory department 
where oral lessons by object methods 
are given, and an academic depart- 
ment, the latter consisting of a course 
of six years in English, the classics, 
mathematics, as far as analytical 
geometry, French and German, the 
natural sciences, history and litera- 
ture. French text-books are used in 
the study of physics. Twelve hun- 
dred large photographs, collected by 
Prof. Gates in Europe and the East, 
and carefully arranged and bound 
for use, illustrate the geography, the 
history, the architecture, the sculp- 
ture and the painting of the world. 
Military drill is a well-developed fea- 
ture of the academy, and the march 
of the cadets through the streets of 



Albany, is always watched with 
interest. 

Albany Business College. (See 
Folsom's Business College). 

Albany Institute, meets each alter- 
nate Tuesday evening, from October 
to June, at the Albany Academy. 
Its origin dates back thi'ough other 
organizations of which it is the legiti- 
mate successor, to the year 1791 . The 
charter of the Albany Institute was 
granted February 27, 1829,the Society 
for the Promotion of Useful Arts, and 
the Albany Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory, having consolidated under that 
name. Its membership has included 
many persons of distinction as scholars 
and also in professional and civil life. 
Its standard j)ublications are eight 
volumes of Ti'ansactions, two of Pro- 
ceedings, and one entitled Field Meet- 
ings of the Albany Institute. The 
annual fee for resident members is 
$5. There are now about 200 mem- 
bers. The library contains 6,000 
volumes, and many old newspapers, 
including a collection made by De 
Witt Clinton, but owing to lack of 
proper accommcidations it is not easily 
accessible. The president is Orlando 
Meads; rec. sec, Daniel J. Pratt. 

Albany Nevrs Company. (See 
News Co., Albany.) 

Alms-House, The, is situated on 
the plankroad, south of Washington 
park and west of the Penitentiary. 
The Alms-house farm contains 116 
acres of good land. The buildings 
include the poor-house, lunatic asy- 
lum, hospital, pest-house, etc. The 
city pays 60 and the county 40 per 
cent, of the cost of maintenance. 
The average number of inmates is 
350. State paupers (such as have 
not been residents of any county 
for 60 days) are received here and 



AMU — ANT 



boarded at $2.50 per week. There 
are about 50 insane. Incurable cases 
are sent to the asyhim at Ovid. A 
new pest-house, erected on the out- 
skirts of the fai'in, will accommodate 
50 persons. Cattle and geese are 
empounded here, and the unclaimed 
dead of the streets, the river and the 
Penitentiary find here a burial. Visi- 
tors are admitted every day except 
Sunday. 

Amusements, Record of. (See Ap- 
pendix.) 

Anneke Jans, whose estate has 
been the subject of so much solicita- 
tion, I'esided cor. State and James 
sts., present site of the Mechanics' 
and Farmers' bank, and died in this 
city in 16G3. She is supposed to hdve 
been buried in the Beaver street 
burying- ground. Her first husband 
owned land on the west side of 
Broadway, New York, along the 
river, from Chambers to Canal sts., 
with a strip running up to give an 
entrance to Broadway. This was 
sold to the Government by her heirs, 
and was known as the King-'s farm, 
and given to Trinity church. It is 
now worth millions, and many of her 
descendants have imagined that it 
ought to revert to them. 

Antiquities. — In the Sunday School 
room of the First Reformed church 
are to be seen a pulpit, hour-glass 
and Brble which came from Holland. 
The pulpit is of oak, of octagonal 
shape, four feet high and three feet 
in diameter. It was in use 150 years 
by eight successive pastors. So, too, 
was the hour-glass by which the 
preacher was timed by the entire 
congi-egation, and greatly did he 
offend if he failed to occupy his full 
sixty minutes. The Bible, with its 
wood and leather covers, brass cor- 
ners and clasps, was printed in 1730. 



The weather-cock, which adorned 
the old Dutch church in which these 
ai'ticles were used, and of which a 




cut is here given, is stored with the 
archives of the Van Rensselaer es- 
tate. (See Reformed Churches.) 

Anti-Rentism, although a thing of 
the past, at one time was a very ex- 
citing issue, and entered largely into 
State politics. It was an attempt to 
disregard the rights of the patroons 
(see Patroon) granted by the Dutch 
"West India Co. Previous to 1790 the 
Van Rensselaer manor was not much 
settled, but between then and 1800 a 
large number of leases m perpetuity 
were signed, by which payment of 
rent was to be made in the pi-oduce 
of the soil, the average annual j*ate 
being about ten bushels of wheat to 
every hundred acres, and in addition, 
each fai'm was to furnish yearly four 
fat fowls and one day's sei-vice with 
carriage and horses. If the rent was 
not paid in this way when due, it 
was afterwards collectable in money. 
Many of these leases stipulated that no 
I'ent should be collected at all for the 
first three or ti\'e years, thus giving 
the tenants time to raise the produce ; 



ARC 



otliers were more severe in their con- 
ditions, the hardest of which, how- 
ever, were rarely, if ever, enforced. 
The old Patroon, who died Jan. 26, 
1839, had been very lenient, and upon 
his decease a large sum of money for 
back rent in the counties of Albany 
and Rensselaer was owing- to the 
estate. By his will the manor was 
divided, Albany county going" to his 
eldest son, Stephen, and Rensselaer 
to William P. About this 'time, and 
before the poKcy of the heirs was 
made known, the tenants formed 
associations to resist the payments of 
these rents and the service of legal 
process, and while the Van Rensse- 
laers were willing to concede much 
to individuals, they refused to treat 
with combinations. The first con- 
flict which attracted general atten- 
tion was at Grafton, Rensselaer Co., 
where a man was killed by disguised 
anti-renters. The examination of 
more than 200 persons failed to dis- 
close the author of the deed. Other 
manors were equally agitated, and in 
1845 Gov. Wright issued a proclama- 
tion declaring Delawai-e county in a 
state of insurrection. In the follo^ving 
year he was defeated by the aiiti- 
i*ent candidate for governor, and the 
issue made itself felt not only in the 
legislature but in the constitutional 
convention. Gradually the excite- 
ment subsided, and the contest was 
transferred to the courts, where* liti- 
gation invariably resulted in favor of 
the land-lord. Within a few years 
the leases of land in Rensselaer county 
and the hill towns of Albany county 
have been sold to other parties, who 
either still collect the rent or have 
made a final settlement Nvdth the ten- 
ants. Many farms in Bethlehem, 
Guilderland, Watervliet and Rensse- 
laerville still add to the income of the 
heirs of the last of the Patroons, but 
the number is yearly gromng less, 
the tenant choosing to make a final 



settlement and receive a clear title to 
his hoiise and home. The subject is 
one upon which much has been wi'it- 
ten on both sides, and cannot be fur- 
ther entered into here. The excite- 
ment at times, in this city, has been 
very great, the militia being called 
out and a mimic war carried on, upon 
the Helderbergs. 

Architectural Features. — The ex- 
amples of primitive Dutch structures, 
on the southeast cor. of State and 
Pearl sts., and northeast cors. of Pearl 
and Columbia, and Chapel and Steu- 
ben sts., are interesti'ng as old land- 
marks, and for their quaintness. 
Modern buildings, in Albany, are 
erected with bi-ick of local manufac- 
ture ; Philadelphia, Croton and other 
pressed brick ; sandstone from Nova 
Scotia, New Jersey, Connecticut, and 
Ohio ; Schenectady blue stone ; gran- 
ite ; and cast-iron for fronts, and for 
trimmings to doors and windows. In 
Albany, as in all old cities, three 
periods in architectural design ai'e 
distinctly noticeable, viz. : the "Cai-- 
penters'," as are the majority of do- 
mestic houses in the oldest portions 
of the city, together with public build- 
ings such as the Geological Hall, Globe 
Hotel, and Normal School. Secondly, 
" Transition '' from the first named to 
architects' handiwoi-k, included in 
which ai'e the numei'ous buildings re- 
modeled for stores, offices, &c. Last- 
ly, "Art culture," in which may be 
cited numerous private residences 
upon Elk and State sts., and on Wash- 
ington ave., the Kenmore Hotel, Me- 
chanics' and Farmers' Bank, and 
many modern suburban residences. 
In ecclesiastical architecture, pi-omi- 
nent as examples of Gothic, are St. 
Peter's, St. Joseph's, and the Cathe- 
dral ; the carved work in the tower 
of the first mentioned is probably 
unsurpassed in design and faithful- 
ness of the workman by any work iu 



ARM — ARS 



8 



America or Europe. The Lutheran 
Church, upon Pine st., is a credit- 
able specimen of "early Eng"lish," 
wroug-ht out of brick. The Presbyte- 
rian Church, and the Baptist Church, 
upon the cors. of Philip st. and Hud- 
son ave., are interesting- studies in 
Gothic and Gi*eek characters. In 
Romanesque style we might mention 
the Reformed Church upon Pearl st., 
St. Mary's upon Lodg-e st., and Our 
Lady of Angels on Central ave., as 
exhibiting, in many of their details, 
earnest study from their architects. 
The PresbyterianChurch upon Chapel 
st. approaches Sir Christopher Wi*en's 
style, in many of its prominent fea- 
tui'es, although its spire finial, the 
pumpkin and codfish, are wide de- 
partures therefrom. The interior 
design and ari-angements of All 
Saints Cathedral Chapel, furnish 
proof of success of culture in an ai'chi- 
tect. The Holy Innocents Church on 
Pearl st., a gein, pure in conception, 
should be seen by tourists and lovers 
of art. The later public schools are 
genuine, practical, sensible designs, 
embodying exteiiors and floor plans 
in keeping with intended purposes, 
affording comfort to teachei'S and 
pupils, while familiarising the eye of 
youth with taste, cleanliness, and 
sanitary demand. St. Agnes School 
is a model of its kind, and although 
simple, almost severe, in style, yet 
its numerous architectural surprises 
tend to leave an agreeable impression 
upon the memory. The Grecian pre- 
tensions of the Female Academy are 
in i-ather unpleasing conti'ast with 
their modern surroundings, and cal- 
culated to suggest unfavorable criti- 
cisms. The Sacred Heart Convent, 
at Kenwood, deserves particular men- 
tion for its chai-ming location, and as 
an illustration of Gothic character 
adapted to an institute of educa- 
tion. The new depot of the D. and 
H. C. Co., upon Quay st., is a very 



pleasing example of art as appreci- 
ated to-day. Another illustration of 
simple, good taste in architectui*e, 
striking the eye favorably and leav- 
ing pleasant impressions, is the Child's 
Hosjiital, modern and yet antique in 
its conception. In the State Arsenal, 
cor. of Eagle st. and Hudson ave., is 
a fine type of military architecture, 
in character resembling the baronial 
style introduced into England by 
King Edward I, upon his return from 
the Crusades. Among many other 
edifices worthy of note are the Old 
Capitol, State Librai'y, Boys' Acade- 
my, and the State Hall, some of which 
are elsewhere spoken of. 

Armsby Memorial, The, in honor 
of Dr. James H. Armsby, was un- 
veiled in Washington Park, Novem- 
ber 25, 1879, in the presence of the 
Albany County Medical Society, the 
students of the Medical College, 
members of the Albany Institute, 
and others. It stands about forty 
rods west of Willett st. The column 
of granite is 14 feet ; the cajiital is 
elaborated ; the bust is of bronze, 
twice the size of nature, and is the 
work and gift of E. D. Palmer. It 
was cast in Paris by F. Barbe- 
dienne. 

Arsenal, The State, fomiei-ly lo- 
cated on Broadway, cor. Lawrence 
st. was, by act of April, 17, 1858, 
exchanged wdth the city for the pres- 
ent site on Eagle, cor. Hudson ave. 
The present edifice was ei'ected in 
the same year, and is of substantial 
workmanship and elegant architect- 
ural style. It is usually well suj)- 
plied with arms and military equip- 
ments belonging to the State. The 
Twenty-fifth Regiment has its armory 
here, and the upper story contains 
one of the best drill-rooms in the 
State. 



ART— BAN 



Art Gallery. — The nearest ap- 
proach to an art g-allery in Albany, 
is Annesley & Tint's, 57 N. Pearl 
St., a favorite place of resort with 
lovers of the beautiful, and one to 
which Albanians in their desire to 
create a favoi'able impression of the 
culture and refinement of the city, 
are sure to pilot strangers. It may 
indeed be called the art centre of 
Albany. The rooms are arranged 
with a special view to advantageous 
lights and shades, and the most note- 
worthy works of art brought to this 
city, whether the production of native 
or of foreign talent, are generally 
placed here on public view. Rare 
and costly engravings and gems in 
oil and in water-colors are on sale, 
and there is usually something unique 
in artistic f ui*niture, in which the fii-m 
are also extensive dealers. They 
have been established since 1802, and 
are as well and favorably known as 
any institution of which our city can 
boast. Visitors are always welcome. 

Ashes. — Throwing ashes in the 
streets is not only prohibited by city 
ordinance, but by act of Legislature 
(chap. 377, Laws of 1866), which for- 
bids it in the cities of New York, 
Albany, Buffalo and Rochester, under 
penalty of from one dollar to ten 
dollai's fine. 

Auctions. — The principal auction 
houses are on State st., and many 
sales are conducted in the middle of 
that accommodating thoroughfare, 
the city ordinances providing that 
bulky articles may be so disposed of, 
provided they do not interrupt travel, 
are not placed within ten feet of a 
cross-walk, and ai-e removed one 
hour after the sale. The auction 
''audiences" are always interesting 
to the student of human nature. The 
leading auctioneer in the city is Mr. 
John S. Dickerman, who, for over 



twenty-one years, has followed the 
business, winning, by tact peculiarly 
his o^^^l, a reputation by no means 
confined to the city of which he is a 
prominent citizen. His salesrooms, 
83 State st., under Tweddle Hall, are 
commodious and convenient, and well 
adapted to the display of any goods, 
wares or merchandise which are 
usually sold in leading auction houses 
in large cities. The General, by long- 
experience, has a thorough knowl- 
edge of his business, which, by hon- 
orable dealing, good nature and 
courtesy, has been made a success. 
Fine works of art, in the shape of 
oil paintings, statuary, bronzes, &c., 
are sold periodically. Imported good.^ 
from Eastern countries are also dis- 
posed of, and large sales of first-class 
new fui'nitui'e are made in the season. 
Real estate, stocks and city bonds, 
help to make up the variety of sales 
made by Gen. Dickerman. Quite 
often he is called to other cities to 
officiate at important sales, and sev- 
eral of the city churches here avail 
themselves of his experience in mak- 
ing annual sales of pew rentals. 

Baggage. (See Expresses.) 

Ball Playing £.nd "shinney " play- 
ing in the public streets are punish- 
able by a fine o^ $1 for every person 
thus offending. 

Banks. — The following is a list of 
banks doing business in Albany. 
The State banks are organized under 
the State banking laws, and the Na- 
tional banks under the act passed by 
Congress during the war. Most of 
these were State banks, and re-or- 
ganized under that act. They are 
permitted to issue circulating notes 
by depositing U. S. interest-bearing 
bonds with the U. S. Treasurer at 
Washington, to secure their redemp- 
tion. These notes pass for their full 
value all over the Uniteu. iSt vte-3* 



BAP 



10 



Open from 10 a. m. to 2 p. m., except 
Sundays and legal holidays. The 
interest for discount is fixed at 6 per 
cent. 

National Banks. 

Albany City. — 47 State st. Erastus 
Corning, pres.; Eli Perry, vice-pres.; 
Amos -P. Palmer, cashier. Capital 
$300,000. 

Albany Exchange. — 450 Broadway. 
C. P.Williams, pres.; W.G.Thomas, 
vice-pres.; Theodore L. Scott, cashier. 
Capital JJ<300,000. 

Commercial. — 38 State st. Robert 
H. Pruyn, pres.; Robert L. Johnson, 
vice-pres. ; Edward A. Groesbeck, 
cashier. Capital JJ)300,000. 

First.— ^o and 37 State st. M. H. 
Reed, pre3.; G. A. Van Allen, vice- 
pres. ; Adam Van Allen, cashier. Capi- 
tal ."5200,000. 

Merchants'' of Albany. — 458 Broad- 
way. J. Wilbur Tilling-hast, pres. ; 
N. D. Wendell, ^dce-pres.; J. Irving- 
Wendell, cashier. Capital §200,000'. 

New York State. — 69 State st. J. 
Howard King, pres.; J. II. Van Ant- 
wei^D, vice-pres. ; D. W. Vfemple, 
cashier. Capital §250,000. 

Union of Albany. — 44(3 Broadway. 
Billings P. Learned, pres.; James C. 
Cook,^ cashier. Capital §250,000. 

State Banks 

Albany County. — 79 State, cor. No. 
Pearl. B. W. Wooster, pres.; Fran- 
cis N. Sill, vice-pres.; John Temple- 
ton, cashier. Capital §200,000. 

Mechanics' and Farmers'. — State 
cor. James. Dudley Olcott, pres. ; 
John J. Olcott, vice-pres.; George G. 
Davidson, cashier. Capital §350,000. 

Savings Banks. 

Albany. — State cor. Chapel. 

Albany City /Savings Institution. — 
47 State st. 

Albany County. — 79 State st. cor. 
N. Pearl. 



Albany Exchange. — 450 Broadway. 

Home, of Albany. — 40 State st. 

Mechanics'' and Fanners'. — State 
cor. James st. 

National. — 59 State st. 

At the last report of the Superin- 
tendent of the Bank Department, 
made to the Legislature April 6, 
1880, the combined resources, assets, 
etc., of these seven savings banks 
amoimted to §13,437,378.48, and their 
surplus over all liabilities, §1,025,- 
704.99. 

Baptist Churches. — The history 
of the Baptist denomination in this 
city dates back to Feb. 1, 1810, when 
a few bi-ethren of that way of think- 
ing met together to worship, and 
August 5, of the same year, organ- 
ized as a society. Jan. 23, 1811, they 
became a church numbering 21 mem- 
bers. Rev. Francis Wayland was 
their first pastor. They met in va- 
rious places for several years, and 
then bought the Green Street Theati-e, 
turned it into a church, and dedicated 
it as such Jan. 1, 1819. From this 
organization sprang all the other Bap- 
tist churches in the city. 

The First Church now worships in 
a building cor. Philip st. and Hudson 
ave., erected in 1852 at a cost of 
§26,000. During Rev. Dr. E. L. 
Magoon's pastorate it was remodeled 
and much improved. It will now 
seat 900. Rev. M. C. Lockwood has 
been the pasior since June 6, 15i>0 ; 
Peter N. Johnston, clerk ; Eliakim 
Chase, sexton. Membership, 626. 
Sunday service, 10:30 A. m., 7:30 p. m. 
Band of Hope, Sunday, 9 A. m. Cov- 
enant Bands, 6:15. Sunday School, 
2 p. M., Henry V. Shelley, supt. 

Emmanuel, on north side of State 
St., al)ove Swan. One of the finest 
churches in the city. The cut shows 
tlie spire, which is not yet completed. 
The Qorner-stone ^vas laid Aug. 14, 
1869 ; dedication, Feb. 23, 1871. Is 



11 



BAS — BAT 



of nnheAvn Onondaga limestone, and 
will seat 1,500. Cost .'^200,000. The 
church was organized in 1834, under 
the pastoral care of Rev. B. T. 
"Welch, I>.D., and was known as 
the N. Pearl st. Church, worship- 
ing* in an edifice on the spot now 
occupied by Perry Building. Under 




the pastorate of Rev. C. DeW. 
Bridgman, D.D., the new building 
was erected. He resigned in Feb., 
1878, and was succeeded by Rev. T. 
Harwood Pattison, the present pas- 
tor. Church membership, 650. No 
debt. Sunday services at the usual 
hours, morning and evening. 

Calvary Church was formerly 
known as the Washington Ave. Bap- 
tist Church, but changed its name 
Feb. 4, 1865, and bought the State 
St. Baptist Church, opposite the old 
Capitol, the society wdiich had wor- 
shiped there disbanding. In the 
spring of 1880 this building was torn 
down to make way for a new and 



handsome church now building. The 
congi-egation, meantime, w^orship in 
the old Capitol. Rev. John Hump- 
stone, pastor since Dec. 16, 1877 ; 
missionary, Mi'S. Emma Brett ; clerk, 
James Cameron; treas., Joseph Tay- 
lor ; supt. Sunday School, Wm. Mc- 
Donald ; sexton, John Bomus. Mem- 
bership, 636. 

Tabernacle, cor. Clinton ave. and 
Ten Broeck st., Rev. Albert Foster, 
23astor. Organized Oct., 1859, with 
56 members. Present membership, 
431. The church edifice now occu- 
pied was completed February, 1877. 
Cost, with lot and appointments, 
5^71,000. Present debt, 116,500. Ser- 
vices, preaching Sunday morning and 
evening ; Sunday school, 2^ P. m. ; 
evening meetings, Wednesday and 
Friday. Mission field. North Albany. 
Trustees, George Dawson, Lemon 
Thomson, Hamilton Harris, Rodney 
Vose, John M. Peck, H. South wick, 
Jr., James Marston and B. Lodge. 

German. — Washington ave. near 
Knox. Rev. Henry Trumpp, pastor. 

Kenwood Mission. — W. H. Brink- 
erhofF, supt. 

North Albany Mission. — George 
Dawson, supt. 

Madison Ave. Mission. — J. V. Burr, 
supt. 

Paigeville Mission.— Edw. Owen, 
supt. 

Robin St. Sunday School, cor. Elli. 

Basin, The Albany. — Formed by 
the construction of a pier in the Hud- 
son river. (See Pier.) 

Bath-on-the-Hudson. — A village 
on the east side of the river, opposite 
the northern part of Albany, and in 
the town of North Greenbush, Rens- 
selaer county ; incorj)orated May 5, 
1874, population 2,000. Is reached by 
Lumber District hoi'.se-cars and feri-y, 
or by upper railroad bridge. It re- 
ceived its name from a minei-al spiing 



BAT — BEN 



.12 



whose waters were once used exten- 
sively for bathing- piii*j)Oses. There 
is another village named Bath, in 
Steuben county. 

Baths. — Free pubhc baths, Albany 
has none, although the subject has 
been fi-equently agitated. Garry 
Benson has established a swimming- 
bath in the river, which is quite suc- 
cessful. The bath-rooms charg-e 25 
cents for a single bath, and some sell 
six tickets for §1. Sea- water baths 
35 and 40 cents ; sulphur, 50 cents ; 
medicated baths ^1. 

Beaver Block. — South Pearl st., 
N. E. cor. of Beaver, was formerly 
the brick church, preached in for the 
last time Feb. 8, 18G8. Here Rev. 
Dr. Nott delivered his famous dis- 
ct)Urse against duelling, called out by 
the death of Alexander Hamilton at 
the hands of Aaron Burr, in 1804. 

Beeren Island. — Twelve miles south 
of the city, near Coeymans Landing. 
It is now called Barren island, the 
spasmodic attempts of antiquarians 
to have its original name restored, 
having proved abortive. In 1643, 
Patroon Van Rensselaer erected a fort 
and trading housfe here, to exclude 
private traders and exact toll fi-om all 
vessels not belonging to the West 
India Co. This created much indig- 
nation at New Amsterdam. The 
island is now a favorite i-esort for 
picnics and excursion parties. Its 
southern point is in four counties, 
Albany, Rensselaer, Columbia and 
Greene. 

Begging, is forbidden by a city 
ordinance, which imposes a fine of 
from J^2 to $10, unless permission has 
been given by the mayor or common 
council. It is not generally known 
tjiat this restriction ax)pHes to "rais- 



ing moneys by subscription, for any 
purpose whatsoever." 

Bell Ringing, before sunrise or 
after sunset, except for divine ser- 
vice, fires and public festivals, is for- 
bidden, except with consent of the 
common council. Tolling a bell for 
a funeral is punishable by a fine of 
J^IO. 

Bender's Book Store.— 71 and 73 

State St., north side, below Pearl. 
One of the literary landmarks of 
Albany ; established in 1843, by E. 
H. Bender who was succeeded in 
1876 by his sons, F. W. & W. H. 
Bender. In 1878 W. Howard Bender 
became the sole proprietor, under the 
style of E. H. Bender's Son, continu- 
ing in the name, as well as by energy', 
enterprise and fair dealing, the 
excellent reputation which the house 
has always sustained. The business 
has, since its establishment, included 
not only that of a well regulated 
book-store, but of binding in all its 
branches, including the finest work ; 
the manufacture of blank-books and 
stationery ; and last, but not least, 
book and job printing. Two floors 
above the store are devoted to these 
departments, and excellent work is 
turned out. The counters and shelves 
of the book-store are well filled with 
books at low j)rices, and the holiday 
trade especially is always vei-y large. 

Benevolent Societies and Institu- 
tions. — In Mr. Dickens's Dictionary of 
London, the list of organizations un- 
der this head numbers about 850, 
and includes almost every conceiv- 
able object of charity, from supply- 
ing ** gratuitous homes for gentle- 
women" to supporting a ** temporary 
asylum for lost and starving dogs." 
Albany's chai-ities though of coui'se 
not as numerous, nor, perhaps, as far 
reaching, are still highly to the credit 



13 



BEN 



of her citizens, as will be seen by tlie 
followdng" : 

The Albany Orphan Asylum, first 
went into ox^eration in November, 
1829, opening- with eight children 
under the care of Mrs. Heely. Be- 
fore the winter was over seventy help- 
less ones enjoyed the shelter of the 
new institution. During" the follow- 
ing- summer, public meeting's were 
held and much interest created in 
the charity. It was incorporated 
March 30, 1S31, under the name of 
The Society for the Relief of Orphan 
and Destitute Children in the City of 
Albany. In 1832-3 a building- was 
erected between Washing-ton and 
Central aves. at Robin st. — a beauti- 
ful situation. The edifice was orig-- 
inally only three stories, foi-ty by 
eig-hty, but has been greatly enlarg-ed. 
It now has accommodations for 250 
inmates ; the averag-e number is 225. 
It receives both orphans and half- 
orphans, and has sheltered over 8,000 
in all. Pres., John F. Rathbone ; 
sec, A. V. De Witt; treas., David 
A. Thompson ; supt., Albert D. Ful- 
ler ; matron, Miss Mary FuUei'. The 
institution is supported by donations 
and voluntary contribution, interest 
on invested funds (from leg-acies), and 
by receipts from counties for support 
of children, under chap. 173, Laws 
of 1375. 

Babies' Nursery, 562 Clinton ave., 
was founded in 1875, and cares for 
young- children whose parents cannot 
support them, or who are left orphans. 
It has twenty inmates at present, 
which is all it can accommodate. It 
is supported by voluntary subscrip- 
tion. Mi*s. Frederick Townsend, 
pres. ; Mrs. Samuel Hand, sec. and 
treas. 

Charles Sumner Benevolent Asso- 
ciation. — Founded Dec. 13, 1875 ; 
incoii^orated Nov. 30, 1878. Mem- 
bers are pro\nded for when sick, if 
the illness is not the result of immoral 



conduct. Number of members, 40. 
John H. Ten Broeck, pres. ; John H. 
Waldron, vice-pres. ; Thos. Jackson, 
treas. ; W. A. F. Chapman, sec. 

Female Lundy Society (colored). — 
Founded June 19, 1833. Has 40 mem- 
bers, and is supported by monthly 
dues. Assists its o^\^l members. 
Mrs. S. L. Doug-e, pres. ; Mrs. C. L. 
May, cor. sec. 

Home for Aged Men. — On the Al- 
bany and Watervliet turnpike, near 
Menand's road. Incorporated Oct. 5, 
1876. "It is to provide for respect- 
able men who, at an advanced ag-c, 
are left helpless and alone in the 
world, and whose poverty is due to 
misfortune rather than to idleness or 
vice." The "home" was dedicated 
March 28, 1878 ; is pleasantly situ- 
ated ; has accommodations for 30 
j^ersons ; has at present 17 inmates, 
one of whom is 102 years old ; averag-e 
ag-e 76.. The institution is free from 
debt, and has an invested fund of 
$10,000. Inmates are, some of them^ 
supported in whole or part by friends, 
others are suppoi-ted at the expense 
of the society. Beneficiaries to be 
natives of the United States, 60 years 
old or more, Protestant, and residents 
of Albany county 10 yeai-s next pre- 
ceding- application for relief. Excep- 
tions to these restrictions may be 
made by a three-fourths vote of all 
the trustees. As a g-eneral i-ule bene- 
ficiaries pay $125 entrance money 
and furnish their own room. Mr. 
James B. Jermain, pres. ; David A. 
Thompson, sec. ; Miss Susan Dunlap, 
matron. 

Home for the Aged Poor, 415 Cen- 
tral ave. Opened on Clinton ave. in 
1871. Removed to present location 
the year following-. Conducted by 10 
Little Sisters of the Poor, of which 
order there are 22 houses in this 
country. Althoug-h of the Catholic 
faith, they receive the ag-ed and help- 
less of both sexes of every denomina- 



BEN 



14 



tion. Must be over 60 years of ag-e, 
and destitute. Admission free. The 
institution is sujipoj'ted entirely by 
charity, the Little Sisters beg-ging 
from door to dooi' for food, clothing- 
and money to dispense to the helpless 
under their care, and pay the debt 
on their building-. The home has 106 
inmates ; all that it can well accom- 
modate. 

Home of the Friendless. — No. 553 
Clinton ave., opp. Peny st. A re- 
treat for ag-ed women. The building- 
is of brick, three stories, 56 by 75, 
stands on a plot of g-round 100 by 244, 
and h.as pleasant accommodations for 
40 persons. The home was estab- 
lished in 1850, by Mrs. Lee, with $56, 
and was duly organized Nov. 18, 
1851, as the Albany Guardian Society. 
TTie present building was dedicated 
May 5, 1870. The lot upon which it 
stands was given by James Kidd. 

House of Shelter. — Cor. of Wen- 
dell and Howard sts. Organized 
March 9, 1868, soon after which it was 
opened for the reception of inmates. 
Incorporated in January, 1869. The 
present building was erected in 1872, 
and with lot and furniture cost 
^21,500. Its mission is to provide a 
home for penitent women wh'^ have 
no other place to go to. Average 
expenses .'j53,000, met in part by woi-k 
done by the inmates and, in part, by 
subscriptions. A. S. Kibbee, pres., 
John E. McElroy, treas. ; Mrs. E. H. 
Jones, Miss Dare, matrons. The 
usual number of inmates is 25, 
but 80 can be accommodated. The in- 
stitution is free from debt and has a 
small invested fund. 

Ladies' Protestaist Union Aid 
Society. — Founded in 1806. Its 
managers (numbering twenty), are 
composed of a representative from 
each Brotestant church in the city. 
The society is supported by collec- 
tions from the churches, solicited by 
the representative managers, and by 



individual donations and legacies. 
It benefits the worthy, destitute Prot- 
estant poor. Regular meetings, first 
Wednesday in every month, in the 
lecture room of the Congregational 
church. Annual meeting in May. 
Pres. Mrs. Daniel Pratt ; vice-pres. 
Mrs. Isaac Edwards, Mi-s. Wm. 
Goewey ; sec. Mrs. James Briggs ; 
rec. sec, Mrs. Charles Si^'ague j 
treas. Mrs. William Wendell. 

Orphans' Home of St. Peter's 
Church, No. 1 Pine st. Organized 
in 1864 ; accomodates 25 girls, from 
five to thirteen years. 

SociETE de Secours Mutuel. — Af- 
fords aid to the surviving family on 
the death of a member ; founded 
August 1, 1870 ; has 147 members. 
Annual meeting, second Wednesday 
in January. Louis Cloutier, pres. ; 
Joseph Dube, vice-pres. ; John B. 
Sennay, sec. 

St. Andrew's Society. — Estab- 
lished in 18C3, and the oldest benev- 
olent institution in the city. Its ob- 
ject is to aid needy Scotchmen. Has 
a sinking fund of al)Out $12,000, and 
embraces among its members most 
of the prominent Scotchmen in Al- 
bany. William Manson, pres. ; Peter 
Kinnear, \dce-pres. ; James Wilson, 
treas. 

St. George's Benevolent Society 
was re-organized January 27, 1860. 
the old one having gone out of exis- 
tence many yeai'S previous. Its ob- 
jects are to afford relief and advice 
to indigent natives of England, or to 
their v/ives, widows or children, and 
to promote social intercourse among 
members. Natives of England, sons 
and grandsons of natives are eligible 
if over 21 years of age ; initiation 
fee l^2 ; annual subscription ^3. The 
society has now 95 members in good 
standing. William Lacy, i)res. ; Wil- 
liam W. Grey, sec. 

St. George's Italian Society. — 
Organized Jan. 1, 1880. Dionisio 



■ 



15 



BIB — BIC 



Rovere, pres. Attilio Pasq^uini, vice- 
pres. Antonio Paltang-hi, ti'eas. Its 
object is to assist needy Italians. 

St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum So- 
ciety, in the city of Albany — Tlie 
Female Branch is situated on Elm st. 
between Eagle and Hawk sts. It is 
managed by the Sisters of Charity, 
of whom there are ten stationed here. 
There are 200 inmates, from four to 
fifteen years old. They are supported 
in part by the county, which pays 
{pl.50 per week for each. Places are 
generally found for them when they 
are fifteen, but those that show a 
taste for needle-work are placed in 
an industrial school on N. Pearl 
St., where they are instructed till 
they are 19. The building on Elm 
st. occupies a conspicuous posi- 
tion, and is well adapted for its 
purpose. 

The Male Branch, like the female 
branch as at present designated, was 
established imder the auspices of the 
present Cardinal McCloskey, while 
Bishop of Albany. The Christian 
Brothers took charge of it in 1854, 
and six are stationed here. It is sit- 
uated on Western ave. between Part- 
ridge and Erie sts., on a farm of 80 
acres. There are 120 inmates, from 
5 to ]4 years of age. The county 
pays i^l.SO a v/eek for each ; the other 
expenses are provided for by collec- 
tions taken twice a year in the Cath- 
olic churches. The boys are taught 
the common English branches and to 
work on the farm. At the age of 14, 
places are found for them. The pre- 
sent three-story building was erected 
in 1853, under the personal supervis- 
ion of William Ellis, architect, and 
Rt. Rev. John J. Conroy, then Vicar- 
General. 

Other benevolent societies are the 
St. Jean Baptist Society ; St. Vincent 
de Paul Society ; St. Patrick's Cath- 
olic, and the United Irishmen of 
America. (See City Tract anp Mis- 



sionary Society, Industrial ScaooLSj 
Hospitals, etc.) 

Bible Society, Albany Coimty. — 

Rev. Irving Magee, D.D., Pres. De- 
pository, 44 State st., S. R. Gray, Agt. 
Was organized in 1810, and supplies 
the destitute of the county with Bibles 
and Testaments. Membership, $1 
annually. Life membership, ip30. 

Bi-Centennial.— The 200th anni- 
versary of the incorporation of the 
city of Albany will occur July 22, 
1886, and will no doubt be observed 
by appropriate and interesting cere- 
monies It appears fi*om the city 
records that the method of celebrat- 
ing " The Century Anniversary," July 
22, 1786, as recommended by a com- 
mittee of the Common Council, was 
as follows : 

"That Common Council convene 
in the forenoon of that day at 
Ten o'clock at the City Hall, and 
from thence proceed in procession to 
the Hill westward of the City, at- 
tended by such Citizens as shall 
Chuse : That during the Procession 
all the Bells of the several C'hurches 
in this City shall Ring, and at the 
arrival at the place assigned for the 
Purpose on the Hill, Thirteen Toasts 
and one for the Charter, under the 
Discharge of Fourteen Cannon. 

" Resolved^ that the former Com- 
mittee be a Committee to prepare and 
superintend the said Business, who 
are to purchase a Barrel of Good 
Spirits for the pui'pose." 

Bicycling, though so lately intro- 
duced bi Albany, is fast becoming a 
popular spoi't among young l)usiness 
men. The Albany Bicycle club was 
organized Aug. 24, 1880, with thir- 
teen members, and was soon added 
to the " League of American Wheel- 
men," an organization numbering a, 
thousand or more, its object to pro- 



BIL — BLE 



16 



tect the interests of bicyclers from 
Maine to Califoniia. It is x^atteiiied 
after similar bodies in Eng-land. A 
pai'ticularly happy featui-e is the ap- 
f^ointirient of consuls in eveiy town 
and city where bicycles ai-e used, 
upon whom members of the league 
can call at any time for infonnation 
relating" to routes and every point of 
importance to toiuing* bicyclers. The 
growing* xwpularity of the sport can- 
not be better shown than by stating- 
that in 1876 there were only one or 
two machines in the United States, 
while now they can be counted by 
the thousands ; and one manufac- 
turing" company alone have the ca- 
pacity to complete 1,000 machines 
per month 

The ofncers of the Albany Bicycle 
club are : R. S. Oliver, pres. ; Clar- 
ence Rathbone, vice-pres. ; C. "W. 
Fourdi'inier, sec. and treas. Uni- 
form, navy blue polo caps; reefer 
jacket, knee bi-eeches and stocking-s ; 
club coloi's, red and white ; consul 
for leag-ue, F. B. Hubbard, 40 State 
st. Any communications addressed 
to the secretary at 407 Broadway, or 
to consul, 40 State st., will have 
prompt and cheerful attention. 

Routes. — The roads on the east 
side of the river are far better than 
those on this. Taking- the line of the 
Boston and New Yoi-k post roads 
excellent I'unning" will be found. On 
the Albany side, takii^g" the Troy 
I'oad up to Troy and then crossing 
the river to "Waterford, Mechanic- 
ville, Stillwater, Bemis Heights, and 
Saratoga, a run of 33 miles over ex- 
cellent roads, can be had. A fair 
road through New Scotland, via 
Hurst's, to foot of Indian ladder (16 
miles) will be found by those who 
wash to reach the Helderbergs. Rid- 
ing in the Park is limited to a 
few paths, but the use of the bi- 
cycle elsewhere in the city is unre- 
stricted. 



Billiards. — This favorite game 
has anany devotees in Albany. Its 
origin is unknown, but it appeal's to 
have been introduced into Europe 
from the east, at the time of the cru- 
sades, when it became a popular 
game among the templai's and one of 
the favorite amusements of monks in 
their monasteries. Little is known 
of its histoiy till Louis XI of France 
introduced it into his court. Shaks- 
peare makes Cleopatra, in the ab- 
sence of Antony, invite her attend- 
ant to join in the pastime — 

" Let us to billiards ; 
Come, Charmian." 

The usual charges are 15 cts. for 
a four-ball, 20 els. for a three-ball 
game, or 40 cts. an hour. 

Birds. — The bird-stores of a city 
are always interesting places to visit, 
especially to .those who are fond of 
the feathered songsters. There are 
usually some curious foreign birds 
on exhibition, and always good sing- 
ers to be heard. The Hartz moun- 
tain canaries are sold from ^2 to it'3 ; 
parrots from ^5 to v^O ; mocking 
birds from $5, for young ones, up to 
$20, and even $50. In buying, it is 
always best to go to some responsi- 
ble dealer ; the canai-ies hawked 
about the streets, and sold under 
price, ai"e either females which never 
sing, or inferior stock of some kind. 
The only bird-store in Albany, is 
"William R. White's, 44 Green st., an 
old established stand, where custom- 
ers are honestly dealt with. 

Bleecker Park. — A small triangu- 
lar enclosure in front of the Cathedral, 
and bounded by Eagle st. Madison 
ave. and Madison place, was enclosed 
in 1835, the city appropriating $1,000 
and the remainder being raised by 
subscription It contains the fii"st 
public fountain erected in Albany, 



17 



BOA — BRE 



the gift of Wm. Fleming", dedicated 
in July, 1863. 

Boating. — Boats can be hired (at 
the foot of State st. ) for twenty-five cts. 
an hour or at a considerably less rate 
by the day ; Whitehall boats, out- 
rig-gers ana skiffs are the kinds most 
used. On Sundays, in mid-summer, 
all that are available are frequently 
in demand, and parties have to wait 
their turn. (See Rowing.) 

Boatmen's Relief Association. — 

Thomas V. Wolcott, pres. ; S. P. 
Simmons, sec. Had by the last 
annual report, 1,742 membei'S ; pays 
$1,500 on the death of a member. Is 
not limited to boatmen or any class 
in society. 

Books of Reference, in reg-ard to 
Albany, are not numerous. The An- 
nals of Albany, ten volumes, and 
Collections on the History of Albany, 
four volumes, by the late Joel Mun- 
sell, are of much historical value ; 
the Settlement and Early History of 
Albany, by Wilham Barnes, is an 
interesting" production ; the Memoirs 
of an Amencan Lady, by Mrs. Grant, 
gives a charming- picture of life 
in this colony prior to the revolu- 
tion. Sampson, Davenport & Co. pub- 
lish annually the Albany Directory. 
Thei'e is also an Atlas of Albany. 

Boston & Albany Clothing Store, 
proprietor, Henry L. Smith, 48 and 
50 State st., cor. Green. The large 
plate glass windows which give such 
abundant light to this establishment, 
not only make it noticeable, but re- 
veal to the passer-by something of 
the heavy stock of clothing carried 
by this enterprising house. Mr. 
Smith has been in this business in 
Albany for 15 years, and from being 
in charge of the establishment of an- 
other has come to own the one which 

2 



he now conducts with such satisfac- 
tion to both himself and his custora- 
ei'S. Part of his stock is manufac- 
tured at the east, and pai't in this 
city. The assortment is always lai'ge, 
the attendance courteous, and prices 
as low as the quality of the goods will 
permit. Mr. Smith has spent large 
Slims of money in advertising, but 
has always been careful fully to re- 
d(!em every promise made the pub- 
he. 

Boston & Albany Railroad. — Sta- 
tion in the Union depot, Maiden lane. 
Fare 2 cents a mile. The direct 
route to Pittsfield, Springfield, Wor- 
cester and Boston. The Boston and 
Worcester, and the Western railroads 
were consolidated in the B. & A., 
December 1, 1867. The Western 
railroad received its charter in 1833, 
and was organized in 1836. The 
first locomotive arrived at Greenbush 
from Boston, December 19, 1841, and 
a celebration of the completion of the 
road took place December 28, follow- 
ing. 



Boulevards. — (See 
Park.) 



Washington 



Brewing. — The business of brew- 
ing was begun in this city as early as 
1633, and has for many years been a 
leading industry. One of the most 
prominent brewers in the last cen- 
tury was Hannon Gansevoort, whose 
establishment which stood about on 
the site of Stan^vix Hall, was taken 
down in 1807. There are now 20 
breweries, some of them very exten- 
sive. Albany ale, at one time was 
on tap in all the large cities of the 
country, but of late has been dis- 
placed, to some extent, by lager beer 
which is also brewed here in large 
quantities. (See Lager Beer.) The 
total yearly product of beer of all 
kinds in this city is carefully estima- 



BRl — ^UT 



18 



ted to be 400,000 bbls., or 12,400,000 
g-allons. At ^6 a barrel, which is a 
low figure, this amounts to ^2,400,000. 

Bridges. — Thei'e are two bridg-es 
across the Hudson, at Albany, but 
neither can be used by teams. The 
first, or upper bi'idge, now used ex- 
clusively for freight trains, was 
opened February 22, 1866, after thirty 
yeai's of the most steadfast opposi- 
tion, in which Troy took the lead. 
It is doubtful, however, whether the 
bridge has really injured that city a 
dollar ; but it certainly has had a de- 
pressing eifect upon some kinds of 
business in Albany, carting es- 
pecially. Before, all trains had to be 
unloaded here, and the work this 
involved was very great ; but now 
freight goes through without break- 
ing bulk from New York to San 
Francisco. The upper brige is sup- 
ported by twenty-one stone piers. 
The bridge projier is 1,953 feet long, 
and with the trestle work, 4,253 feet. 
Its cost, including necessary pur- 
chases of real estate, was $1,100,000. 
The lower bridge is 1,040 feet long, 
or with appi'oaches, 2,665 feet, that 
is, twenty-tive feet over half a mile. 
The spans number twenty-two. The 
draw weighs about 400 tons. "Work 
of construction began in May, 1870, 
and the bridge was first used in 1872. 
The toll on both bridges for foot pas- 
sengers is three cents; 50 tickets 
for J^l. A third bridge across the 
river was began in 1876, but has 
never been completed. It is intended 
to be used by teams as well as cars, 
and is o^vned by the Albany and 
Greenbush Bi-idge Company. Office 
135 Broadway ; Ira Jagger, pres. ; 
Alexander Morris, treas. ; James W. 
Gascoigne, sec. 

State Street Bridge, leads from 
the foot of State st. over the basin to 
the pier. On the 22nd of August, 
1840, the draw of this bridge gave 



way, and twenty-one persons were 
drowned. 

Broadway, runs from Gansevooi't 
St. near the Island Creek to the 
northern boundary of the city, and 
thence into the Troy road. No street 
in the city presents such a varied 
aspect. At the south end it is lined 
with foundries, iron shops, breweiies, 
etc. ; further along it is the abode of i 
poor jDeople ; by the steamboat- 
landing it is given over to hotels and 
restaurants ; then come pro\'ision 
houses and vai'ious stoi'cs, wholesale 
and retail ; north of State it widens 
into one of the handsonaest streets 
in the city, ha\'ing on it the tallest 
of our commercial buildings ; from 
Columbia st. to Clinton ave. it dwin- 
dles both in appearance and business ; 
north of Clinton ave. it is, in a great 
measure, a street of handsome resi- 
dences till the crossing is reached ; 
beyond which are several prominent 
manufacturing buildings, and where 
Broadway merges into the Troy road 
stands the Van Rensselaer Mansion. 
(See Old Houses.) The old market 
used to stand in the centre of the 
street where it is wdest (above State), 
and it was called North Market st. 
till 1840 when it receiA'ed its more 
metropolitan title. There was also a 
market at the Steamboat landing, but 
the street south of State was known 
as Court st., and at one time was the 
most fashionable part of the city. 

Buttermilk Falls. — "What was nat- 
urally a romantic ravine, down which 
the Beaverkill plunged in foaming 
fury. Civilization and the street de- 
partment have destroyed the beauty 
of its surroundings, but something 
of its former state may be imagined 
by peering at it from the vicinity of 
Swan st. south of Elm. It was sug- 
gested, at one time, that the park 
should be so located as to take in this 



19 



CAL — CAP 



feature ; had tKis been done, Albany- 
would have had the most romantic 
and pictui'escxue pleasure ground of 
any city in America. 

Oalvin Edson, the walking* skele- 
ton, came to Albany in Ai^ril, 1830, ex- 
hibited himself at the Museum, and 
gave levees at the Medical College. 
He was then forty-two years old, live 
feet two inches high, and weighed 
but sixty pounds. Subsequently he 
went upon the stage, as an actor, 
in the character of Je^^emiali Thin. 
The more he ate the poorer he grew, 
till, in 1833, he swallowed his last 
mouthful and lost his last ounce, 
dying at the weight of forty-five 
pounds. For months previous the 
medical colleges had kept track of 
him, anxious, so long- as he had ex- 
pressed himself while hving, as will- 
ing to promote the cause of science 
after death, to help what they could 
by utilizing his remains. New York 
and Albany were first on the ground, 
and through the finesse of the late 
Mr. Aniold Nelson, and of Dr. Alden 
March, together with the payment of 
a good round sum to the skeleton's 
widow, Calvin Edson's forty-five 
pounds was secured for the Museum 
of the Albany Medical College. By 
some process of embalming, he was 
preserved with his skin on, placed in 
a glass case, and labeled *' No. 1 ; " 
and his appearance to-day, barring 
discoloration, is said to be not so very 
different from what it was when 
animated by the breath of life and a 
hearty meal of victuals. 

Canal St., running west from 90 
N. Pearl to Robin, the old bed of 
the Foxenkill, a stream which for 
many years was abundantly stocked 
with fish. 

CapitoL— The traveler who for the 
first time approaches the city from 



any direction, sees looming up before 
him a vast unfinished edifice so much 
above and beyond all other suiTound- 
ing" stractures, that he has no hesita- 
tion in exclaiming- *' It is the New 
Capitol ! " Like St. Peter's at Rome, 
it needs no chaperone to announce 
its name; no guide-book to explain 
its object. Its fame as the gi^andest 
legislative building of modeni times 
is already co-extensive with civiliza- 
tion, and each day of the year brings 
scores of the curious from near and 
from far to view and admire its maj- 
estic propoi'tions, its gi'andeur of 
design, its beauty of ornamentation : 
and while its critics have been many, 
and not always kind, all are i*eady to 
concede that it is one of the archi- 
tectural wonders of the nineteenth 
century. 

History. 

The old capitol (built in 1806-8, at 
an expense of $110,685.42) had been 
found wholly inadequate, and for 
many years there was much discus- 
sion about a new legislative building- 
and where it should be erected. New 
York city had long coveted the capi- 
tal, but the central and western por- 
tions of the State, while not altogether 
satisfied -with having- it where it is, 
were still more averse to seeing it 
moved down the river. The conse- 
quence was, it remained at Albany, 
where it will remain, we may safely 
say, for many, many years to come. 

The first definite action taken 
by the legislature on the subject was 
April 24, 1863, when Senator James 
A. Bell, from the committee on pub- 
lic buildings, offered a resolution 
(which was adopted) that the trustees 
of the capitol and the chairman of the 
committee on pubhc buildings be au- 
thorized to procure suitable plans for 
a new capitol, and report to the next 
legislature. They did so, recom- 
mending the plans submitted by 



CAP 



'20 



Fuller & Jones. Early in 1865, a 
committee was appointed by the sen- 
ate to ascertain by correspondence 
with various municipalities on what 
terms the necessary g-round and 
buildings could be obtained. New 
York showed her desire for the honor, 
by offering- a site on the Battery, or 
at City Hall j)ark, or in Tompkins 
scjuare, or in Central pai'k, or in any 
public XDlace, and also pi'oposed to 
erect all the necessary buildings free 
of expense to the State ; and, in addi- 
tion, build an executive mansion on 
Fifth avenue, opposite Genti'al park. 
Yonkers, Saratoga, Athens, Whites- 
town, Argyle and Sing Sing- made 
liberal offers ; Buffalo, Osweg-o and 
Ithaca declined to entertain the prop- 
osition, as did Sandy Hill. "If," 
wi'ote the worthy president of that 
virtuous village, '* the time has come 
when our capitol is to go to the high- 
est bidder like most everything that 
has any connection with our present 
legislation, then I would frankly say 
that our people are not the ones to 
offer large bribes or inducements for 
the purpose of building up their place 
or people to the detriment and incon- 
venience of all the rest of the people 
of the State." 

The first committee (appointed 
April 24, 1863) had suggested in 
their propositions for plans that they 
should be made with reference to the 
square about the old building as the 
site for the new one. The city of 
Albany now offered to convey to 
the State the lot adjoining, occupied 
by the Congress Hall block, or any 
other lands in the city required for 
the purpose. 

On the 1st of May, 1865, an act was 
passed (Chapter 648) authorizing the 
erection of a new capitol, whenever 
the city of Albany should deed over 
the land proposed, providing for the 
appointment of three commissioners, 
and appropriating $10,000 for the 



commencement and prosecution of 
the work. On the 14th of April, 1866, 
the city having- made good its offer 
at an expense of $190,000, an act was 
X^assed ratifying and confirming the 
location of the capitol, and May 3d of 
the same year, Hamilton Harris, 
John V. L. Prujm, of Albany, and 
O. B. Latham, of Seneca Falls, were 
appointed New Capitol Commission- 
ers, On the 22d of April, 18G7, an 
act was passed appropriating $2C/0,000 
for the new capitol, but providing- 
that no part should be expended 
until a plan had been agreed upon 
not to cost when completed more 
than four millions. A plan submit- 
ted by Thomas Fuller was adopted, 
and he was appointed architect, and 
"William J. McAlpine consulting en- 
gineer. 

Work Begun. — On the 9th of 
December, 1867, the excavating was 
begun on the corner of Havvk and 
State sti^ets by John Bridgford, who 
had under him 100 men. 

On the 19th of May, 1868, an act was 
passed appropi-iating an additional 
$250,000, and adding to the commis- 
sion Messrs. James S. Thayer, Alonzo 
B. Cornell, William A. Rice, James 
Terwilliger and John T. Hudson. 
The commission w^ere also authorized 
to take as additional land one-half 
the block adjoining Congress Hall 
block on the west, and to change the 
plans at their discretion, with this 
proviso : That if they were so changed 
that the building would cost more 
than four milHons, the commission- 
ers were not to proceed to construc- 
tion till such plans were approved 
by the legislature. Meantime work 
had been delayed for a year, in order 
that the additional lands might be 
secured. On the 2d of Octobei-, 1868, 
the commissioners having come to 
the conclusion that preparing the 
land was not included in the term 
** construction," the demolition of 



s 



21 



CAP 



houses on State, Washington, Spring- 
and Hawk sts. was begun, and in 
December following, 400 men and 200 
teams were employed carrying th^ 
earth that had been excavated and 
depositing it down the bank at the 
cor. of Swan and Canal sts. The en- 
larged plans, prepared by Fuller & 
Laver, were duly reported to the leg- 
islature and approved by act of May 
10, 1869. 

The Foundation. — The first stone 
in the foundation was laid July 7, 
1869, by John V. L. Pruyn. This 
foundation, although, of course, out 
of sight, and scai'cely thought of by 
the ordinary visitor, is a wonder in 
itself. In the first place, excavations 
were made to an average dei^th of 
15 43-100 feet below the surface. 
Then a bed of conci-ete, 4 feet thick, 
was laid, constituting a stone floor 
which will gi'ow harder and harder 
as time rolls on. The sub-basement 
extends down 19 feet 4 inches, and 
contains 735,000 cubic feet of stone, 
while the brick walls, from 32 inches 
to 5 feet thick, contain between ten 
and eleven million bricks. The foun- 
dation of the main tower is 110 feet 
square at the base, tapering to 70 feet 
square at the basement floor. In this 
sub-basement are no less than 144 
different apartments used for heating, 
storing and ventilating purposes. 

The Corner Stone was laid with 
great ceremony by the gi'and lodge 
of Free and Accepted Masons on the 
24th of June, 1871. The exercises 
took place in the midst of a drenching 
rain, but were said to have been wit- 
nessed by at least 20,000 persons. 
Addresses were made by Hon. Ham- 
ilton Harris and Gov. John T. Hoff- 
man. 

Since that time work has pro- 
gressed, sometimes faster and some- 
times slower, with occasionally an 
entire cessation for lack of funds as 
in 1874, when it stood still six months. 



The enterprise hke all other great 
undertaldngs has met with obstruct- 
ers and fault-finders innumerable, 
from the workman discharged for 
incompetency to the governor who 
called it a ** public calamity." The 
prevalent opinion that no public work 
of this magnitude can be cai'ried on 
without unlawful gains to some one, 
has led many to suppose that such 
is the case with the new capitol. 
Charges of various kinds have time 
and again been made orally and in 
the newspapers, and many tedious 
investigations have been instituted, 
the details of which it is as impossible 
to enter into here as it is unnecessary. 
It is only just to say, however, that 
while the whole system of erecting 
public buildings by commissions, has 
on general principles been condemned 
as unwise, nothing against the per- 
sonal character of either or any of 
the commissioners or superintendents 
was ever substantiated. 

Chan'ges in Commissioners. — In 
April, 1871, the commission was so 
changed as to be constituted as fol- 
lows: Hamilton Harris, "William C. 
Kingsley, William A. Rice, Chauncey 
M. Depew, Delos DeWolf and Edwin 
A. Merritt. In February, 1875, Mr. 
Hamilton Han-is, who had been 
chairman of the board for nearly ten 
years, resigned. Resident here in 
Albany, and from the first, deeply 
interested in having a capitol worthy 
of the Empire State, his ser\dces dui'- 
ing the critical periods in the build- 
ing's history have been of incalculable 
value, and after his resignation, as 
chairman of the finance committee of 
the senate at a time when a most de- 
tennined opj)Osition to any further 
appropriations was made by the New 
York city press, he again fought the 
battles of the capitol through to vic- 
tory. On the 21st of June, 1875, the 
entire old board was abolished, and 
the lieutenant-governor (William 



CAP 



22 



Dorsheimer), the canal auditor (Fran- 
cis S. Tliayer), and tlie attorney-gen- 
eral (Daniel Pratt) were constituted 
a new hoard. Of this board, Lieut. 
Gov. Dorsheimer took an active in- 
tei*est in completing- and furnishing* 
the interior, and much of its present 
sumptuousness is due to his taste. 
This board of commissioners was su- 
perseded by the successors to these 
several offices, and the commission as 
at present constituted consists of the 
lieutenant-governor, the attorney-gen- 
eral and the auditor of the canal de- 
partment. 

Changes in Superintendents. — In 
December, 1872, John Bridgford, the 
first superintendent was retired, and 
June 11, 1873, WilHam J. McAli^ine, 
who from the beginning of the work, 
had been the consulting engineer, was 
appointed superintendent, and re- 
mained such till May 29, 1874, when 
James W. Eaton was appointed in 
his place, and still holds the position. 

Change in Architects. — "With the 
abolition of the old commission in 
1875 came a change in architects, 
Mr. Thomas Fuller being superseded 
by an advisory board consisting of 
Frederick Law Olmsted, Leopold 
Eidlitz, and Heniy H. Richardson, 
all of New York. Up to this time 
the exterior walls had been carried 
up, upon the Fuller plans, a working 
model of which had been constructed 
at a cost of 1^3,000, and which was on 
exhibition for several years. Pictures 
of the capitol as it was to have been, 
had also gone broadcast over the land 
and world. This plan was that of 
the Italian Renaissance which was 
now modified to the Romanesque, but 
work had not proceeded far when the 
legislature passed an act directing a 
retui'n to the original style and that 
the building be carried up to the 
roof, in accordance therewith. This 
has been done so far as possible, 
although the result is what is called 



by architects the Free Renaissance, 
in which the north centre has been 
completed, a correct view of which is 
given. 

OCCITPIED BY THE LEGISLATURE. — ■ 

The capitol was first occupied by the 
legislature Jan. 7, 1879, the senate 
meeting in the court of appeals I'oom, 
the assembly in the assembly cham- 
ber. The same evening a grand re- 
ception was given by the citizens of 
Albany, when 8,000 people were pre- 
sent. Gilmore's band, of New York, 
and Austin's orchestra, of Albany, 
furnished the music. The supper was 
served under a canopy in the central 
court. 

The formal occupation took place 
on the evening of Feb. 12, 1879, when 
in the presence of both houses of the 
legislature, the court of appeals, the 
State officers and others assembled in 
the assembly chamber, prayer was 
offered by Rt. Rev. William Croswell 
Doane, D. D., and addresses were 
delivered, by Lieut. Gov. WilUam. 
Dorsheimer, Speaker Thomas G. 
Alvord and Hon. Erastus Brooks. 

Cost Thus Far. — The following 
figures taken from the books of the 
comptroller show the amounts actu- 
ally paid each year by the State 
towards the building of the new 
capitol, the fiscal year ending Sep- 
tember 1 : 

1863 $51,593 66 

1864 9,453 55 

1865 10,860 08 

1866 65,250 00 

1867.... 10,000 00 

1868 50,000 00 

1869 451,215 63 

1870 1,223,597 73 

1871 482,942 37 

1872 856,106 98 

1873 1,175,600 00 

1874 610,275 16 . 

1875 1,392,712 08 i 

1876 908,487 92 



23 



CAP 



1877 $728,220 20 

1878 1,075,700 00 

1879 982,836 44 

1880 908,363 56 



$10,993,215 36 



This includes the cost of the land 
with the exception of what was given 
by the city of Albany (§190,000). 

Description. 

No adequate idea of the future sur- 
rounding's of the capitol can be ob- 
tained from present ajjpearances, but 
when the old capitol and State library 
are demolished, and the grounds they 
occupy, together with those in front, 
are laid out as they will be, under 
the supervision of Frederick Law 
Olmsted, to whom the New York 
Central park owes so much of its 
beauty, the approach to this stupen- 
dous pile will be in keeping- with the 
edifice itself. The situation is a most 
commanding- one. The Capitol square, 
which embraces all the land between 
Eagle street on the east and Capitol 
place on the west, and between Wash- 
ing-ton avenue on the north and State 
street on the south, is 1,034 feet long* 
by 330 feet wide, and contains 7 
84-100 acres. The elevation of Capi- 
tol place is 155 feet above the level 
of the Hudson, and the g-round falls 
off to the eastward 51 feet. In front. 
State street stretches away towards 
the river, one of the broadest and 
handsomest avenues in the country. 

The entrance to the building at 
present is from Washington avenue. 
When completed, admission may be 
had from all four sides, the main 
entrance on the east being- by means 
of magniificent porticos and terraces, 
of which, as yet, no vestige is seen. 

The Size of the structure im- 
presses the beholder at once. It is 
300 feet north and south, by 400 feet 



east and west, and with the porticos 
will cover three acres and 7 square 
feet. The walls are 108 feet high 
from the water table ; and all this is 
chipped out of sohd granite brought, 
most of it, from Hallowell, Maine. 
There are other buildings which, in 
the mere matter of area exceed this 
one. The capitol at Washingi;on, for 
instance, covers a httle over three 
and a half acres, but it is of marble 
and of sandstone painted white. The 
new city hall in Philadelphia, covers 
nearly \\ acres, but that also is of 
marble. The g-ovemment building-s 
at Ottawa, Canada, are of sandstone. 
All lack the massive effect which this 
g-reat pile of granite invariably pro- 
duces. Its outer wall, at the base, is 
16 feet 4 inches thick. 

Entering- the building* at nearly a 
level with Washington avenue, the 
visitor finds himself in what, in the 
original desigTis, was called the base- 
ment story, underneath ponderous 
arches of stone. The floor is hand- 
somely tiled: here are telegraph 
offices, committee rooms, etc., but 
nothing- to long- detain the "visitor, 
unless it be to glance at the central 
coui't, 137 feet by 92, which extends 
an open space to the sky. This will, 
doubtless, in time be ornamented 
with a fountain, statues, etc., but at 
present only affords much needed 
light and air. 

The Grand Stair Case. — Passing 
klong to the left and turning a cor- 
ner, we come to the grand stair case, 
which, considering the difl^iculties to 
overcome because of its position, 
may justly be styled a triumph of 
art. It is of sandstone, its ascent is 
easy, its desig'u vigorous and scholar- 
ly. At one side is an elevator (one 
of five which are kept running dur- 
ing the session of the Legislature), 
but the visitor in order to leisurely 
study the beauties of this grand 
stairway, will generally prefer to 



CAP 



24 



walk. This feature suffers somewliat 
from the imperfect lig-ht ; for though 
the whole top opening has been 
glazed, the details of the lower flights 
cannot be well seen. 

The Golden Corridor. — On arriv- 
ing upon the next floor, 'the first thing 
to attract the eye is the Golden Cor- 
ridor, a vision of beauty which brings 
an exclamation of delight to eveiy 
lip. It is 140 feet long by 20 ^vide 
and about 25 feet high, extending 
along the whole "court" side of the 
north centre. Seven large windows 
opening upon this court divide the 
corridor into bays, 20 feet square. 
Each bay is bounded by piers be- 
tween which arches are turned and 
these arches sustain a low and libless 
groined vault. Mr. Montgomery 
Schuyler, writing in Scribner's 
Monthly, says: 

" Tlie piers are covered with a damask 
of red ui)()n umber. The angle moldings 
are solidly gilded. The crimson wall 
screen on both sides is overlaid with a 
simple reticulation of g<>ld lines framing 
ornaments m yellow. The whole vault is 
gilded, and upon its ground of gold, trav- 
ersing each t;ice of the vault, is a series of 
bands of minute ornament in brown, 
scarlet and deep blue. The method — this 
close mosaic of minute quantities of crude 
color — is entirely Oiienlal ; and the effect 
is Oriental also. The vfirying surfaces of 
the vaulting, each covered with fretted 
gold, give a vista, lengthened by the 
dwindling arches, alive with flashing 
lights and shimmering shadows ; and 
under the iridescent ceiling there seems 
ahvays to hang a luminous haze. In the 
quality of pure splendor there is no archi- 
tectural decoration in this country which 
is comparable to this." 

During the sessions of the Legisla- 
ture the spaces in front of the win- 
dows are filled with rare exotics, and 
altogether affording a desired relief 
from the heavy effect produced by 
such a mass of granite. Here, in 
time, will be placed statues of public 
men and possibly other works of art. 

Court of Appeals. — Stepping 
through a door to the right, in an 
instant the scene changes. "We are 



in the chamber of the Court of 
Appeals, the highest tribunal in the 
State. Here is the abode of wisdom, 
dignity and justice, where a riot 
of color such as we have just left 
would be clearly out of place. The 
room is 60 feet square and 25 feet 
high, subdivided into parallelograms, 
one twice the width of the other, by 
a line of red granite columns carry- 
ing with broad low arches a marble 
wall. The walls are of sandstone, 
■vdsible in some places but covered in 
most with a decoration in deep red, 
and with the tall wainscoting of oak, 
which occupies the wall above the 
dado of sandstone. The ceiling is a 
superb construction in carved oak 
carried on a system of beams dimin- 
ishing in size from the great girders 
supported by gi*eat braces which 
stretch from wall to wall, and finally 
closed by oaken panels, profusely 
carved. 

The Assembly Chamber. — As- 
cending another flight of the gi^eat 
stair case, we come to what is, with- 
out doubt, the grandest legislative 
hall in the world, the assembly cham- 
ber, 84 by 140 feet, including the gal- 
leries, although the chamber jDroper 
is but 84 by 55. Four great pillars, 
four feet thick, of red granite, sustain 
the largest groined stone arch in 
the world, the key-stone being 56 
feet from the floor. These pillai^s and 
the arch which springs from them are 
the most striking features of the i-oom, 
but it will bear a world of study. 
Mr. Schuyler says : 

" The perspective of the room is so ar- 
ranged that from the entrance one looks 
through the large end of the telescope, as 
it were, down vistas framed in arches nar- 
rowing and vaults hanging lower as they 
recede, from the great red pillars on either 
hand, along the vast and ever-varying sur- 
faces of the ceilings, their creamy sand- 
stone faces divided by the sweeping lines 
of the deeper toned fibs and arches that 
uphold them, and fretted with wide belts ^ 
of ornament climbing their climbing 
courses, touched with the gleam of gold 



25 



CAP 



and standing out from hollows filled with 
deep ultra marine and burning vermilion, 
to ' the dark backwanl and abysm ' of the 
remotest vault. Through the lower arches 
oue sees the openings of the windows wliich 
flood the transept, not with the dim, relig- 
ious light of old cathedrals, but with naked 
and open daylight. Around them wheel 
the iniricate arabesques of their arches de- 
fined against a ground of vermilion and 
circled with bands of gold. Above and 
between the lower three, beneath the 
broad belt which is some day to carry a 
sculptured procession, the whole wall is 
covered with arabesques in a fiel_d of dull 
red. Above the upper arcade are glimpses 
of the drajicries and the attitudes of colos- 
sal painted figures. 

"One feels at once in this great stone 
room that he is in the presence of a noble 
monument, and that in what a musician 
would call the 'dispersed harmony' of 
this hierarchy of ordered masses, and this 
balance and opposition of sweeping curves 
there has been achieved in the America of 
the nineteenih century a Avurk not un- 
worthy to be compared with what has 
been done in more famous building ages. 
When the shi'Ck of such animi)ressionhas 
subsided, and he has time to examine the 
sources of this efl'ect, he finds them in the 
general conception of the room rather 
than m any of its parts, or in any aggre- 
gation of them loss than the whole. Here 
is a distinctly Gothic room, Avhich in its 
plan has so "man v resemblances to a me- 
diasval church that it cannot be described 
without u ing the terms of ecclesiology, 
which yet has probably never reminded a 
single visitor of a church. Its civic char- 
acter has been impressed upon it by the 
force of design alone, and mainly by the 
modeling of its masses, after the noble ar- 
rangement which this modeling assists. 
There is a vigor in it Avhi^^h reminds one 
of Romanesque or early Gothic, but it has 
none of the rudeness of Komane&qu.e 
vaulted architecture, and none of the 
tentative imperfection of early Gothic 
work. Except in one conspicuous in- 
stance, the structure is completely devel- 
oped, and complete development is the 
mark of perfjcted G )thic. This com- 
pleteness, however, nowhere d generates 
into the attenuation that conies of exces- 
sive subdivision — nowhere into a loss of 
that sense of power which belongs to un- 
he%vn masses fulfi ling structural necessi- 
ties. There is nothing here of which one 
may say : ' 'Twere to consider too curi- 
ously, to consider so.' Neither is there 
anything of that ascetic intensity which 
most of all has set its stamp upon the ec- 
clesiastical Avork of the middle ages. This 
work is as day-lit as Grecian Doric. It is 



frank and manly, and it is eminently 
alive — distinctly a product of our time." 

The Allegorical Pictures. — No 
one feature of the capitol has caused 
more comment than the pictures that 
occupy the upper portion of the north 
and south walls of this chamber. 
They were painted by the late "Wil- 
liam M. Hunt, one of the g-reatest of 
American artists, and possess a mel- 
ancholy interest from the fact that 
they are the only work of the kind he 
ever did. He received for his ser- 
vices the sum of $15,000. 

The space covered by each is 15 
by 45 feet. That on the northern 
wall represents the allegory of 
Armujd and Ahriman, or the fiig-ht 
of Evdl before Good, or, as it is more 
g-enerally interpreted, the Flig-ht of 
Night. The Queen of Night is driv- 
ing before the dawn, charioted on 
clouds drawn by three plunging 
horses, one white, one black, one red, 
without other visible restraint than 
that of a swarthy guide, who floats at 
the left of the pictui-e, and whose hand 
is lightly laid upon the head of the 
outermost horse. At the right of the 
goddess, and in deep shade, is the 
recumbent figure of a sleeping mother 
with a sleeping child upon her breast. 

The picture on the southern wall 
represents the Discoverer standing 
upright in a boat, dark against a 
sunset sky, Fortune erect behind 
him trimming the sail wi^h her lifted 
left hand while her right holds the 
tiller. The boat is rising to a sea, and 
is attended by Hope at the prow, with 
one arm resting on it, and one point- 
ing forward; Faith, whose face is 
buried in her arms, and who is float- 
ing with the tide, and Science unroR- 
ing a chart at the side. 

Van Brunt's Criticism, — Henry 
Van Brunt in an article in the Atlan- 
tic Monthly (May, 1879), character- 
izes these pictures as " the most im- 
portant of the kind yet executed in 



CAP 



26 



this country," criticises them at length 
as architectural decorations, and con- 
cludes as follows : " We cannot but 
consider that the opportunity has 
been misundei'stood in a fundamental 
point, and that work of a far lower 
grade, than that of Mr. Hunt, would 
have better served the purpose. With 
all his strength of will, with all his 
skill in the adaptation of his tones, 
and all his fiery determination of 
drawing-, he has been unable to con- 
quer a rig-ht to fill such spaces with 
such woj'k. It is a waste of great 
resources." The writer then pro- 
ceeds to consider these works of art 
simply as pictures, and says : 

" The artist has symbolizerl the simulta- 
neous occurrence of the revival of letters 
and the discovery of ^\merica by the alle- 
gories of the Fli^^ht of Night and the Dis- 
coverer. The former has in its elements 
long been familiar to those who frequent- 
ed Mr. Hunt's studio. It is, in fact, a fly- 
ing cloud, the substance and movement 
of which is figured by the suggestion of an 
aerial chariot drawn by three plunging 
steeds, to the mane of one of which clings 
a torch-bearing gi"oo|n rather guiding than 
restraining the downward flight. High 
upon the cloudy seat sits a female fig- 
ure, directing the vision with a gesture of 
her hand; and below, enveloped in a 
shadowy fold of fleecy drapery dimly por- 
trayed, is a sleeping woman with a child, 
and over her hovers a little protecting 
spirit. The visionary character of the 
composition is unencumbered by any ma- 
terial appliance. There are no reins, no 
harness, no chariot, no wheels. It is a 
precipitous movement of vapor poetically 
set forth with a superb flight of horses, 
and enough of human interest in the fig- 
ure to suggest a meaning which each can 
interpret in his own way. It is a very fine 
point in the sentiment of the picture that 
the allegory is not forced upon the spec- 
tator by the insistence of vulgar acces- 
sories. The horses are drawn with mag- 
nificent spirit, and with the confidence 
and elan of a master. The human figures 
are little more than suggestive ; they are 
fleeting visions — a part of a cloudy pa- 
geant. When illuminated by bright sun- 
light, or by the artificial lighting of the 
chamber at night, the vigorous mechanism 
of outline and color wliich are contrived 
to produce an ell'ect, are somewhat un- 
pleasantly betrayed. In the half light of 
the afternoon, the very qualities which are 



crudities, at other times, contribute to 
make up a pictorial harmony of the most 
efi"ective and poetic kind. 

*' The same may be said with even 
greater force of the" Discoverer. A Ham- 
let-like man, in armor and cloak, stands 
conspicuous in a boat, riding half dis- 
closed upon a billowy swell of the ocean. 
Behind him, at the helm and holding a 
bellying sail of drapery, stands a wingccl 
female figure in an attitude of dignity 
somewhatlike thatsuggestedby the Venus 
of Milo; and upon the prow, with her out- 
lines defined against a blight rift in the 
western sky, leans a spirit of the water, 
with a frank, onward look and a gesture 
significant of confident ho])e. This figure 
seems to us the best in the group; it is 
beautifully drawn, and plays a happy part 
in the composition. Two other female 
figures float upon the waves "We have 
thus Fortune at the helm, and Hope at the 
prow. The guide-book shall interpret the 
rest of the allcgorj^ which, to us, as com- 
pared with that ^jortraycd on the o]>posite 
wall, is wanting in significance, and made 
up of too many elements and of too much 
of materialism to leave ui)on the mind a 
concrete poetic image. The composition 
is wanting in simplicity, and the efl'ect of 
the whole depends upon a momentary in- 
cident; the next instant of time beyond 
that depicted, the next wash of the uiicer- 
tain billows, will evidently throw the 
whole group into confusion. This im- 
pending catastiopho seems in some way 
to detract from the dignity of the allegory. 
The masters of the Reriaissance, when 
they chose a sea pomp for their subjects, 
such as the Triumph of Galetea, the Rape 
of Europa, and the Venus Anadyomene 
managed to spare us from doubts' of this 
kind by a more multitudinous grouping of 
figures ca])able of falling into new combi- 
nations without loss of harmony. But 
Mr. Hunt's allegory is disjointed, and ap- 
pears to need some harmonizing element 
to give us that feeling of security which 
accompanies thefloatmgand llyinggroups 
of Guide, Rubens, and Annibale Caracci. 
The idea of the Flight of Night is in this 
respect, admirable ; in a moment the 
cloudy vision will have departed, leaving 
a serene sky, and space for all the suc- 
ceeding pageants of civilization." 

We are told, since Mr. Hunt's 
melancholy death on the Isles of 
Shoals, that the fifty-five days devoted 
by himself and assistant to the paint- 
ing of these jiictures, by no means 
represented all the labor bestowed 
upon them. The Discoverei' was first 
drawn in charcoal 23 years ago. The 



27 



CAP 



Miglit of Nig-M "had "been, put on 
paper ten years earlier, and had been 
designed simply for an easel pictui'e. 
After accepting the cominission, Mr. 
Hunt's prejiaratory work in his studio 
in Boston was of neaiiy five months' 
duration. For the Flight of JSTight, 
the heads of the horses, their legs 
and feet were all freshly painted from 
life. The Queen was painted from a 
life model. Sleep and the child were 
painted from life, also the - dusky 
guide. For the other picture, the Dis- 
coverer, Science, Hope and Fortune, 
were painted from life models. The 
heads, hands and arms of these 
figures were also drawn and colored 
as separate studies. In all, 30 or 
more careful charcoal drawings and 
more than twelve pastels were made, 
besides 19 complete copies in oil, 17, 
12 inches by 30, and two, 6 feet by 8. 
The work itself had to be done by a 
sj:)ecified time, and this involved much 
anxiety. Each morning the artist 
and his assistant were up to catch 
from the rising sun a fresh impression 
to carry to the work upon the Flight 
of Night. Every evening they watched 
the waning daylight, and noted the 
effect of figures and objects against 
the setting sun, as a study for the Dis- 
coverer. Later, on in the work, Mr. 
Hunt obtained from his assistant a 
solemn promise that if their effort 
proved a failure, he v/ould paint out 
both pictures in a single night. (See 
Atlantic Monthly for July, 1880). 

The furniture and belongings of 
the assembly chamber are in excel- 
lent taste. A handsome red carpet 
covers the floors ; the curtains are of 
rich colors; the desks are of solid 
mahogany ; the chairs are upholstered 
in red leather ; the gas fixtures, are in 
the shape of standards of bnght brass, 
and when the room is lighted at night, 
the scene is brilliant beyond descrip- 
tion. On nights when the assembly 
is in session, the galleries are thronged 



with ladies, attracted, it is feared, 
more by the elegance of the legisla- 
tive halls, than by the eloquence of 
the legislators. 

There are other rooms in this part 
of the building, but none of them are 
of strildng interest to the visitor, who 
\\dll find in the halls already alluded 
to, enough to examine and admire for 
hours. The committee rooms, libra- 
ries, mailing room, document rooms, 
post-offices, etc., are all convenient 
and well appointed. 

The Southern Centre. — At present 
wi'iting, the southern half of the 
building is not in a condition to admit 
of much accurate description, asvv^ork- 
men are busy night and day getting 
it ready for occupancy by the gov- 
ernor and the senate. The executive 
chambers are in the south-east corner, 
on the same fioor ^\ith the coui-t of 
appeals, a most charming location. 
The rooms are to be fitted up with 
great elegance. The senate chamber 
on the floor above, •will be one of the 
finest rooms in the building. Though 
not as large as the assembly chamber, 
it will, doubtless, have almost as 
many admirers. It is to be furnished 
with marble instead of sandstone, 
and the designs are chaste and 
beautiful. The corridors in this por- 
tion a]*e also wainscoted with variega- 
ted marble. 

The State library, which will occupy 
the entire front of the two upper 
stories, it is believed will be the most 
attractive room pei"haj)S, in the world. 
In height it will be two of the outer 
stories. The view fi'om its windows 
will be of entrancing loveliness, over- 
looking the city, and for many miles 
up and down the beautiful Hudson. 

Of these uncompleted portions it is 
not now our pi'o\unce to speak, but 
taking what has already been done 
by the present architects and super- 
intendent as an earnest of what they 
will accomplish in the future, there ia 



CAT 



23 



every reason to believe that the build- 
ing- as it approaches completion will 
each year become more and more the 
pride and glory of tlie Empire State. 

The money expended in its construc- 
tion wdll not have been wasted. It is 
true the legislature of New York 
mig-ht have deliberated in halls that 
would not have cost a tenth part as 
much ; but the cai^itol of su( h a state 
should mean something- more than 
mere rooms in which laws ai-e made 
and mended. It should be as this is, 
a grand monument to the spirit of 
progress and civilization. 

And the influence of such an edifice 
is not confined by the boundaries of 
states or countries. The fine arts 
everywhere are stimulated and 
sti-eng-thened by such a structure. 
As CJai-ence Cook says : 

" There is nothing like agrent architec- 
tural undertaking, Avitliitri iinplietlaccom- 
pani:nent of gculpture and painlijig, to 
create a love of art in a community, and 
KewYork has the proud diritinction of 
being tirct ot the States of the Union to 
have lighted in her capitol a beacon fire 
that shall call all the arts together and 
set them at worlc in noble tasks for her 
behoof.'' 

Catholic Churches. — The first 
Catholic chapel erected in this city 
was built in 1797-8 (the city giving 
the land) on the site of the present 
St. Mary's church, Lodge st., cor. of 
Pine. It was of brick, and for thirty 
years was the only Catholic place of 
worship in Albany. 

Cathedral of the Immaculate 
Conception, Eagle st., cor. Madison 
ave. Rt. Rev. Francis McNeirny, 
I). D., Bishop of Albany; Rev. 
James Collins, chancellor and sec. ; 
Rev. Messrs. James A. Curtin and 
John J. Hanlon, assistants. 

This magnificent edifice is pointed 
Gothic in style ; has a frontage of 95 
feet on Eagle st. and a dej^th of 195 
feet on Madison and Jeffei'son aves. 
From the sidewalk to the apex of the 



roof its height is 70 feet, and to the 
top of spire 210 feet. Its interior 
measurement is, nave, 125 feet ; ti-an- 
sept, 96 feet; sanctuary, 35 feet 
square ; height of ceihng about 54 
feet. Twelve massive columns sup- 
port its roof, and light is admitted 
through 32 stained-glass windovrs of 
much beauty, the one at the back of 
the chancel costing more than $3,000. 




It tells, in a series of finely-wrought 
pictures, the story of the Virgin Mary. 
There are five altars, adorned with 
statuary and enriched with relics. 

The corner-stone was laid July 2, 
1848, by Archbishop Hughes, and 
the church dedicated by the same 
prelate, Nov. 21, 1852. It has a seat- 
ing capacity of 2,500, but 4,000 j)eople 
often congregate within its walls. 
Cost, about 1100,000. Architect, 
Patrick C. Keeley. It is always. 



29 



CAT 



open, and is visited by hundreds of 
strang-ers yearly. The imposing- rit- 
uals of the Catholic chiu'ch are ob- 
served wich magnificence, and the 
ceremonies are often witnessed by 
many who are not of the faith, but 
who ai'e attracted by the pomp and 
splendor of the scene and the grandeur 
of the music. On Sundays, low mass 
at 7 and 8 A. m. ; high mass at 10:C0 ; 
and vespers, in the winter at 3 p. m., 
in the summer at 3:30. 

Charles Makay, the Eng-lish author, 
speaking- of his visit to this country 
in 1.838, said of this Cathedral: *'It 
is intenaally one of the largest and 
most magnificent ecclesiastical edi- 
fices in America. Here high mass is 
sometimes perfonned with a splendor 
and completeness, orchestral and 
vocal, not to be excelled even in 
Paris or Vienna, and to which Lon- 
don, as far as I know, can make no 
pretensions." The organ, built by 
Erben, cost $8,000. There is also a 
fine chime of bells. 

The firet bishop of Albany was Rt. 
Rev. John McCloskoy (now Cardinal), 
who was installed Sept. 19, 1847 ; the 
second, Rt. Rev. John J. Conroy, in- 
staUed Oct, 15, 1865 ; and the third 
and present, Rt. Rev. Francis Mc- 
Neimy, D. D. 

St. Joseph's. — Ten Broeck cor. 
Second st. Rev. T. M. A. Burke, 
pastor; Rev. Messrs. Maui-ice Shee- 
han and Thomas S. Hart, assistants. 
This church, though designed by the 
same architect as the Cathedral, is 
strikingly different in its general 
effect, each being considered a mas- 
ter-piece in its own way ; one being 
sombre, heavy and majestic, and 
answering the popular idea of a 
cathedral ; the other, hght, omate 
and graceful, conveying an immedi- 
ate impression of the chaste and 
beautiful in architecture. The di- 
mensions are nearly the same. St. 
Joseph's was originally trimmed with 



Caen stone brought from. France, but 
this crumbled away, and has been 
replaced by more durable material. 
The church, which was five years in 
building, was consecrated May 13, 
ISGO. It was in this edifice that 
Emma La Jeunesse, now the world- 
renowned Albani, sang and officiated 
as organist while living in the city 
from which she took her name. 

St. Maey's Cuurch. — Lodge cor. 
Pine st. Rev. C. A. Walworth, pas- 
tor ; Rev. Messrs. P. H. McDermott, 
J. H. Maney, assistants. This was 
the first Catholic pai'ish in the city, 
the trustees ha\dng been incor^^orated 
Oct. 6, 1796, and the first building 
erected during the two years follow- 
ing ; the second was erected in 1830 ; 
the third and present one in 1867-9. 
Seating capacity, 1,000. 

St. Ann's. — Fourth ave. cor. Frank- 
hn st. Rev. Edward A. Terry, pas- 
tor. Consecrated Dec. 20, 18G8. 

St. John's. — South Ferry cor. Dal- 
lius. Rev. John Walsh, pastor ; Rev. 
Thomas P. Walsh, asst. The second 
oldest CathoHc parish in the city. 

St. Patrick's. — Central ave. cor. 
Perry st. Rev. P. J. Smith, pastor ; 
Rev. James Green, asst. Corner- 
stone laid Dec. 21, 18G6. Church 
consecrated Aug. 30, 18G8. 

Our Lady of Angels (German). — 
Central ave. cor. Robin st. Rev. 
Maurice Bierl, pastor ; Rev. Caesar 
Cucchiarini, asst. Comer-stone laid 
Nov. 29, 18G8. 

Church of the Holy Cross (Ger- 
man). — Hamilton st. cor. Phihp. 
Rev. Joseph Ottenhues, pastor. Cor- 
ner-stone laid May 12, 1850. 

Our Lady Help of Christians 
(German). — 72 Second ave. Rev. 
S. A. Preisser, pastor. Comer-stone 
laid June 27, 1880. 

Church op the Assumption. — 
Hamilton below Grand; Rev. Joseph 
Brouillet, pastor. Formerly used by 
the Afi'ican Baptists ; bought by the 



CAT 



30 



Fi-ench Catholics, and consecrated 
Dec. 12, 1SG9. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, 
"Walter st. cor. N. Second. The par- 
ish at N. Albany was founded Aug. 
5, 1874, and Rev. F. J. Mag-uire ap- 
pointed pastor. The first sei-vice in 
the chapel on Erie st. was held 
Aug-. 16. Ground was broken for the 
erection of the present chui'ch July- 
Si, 1876 ; the excavations for the 
chui'ch were made by membei'S of 
the congi'eg-ation ev^enings, after the 
regTilar labors of the day were done. 
The corner-stone was laid Aug-. 27, 
1876, and the building- dedicated May 
23, 1880. Cost of church and par- 
sonage, ^5,000, all of which has been 
paid, except about $15,000. 

Cattle Market. — The stock yards 
at West Albany are reached in 45 
minutes from Broadway by the State 
st. horse cars, which leave on the 
half hour ; or in ten minutes by trains 
on the Central railroad. Next to 
Chicago and Buffalo, this is the 
largest hve stock market in the 
United States. It was, in its infancy, 
located at " Gallup's," on Washington 
ave., north side, between Swan and 
Lai'k sts. ; afterwards at the old 
** BuU's Head " on the Troy road, and 
then at Hunter & Gallup's, at the end 
of what is now Central ave. About 
15 years ago the business was re- 
moved to its present location at West 
Albany, just north of the Central rail- 
road track, whore large sheds and 
building-s were erected for the accom- 
modation and protection of many 
thousand head of stock. The build- 
ings devoted to sheep and hogs cover 
an immense area of ground ; are 
floored throughout, are entirely en- 
closed, well lighted, and adequately 
sii]")plied with running water. The 
cattle yards are laid out in lanes, 
each alley designated by a letter or 
name, and each pai'ticular yai-d by a 



number. Ample sheds afford protec- 
tion to the cattle, and each yard is 
provided with water. Everything 
possible is done to keep the stock in 
good condition, and as all sales are 
made by weight on the hoof, it is ap- 
parent that generous feeding enures 
to the benelit of the sellei^ — a fact 
which he never loses sight of. Buffalo 
is the last feeding point west of Al- 
bany, and stock shipped from there 
one day should reach here the next. 
As the rules of the Central road re- 
quire all stock passing forward to be 
unshipped here and fed, it is obvious 
that the feeding part of the business 
receives proper attention. 

In former years the trade in live 
hogs amounted to considerable, but 
of late this market has been merely 
a iDoint for re-shipping to New York 
and the East. The pi-incipal trade is 
now cattle and sheep, but as much 
of the stock sold here is weighed at 
New York and Brighton, no accui'ate 
account of the number changing 
hands can be given. It is safe to 
say, however, that upwards of 100,- 
000 cattle and 150,000 sheep were 
sold and weighed at West Albany 
within the past year. The export 
trade has added larg-ely to the busi- 
ness of late, and while compai-atively 
few cattle are purchased here direct 
for export, from 500 to 2,000 head 
pass through nearly every week for 
shipment to Europe from New York 
or Boston. The bulk of the cattle 
come from the far-western States, 
New Yoi'k and Canada furnishing 
but a comparatively small number. 
Illinois sends the largest number and 
many of the best cattle that come to 
market, while the moelei-ate ai-rivials 
of Kentucky steers embrace some of 
the finest herds to be seen. Ohio, 
Iowa, and other States in the West, 
furnish their quota of what are 
termed ** natives," while the common 
cattle come mainly from Texas, Col- 



31 



CEM— CEN 



orado and the Indian Teiritory. 
Sheep come from the Western States, 
Kentucky, Canada and New York; 
Canada and Kentucky producing- the 
most saleable stock. Every facility 
for handling- stock expeditiously has 
been made, and in one week the past 
year upwards of 1,000 car loads, or 
17,000 head of cattle, were received 
and cai-ed for, being the larg-est 
number ever known in that time. 
This was exclusive of several thou- 
sand sheep and hog's that came in 
the same week. During the year 
ending Jan. 1, 1880, the arrivals 
were : 

No. of head. 

Beeves 525,228 

Sheep 1,089,800 

Hogs 992,800 

Horses 15,184 

Total 2,622,512 



That is, 47,805 car-loads, or a daily 
average of over 131 cars. The arriv- 
als, from Jan. 1, 1880, to date (Nov. 
27), have been : 

Bseves 554,388 

Sheep .• 950,400 

Hogs 922,800 

Horees 15,734 

Total 2,443,322 

That is, 47,991 car-loads, a daily 
average of 144 cars. 

A large brick hotel, conducted by 
John Williamson, is located in the 
immediate vicinity of the yards, and 
besides furnishing accommodation 
for buyers and sellers, aftbrds space 
for office room to several of the firms 
which deal largely in live stock. 

Cemeteries, The, are the Rural, on 
the Troy road near West Troy ; Anshe 
Emeth, on the River road ; St. Agnes 
(Catholic), adjoining the Rural on the 
south ; St. John's, on the Bethlehem 



turnpike below Kenwood, and St. 
Mary's and St. Joseph's on Washmg- 
ton ave. (See Rural Cemetery, St. 
Agnes Cemetery and Graveyards.) 

Census of 1880. — Following are 
the census retm-ns of 1880. (See, 
also. Population.) 



IstWard, E. D 2,626 

W. D 2,099 

2d Ward, W. D. ..... . 3,534 

E. D 2,331 

3d Ward, N. D 2,078 

S. D 3,027 

4th Ward, N. D 2,506 

S. D 3,314 

5thWard, N. D 1,939 

S. D 2,835 

6tliWard, E. D 1,501 

W. D 2,682 

7thWard, N. D 2,187 

S. D 1,340 

8th Ward, E. D 2,419 

W. D 1,732 

9thWard, N. D 2,585 

S. D 2,226 

10th Ward, N. D 2,704 

W. D 2,347 

S. D 1,841 

11th Ward, N. D. ..... . 3,300 

S. D 2,843 

12th Ward, E. D 1 , 676 

W. D 2,992 

M. D 1,369 

13th Ward, E. D 1 , 635 

W. D 2,940 



5,625 



5,865 



5,105 



5,820 



4,774 



4,183 



3,527 



4,151 



4,811 



6,892 



6,143 



6,037 



4,575 



CEN— err 



14th Ward, E. D 2 , 069 

W. D 2,830 

4,899 

15th Ward, E. D 2,125 

W. D 2,994 

5,119 

16th Ward, N. D 1 ,505 

S. D 4,566 

M. D 1,433 

7,504 

17thWard, E. D 2,954 

W.D 2,923 

5,877 

In asylums 336 

Total 91,243 



Central Avenue branches from 
Washington ave. at Townsend park. 
Was foi'nierly called the Bowery, and 
before the completion of the Erie 
canal was the g-i'eat thoroughfare to 
the west leading out to the Schenec- 
tady turnpike. Transpoi-tation of 
produce was by means of six-horse 
teams, which were quartei-ed along 
this street. Some of the lai-ge store- 
houses still remaining about Town- 
send park, attest the former commer- 
cial character of the locality. The 
name w-as changed to Central ave. in 
1867. The residents now are mostly 
German. 

Charter. — The original charter of 
Albany, gi-anted by Gov. Thomas 
Dongan, and dated July 22, 1686, is 
deposited in the mayor's office. It is 
written in English, in Gothic letter on 
parchment, and beara a seal, in a 
silver case. The text was printed by 
Hugh Gaine in 1771, and is re-printed 
in Munsell's Annals, Vol. II. The 
present charter forms Chap. 77 of the 
Laws of 1870, and was passed Mai*ch 
16th of that year. It has since then 
been amended in various particulars. 
See Manual of the Common Council, 
comjjiled by Martin Delehanty, clerk. 



Cholera raged in Albany terribly 
in the summer of 1832. Over 400 
deaths resulted, in a population of 
30,000. 

Churches. — There are between fifty 
and sixty churches in Albany, includ- 
ing five Baptist, one Congi^egational, 
six Episcojjal, two German Evangeli- 
cal, three Jewish, five Lutheran, seven 
Methodist, seven Presbyterian, five 
Reformed and eleven Cathohc. Be- 
sides these, the Universahsts, Second 
Advents, Friends and other sects, 
hold services with more or less regu- 
larity. The church edifices, taken 
together, are highly creditable to the 
city ; the Cathedral of the Immacu- 
late Conception and St. Joseph's 
(Catholic), Emmanuel and Taberaacle 
(Baptist), First and Second Reformed 
and St. Peter's (Episcopal), being 
worthy of special note. (See various 
denominations . ) 

Cigars. — The number of cigars 
manufactured in this district in 1879, 
was 16,921,855, of which 90 per cent 
were made in this city. (See Internal 
Revenue.) 

City Building, The, occupies the 
site of the old Centre mai'ket, corner 
South Pearl and Howai-d sts. It was 
begun in 1868 ; is of the Lombardic 
style of ai-chitecture, ornamented with 
a Mansai'd I'oof, and is built of brick 
faced with Lake Champlain hme- 
stone. It cost the taxpayers |200,000. 
At present it is also the city hall, and 
is crowded with the mayor's office ; 
office of the clerk of the common 
council ; chamberlain ; deputy cham- 
berlain and receiver of taxes ; pohce 
court ; justices' court ; office of over- 
seer of, the poor ; of the park com- 
missionei's and engineer ; fire and 
police commissioners ; fire alarm tele- 
graph ; street commissioner ; city en- 
gineer and surveyor; offices of the 



83 



CIT 



chiefs of the police and fire depart- 
ments ; property clerk ; detectives' 
office ; Second precinct station house ; 
excise commissioners j assessors' office, 
etc. 

City Government. — Following- will 
be found information in regard to the 
vai'ious city officers : 

Execivtive Department. 

The Executive department includes 
the Mayor's bureau, and the Reg-is- 
trar's bureau (under the charge, su- 
iter vision and direction of the Mayor), 
and the Bureau or Board of Health. 

The Mayor is the chief executive 
officer of the city, and is elected bien- 
nially on the second Tuesday in April, 
to hold office from the first Tuesday 
in May following. Annual salary, 
Jp3,500. When prevented from at- 
tending to the duties of his office for 
two weeks or more, the President of 
the Board of Aldermen may act with 
full power. Office, City Hall; open 
from 10 A. M. to 4 p. m. 

The Board of Health consists of 
the Mayor, the president and health 
committee of the Common Council, 
and the city physician who is health 
officer. This board appoints an in- 
spector, and his assistant is appointed 
by the Mayor, subject to the approval 
of the board. The assistant is called 
clerk of the market, and inspects 
meats. 

Registrar's Bureau. (See Vital 
Statistics.) 

Common Council. 
The Common Council is composed 
of 17 Aldermen, and exercises the 
entire legislative powers of the city. 
One Alderman is chosen from each 
ward. To be eligible for the office 
one must have resided in the city at 
least one year immediately prior to 
his election. Aldermen are chosen 
biennially on the second Tuesday in 



April, to hold office for two yeare from 
the first Tuesday in May following ; 
they elect a president from among 
their number. No Alderman shall 
be interested, directly or indirectly, 
in any contract with the city, nor fur- 
nish any goods or property to it, nor 
hold any office in the gift of the city, 
except inspector of election and com- 
missioner of deeds. Meetings are 
held in the City Hall on the fii*st 
and third Mondays of the month, ex- 
cept in July and August. No salary 
is attached to the office. 

Clerk op Common Council, elected 
biennially by the Common Council ; 
salary, $2,000. Office, City Hall; 
open from 9 till 12, and 2 till 5. 

Finance Department. 

The Finance Department consists 
of the Mayor, the Chamberlain, Dep- 
uty Chamberlain, and President and 
Finance Committee of the Common 
Council. Has control of all fiscal 
concerns of the corporation. 

Chamberlain. — Appointed by the 
Common Council oh nomination by 
the Mayor, "biennially on the eve 
of the feast of St. Michael the arch- 
angel " (See St. Michael's Feast.) 
Duties those of treasurer to the city ; 
salary, $3,000. Office, City Hall. 

The Deputy Chamberlain is also 
the Receiver of Taxes, and is appoint- 
ed at the same time ^ and in the same 
way as the Chamberlain; salary, 
$3,000. 

Deputy Receiver of Taxes. — Ap- 
pointed by the Mayor, on nomination 
of the Receiver of Taxes, who is re- 
si^onsible for his acts ; salary, $1,500. 

Law DepartineJit. 

The law department consists of the 
law committee of the Common Council 
and the Corporation Council. Office 
in City Building. 

Corporation Counsel. — Appointed 



CIT 



34 



by the Common Council on nomination 
of the Mayor ; salary, $2,500, besides 
being- entitlc<l to receive in cases in 
which the city is successful, all costs 
collected from the unsuccessful party, 
returning- to the city all such disl3urse- 
ments as are collected ;^hich the city 
has prepaid. 

Street Bepartment. 

The street department includes four 
bui'eaus. 

Board of Contract and Apportion- 
ment. — Consists of the Mayor, Street 
Commissioner, Chamberlain, City En- 
gineer and Surveyor, and President 
and committee on contract and ap- 
portionment of the Common Council ; 
office in the City Building, open from 
9 to 5. This board awards all contracts 
for opening, paving and repairing 
streets, drains, docks, etc., and for re- 
moving street dirt and garbage. It 
also apportions and assesses the cost of 
streets, etc., upon the property hold- 
ers. The board meets at the Mayor's 
office, on call. 

The Bureau of Street Impovb- 
ments has for- its chief officer the 
Street Commissionei", appointed by 
the Common Council on nomination by 
the Mayor ; salary, $3,000. The Com- 
missioner ap}ioints two Street Super- 
intendents with the approval of the 
Mayor. 

Bureau of Surveys and Engi- 
neering. — Chief officer,City Surveyor 
iind Engineer, appointed by the Com- 
mon Council on nomination by the 
Mayor ; salary $3,000 ; office City 
Building ; deputy appointed by the 
surveyor ; salary $1,500. 

Bureau OP Lamps and Gas. — Chief 
officer. Superintendent of Lamps, ap- 
2)ointed T)y the Common Council on 
nomination by the Mayor ; salary 

^^^.- Otlier Officers. 

Unless othei'wise specified, ap- 
pointed biennially by the Common 
Council on nomination by the Mayor. 



The Recorder was formerly the 
rex)resentative of the Ci'0\\ai in the 
city g-oveniment, and the office is now 
something of an anomaly. He is 
elected by the people, holds office 4 
years, and recei%-es an annual salaiy 
of $2,800. He has the powers of a 
supreme court jud^e sitting at cham- 
bers; holds, with a justice of the 
j)eace, the coui-t of special sessions ; 
is one of the joint board with the 
Mayor and supervisors in charg-e of 
the penitentiary, and is nominally 
counsel for the park commissioners. 

City Physician. — Attends the sick 
at the alms-house, and acts with the 
Board of Health. Salary, $1,200. 

District Physicians. — Six in num- 
ber. Salaries, $400. Attend the indi- 
g-ent and furnish them with medicine. 

City Marshal. — Acts as sergeant- 
at-arms for the Common Council ; 
serves notices of its meetings ; takes 
charge of City Hall, and serves notices 
of unpaid taxes, for the latter duty 
receiving fees; salary, $1,200; Dep- 
uty, salary, $800. 

SuPT. City Building. — Salary, $900, 
and residence in the City Building. 

Inspector of Weights and Meas- 
ures. — Once in six months inspects 
weights and measures ; is paid by fees 
which range from five cents to $1.50. 

Excise Commissioners. — Three in 
number ; appointed by the Mayor ; 
term of office, 3 years. Office in City 
Building-. Annual salaries, $1,000. 

Overseer ofF the Poor.^ — Is clerk 
of the committee on jiublic charities, 
and apjilies and distributes the funds 
for the temporary relief and support 
of the indigent. Salary, $1,000, with 
$•'00 additional from the county. 
Office in City Building ; hours, from 
9 till 12 and 2 till 5. Assistant, salaiy, 
$720. . 

Alms-house Supt. — Salary, $2,500. 
Other officers of the alms-house ap- 
pointed by the Common Council com- 
mittee. 



35 



CIT 



City Assessors. — Three in num- 
ber; salary f 2,000 each. Office in 
City Building. 

Ward Coxstables. — Elected yearly. 
Sei've processes issuing- from the j us- 
tices' court, and ai'e paid by fees. 

(See Fire Department, Police, 
Washington Park, Water-works ; for 
list of officers see Appendix.) 



edifice. The city boug-ht the site 
which belong-ed to St. Peter's Church, 
for ;gl0,259.9r), and Aug. 31st the 
corner-stone of -the City Hall was laid. 
The marble of which three sides of it 
were built came from the Sing Sing 
prison quarries. On the 4th of July, 
1832, the gilded dome of the com- 
l)leted building was disclosed to the 




City Hall, The, on Eagle st., cor. 
Maiden lane, is now in ruins, haNdng 
been destroyed by fire Feb. 10, 1880. 
In 1829 the Legislature, ha\'ing con- 
cluded that the State should dissolve 
partnership with the city and county, 
offered $^17,500 for their interest in 
the Capitol building and the park in 
front of it. This was accepted, and 
the Board of Supervisors agreed to 
appropriate $15,000 towards a new 



public, and on the 25th the Common 
Council held their first meeting under 
it. Thecost was reported at392,336.91, 
of w^hich the county paid $7,500. It 
was a fine Grecian structure, 109 feet 
front by 80 feet deep. In front it had 
a recessed porch supported by six 
Ionic columns. Upon its destruction 
the Common Council passed resolu- 
tions designating the City Building 
(which see) as the City Hall. 



CIT— COA 



36 



The New BuiLDiKa.— A commission 
has in charg-e the erection of a new 
building-, and the plans of H. H. Rich- 
ardson, architect of* Trinity church, 
Boston, and one of the advisory board 
of the architects of the new capitol, 
have been adopted. He proposes an 
ediiice of reddish granite, trimmed 
with Long- Meadow bro^\^l stone. The 
style is a " free ti'eatment of Gothic, 
from the south of France;" heig-ht, 
three stories and a-half, with base- 
ment ; roof steep. A tower 26-| feet 
square, 100 feet hig-h, and surmounted 
by a belfry will be divided into 12 
stories, to be used for storing- city and 
county records. It is supposed that 
the building- can be erected in two 
years, for {pi05,COO. 

City Tract and Missionary So- 
ciety. — Incorporated in 185G. Rooms 
20 N. Pearl st. Nathan B. Perry, 




pres. ; James Rog-ers, sec. ; Albert 
P. Stevens, treas. ; Rev. Charles 
Reynolds, sux^t. A most effective 



org-anization, owning-, free from debt, 
a larg-e three-story brick building-, 
cor. of Franklin and Rensselaer sts., 
whei'e meeting-s are held on Sunday 
and nearly every evening in the week ; 
a librai'y and i-eading room are main- 
tained ; an eating- room, cheap and 
wholesome, is a feature ; and, in fact, 
where the most practical charities 
are dispensed. The society also oc- 
cuj^y the old mission building on 
Rensselaer st. below Franklin. Sev- 
eral missionaries are employed to 
visit the sick and the needy, and a 
ladies' auxiliary board, of which Mrs. 
Howard Townsend is president, has 
charge of a cooking school, a kitchen 
garden, a newsboys' lodging-room, 
and the fi'uit and flower mission, 
which are mentioned more particu- 
larly elsewhere. The society also 
publish monthly a j)aper called The 
Work at Home. 

Clubs. — Albany cannot be called 
a **cluli>bable " city. Several have 
been instituted in times past, and 
carried on for a while successfully, 
only to die a lingering death. The 
latest enterprise of this kind, Fort 
Orange (which see), starts out ex- 
ceedingly well, and much is hoped 
for it. Other clubs are Albany Terp- 
sichorean Society, Ideal Club, J. S. 
D. Social Club, etc. (See Friendly 
Few.) 

Coasting, — The steep grades of 
the Albany streets have always 
tended to make coasting a fa"\-orite 
amusement, but law is against it. 
The following resolution passed the 
common council neai-ly 170 years ago : 

"Whereas ye children in said city do 
verv unorderly, to ye shame and scandell 
of their parents ryde down ye hills in ye 
streets of eaid cityAvith small and great 
slees on Lord day and in M-eek by vhich 
many accidents may come — NoAvlbr pre- 
venting je same it is hcrol)j' pnblisned. 
and declared that it shall and may be law- 
ful for any constable within this city, or 



37 



COF — CON 



any other person or persons, to take any 
slee or slees from all such boys or girls 
rydiug or offering to ryde down any hiil 
Avithin this city and break such slee or 
slees in peeces ! 

" Given under our hands and seals in 
Albany '22nd of December in the 12th year 
of Her Majesty's reyn, Anno Domini 1713." 

Nowadays coasting-, snow-balling, 
and kite- flying are all forbidden un- 
der penalty of $1 for each oflfense. 

Coffee Room of the City Mission.- 

The " Model Coffee Room " is in the 
basement of the city mission build- 
ing, cor, Rensselaer and Franklin sts. 
It is a neat eating-room, free from all 
bai'-room influences, and where food 
is supplied at very low rates. Good 
meals from 6 to 25 cts. Coffee, 3 cts. 

Cohoes. — A city of 19,568 inhabit- 
ants, situated in Albany county, 8 
miles north of Albany ; reached by 
the D. and H. C. Co.'s railroad, fare 
25 cents. Previous to 1811 the site 
of Cohoes was a barren waste. Popu- 
lation in 1831 about 150. Incorpo- 
rated as a village in 1848 ; as a city in 
1869. The place owes its growth to 
the immense water privilege afforded 
by the Cohoes falls in the Mohawk 
river, and owned by the Cohoes 
Company, organized in 1826. The 
falls are 75 feet in height, and in any 
State but the one in which Niagara 
is situated, would be considered a 
great wonder. The Harmony cotton 
mills are very extensive, employing 
4,000 operatives ; and more knit 
goods are manufactured here than in 
any other place in the country. It is 
a place well worth visiting. 

Conjugal Felicity.— The Duke 
de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt, one of 
the French nobility exiled during the 
Revolution, who visited Albany in 
1795, has recorded that the inhabit- 
ants "lived retired in their houses 
with their wives, who sometimes are 
pretty, but rather awkward in their 



manners, and witli whom their hus- 
bands scarcely exchange thii'ty woi'ds 
a day, although they never address 
them but with the introductory ap- 
pellation of ^niy love.'" There is 
i-eason to believe that this quiet pic- 
ture of domestic happiness has been 
somewhat moditied of late. 

Congregational Church, cor. of 
Eagle and Beaver sts. Corner-stone 
laid Sept. 22, 1868; dedicated Oct. 
14, 1869 ; cost, including lot, ^130,000. 
No debt. Will seat 1,125. Thirteen 
associated gentlemen, consisting of 
Anthony Gould, Bradford R. Wood, 
Rufus H. King, James McNaughton, 
and othei's, bought the ediiice that 
had long been ONvned and occupied 
by the First Presbyterian Church, 
cor. S. Pearl and Beaver sts., now 
Beaver Block, Dec. 15, 1849, for 
$20,000, for the purposes of a Con- 
gregational church and society about 
to be formed. As soon as suitably 
repaired, it was opened for divine 
service, April 7, 1850, Rev. Leonard 
Bacon, D. D., of New Haven, Ct., 
preaching. Other eminent preachers 
of the denomination followed for a 
few months. June 6th, a religious 
society w^as organized. On the 10th 
of July, a church of 81 members was 
formed. Rev, Ray Palmer, D. D., of 
Bath, Me., w'as installed pastor, Dec. 
10, 1850, and so remained until April 
18, 1866. Rev. William S. Smart, 
D. D., of Benson, Vt., was installed 
May 30, 1867. The last sermon in 
the old church was preached Feb. 8, 
1868. After that date. Association 
Hall, now Board of Trade rooms, 
was occupied for religious services 
until the present ediiice was com- 
pleted. Rev. William S. Smart, D.D., 
pastor ; Henry S. McCall, clerk ; 
William Gould, Jr., treas, Sunday 
service, 10^ a, m., 3^ p. m. Sundav 
School, 2 p. M., Prof. John E, Brad- 
ley, supt,; Bethany Mission School, 



CON — COU 



38 



67 S. Pearl, 9 A. m., Nelson Lyon, 
supt. CongTeg*ational singing led by 
Prof. John E. Sherwood, chorister. 
Whole number of church members 
enrolled since org-anization, 804; 
l^resent number, 380. 

Congress of 1754. — Of the congress 
of commissionei'S which met in this 
city, June 19, 1754, Bancroft says : 
"America had never seen an assem- 
bly so venerable for the states that 
were i"e];)i'esented, or for the great and 
able men who composed it." The 
colonies of New Yoi'k, Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, Pennsylvania and Maryland 
were represented by 25 commission- 
ers. After completing a treaty with 
the Six Nations, the subject of a union 
w'as taken up. A plan presented by 
Benjamin Franklin, representative 
from Pennsylvania, was reported to 
the congress, and after twelve days 
spent in debate it was adopted sub- 
stantially as x^resented. July 11, the 
congress adjourned, and as Fi-anklin 
descended th« Hudson, the people of 
New York thronged about him to 
welcome him as the mover of the 
Amei'ican Union. The plan, however, 
was to be of no force unless confirmed 
by the several colonial assemblies, 
and not one of them would submit to 
delegating so much power as was pro- 
l^osed, to the genei-al government. 
On the other hand, the king found it 
did not go far enough in that direc- 
tion, and so it failed. But it is re- 
markable how nearly the proposed 
liasis approached the constitution of 
the United States, and Gen. Gartield 
was perfectly right in declaring on 
his way through Albany that it was 
in this city that the germ of the 
American Union was first planted by 
Benjamin Franklin, in 1754. 

Cooking School, The, is in charge 
of a committee from the ladies' 



auxiliary board of the City Tract and 
Missionary Society. Mrs. A. Rath- 
bun, 95 Columbia st. chairman ; Miss 
Emma L. Lloyd, 351 Hamilton st., 
teacher. Sessions held in the old 
mission building on Rensselaer st., 
five days in a week. Adults as well 
as children are instructed how to cook 
wholesome food economically. 

Cottonvrood Trees. — The planting 
or maintaining of cottonwood trees is 
made a misdemeanor, by city ordin- 
ance, punishable by three months in 
the Albany penitentiary. 

County. — The county of Albany 
has an area of 509 square miles. It 
is bounded east by the Hudson river, 
and north in pai't by the Mohawk. 
The Noi-manskill and Catskill furnish 
it with good water power. The land 
near the Hudson and some of the other 
streams is fertile, but in the mountains 
it is less productive. The east part 
is covered with immense beds of clay, 
sand and gravel, the sand in some 
places being 40 feet deep. The county 
was erected in 1089, and originally 
extended east of the Hudson and in- 
cluded the whole colony north and 
west of its present limits. 

Governinent. 

Following will be found informa- 
tion in regard to the county ofncers. 
(See Penitentiary and Appendix.) 

The Board of Supervisors con- 
sists of 31 members, who are elected 
biennially on the second Tuesday of 
April (with the exception of the 
Cohoes members, who are elected a 
month earlier), and organizes the 
second Tuesday in May following. 
They meet, temporarily, in the chapel 
of the Second Reformed Church, on 
Beaver st. ; salaries, !i?350. 

The Sheriff is chosen every three 
years ; office at the jail, in Maiden 
lane ; compensation through fees and 



39 



COU — DEL 



perquisites. TTie sheriff is not eligi- 
ble for two terms in succession. 

District Attorney. — Elected by 
the people ; term thi-ee years ; salary 
$4,500. Appoints his assistant j sal- 
ary $2,500. 

County' Clerk. — Elected by the 
people ; term three years ; paid by 
fees and perquisites. Appoints his 
own deputy and clerks. 

County Treasurer. — Office, 480 
Broadway. Elected by the people ; 
term, three years ; salary, $5,000, In 
addition to the ordinaiy duties of the 
office, the treasurer of this county 
enforces the collection of all taxes in 
this city, unpaid on the first of Sep- 
tember in each year. 

County Judge. — Elected by the 
people ; term, six years ; salary, 
$4,500. 

Surrogate. — Elected by the peo- 
ple ; term, six years ; salary, $4,U00. 
The deputy is clerk of the surrogate's 
court ; salary, $1,800. 

Coroners. — By chap. 37, Laws of 
1878, it is provided that there shall 
be four coroners elected in Albany 
county, w^ho shall hold office three 
years each, at an annual salary of 
$1,200, without fees or perquisites of 
any kind, except in case of acting in 
the place of the sheriff. 

The board of supervisors each year 
elects by ballot, four physicians to 
attend post mortem examinations. 
Salary, $(300. 

Justices' op Sessions. — Elected 
yearly by the people. Paid by fees : 
$3 a day for each day's attendance 
upon court duties. 

School Commissioners. — Three in 
number ; supervise the schools out- 
side the cities of Albany and Cohoes ; 
elected by the people for a term of 
three years ; salary $800 each. 

Loan Commissioners. — Appointed 
by the Senate on nomination by the 
Governor. Term of office three years. 
The fund of which they have charge 



amounts to $114,000. It is part of a 
sum which belonged originally to the 
general government, and, thei-e being 
no use for it, was apportioned among 
the sevei'al States, and reappoi-tioned 
to counties to be lent on good securi- 
ty, at the legal rate of interest, the 
proceeds going into the sinking fund 
of the State. 

Debt. 

The bonded debt of Albany county 
is $874,000, which pays five and six 
per cent interest. It was caused en- 
tirely by the raising of money during 
the war to pay bounties, and is being 
paid off at the rate of $50,000 annu- 
ally. 

County Agricultural Society, — 

The Albany County Agricultural So- 
ciety meets annually on the third 
Wednesday in January, at 18 Beaver 
St. George Tw^eddle, pres. ; John H. 
FaiTell, sec. ; D. V. S. Rapisford, 
treas. No fair has been held since 
1874. 

Courts. (See Appendix.) 

Custom House, U. S., 346 Broad- 
way. William N. S. Sanders, Sui'- 
veyor of Customs; Orrin A. Fuller, 
Deputy. There are also five inspect- 
ors. The revenue from this office 
averages about $150,000 a year; ex- 
penses less -than $11,000. The im- 
ports are princij^ally lumber and 
grain (in large part barley) from 
Canada. 

Delavan House. — Broadway, cor. 
Steuben st. Erected in 1844-45 by 
E. C. Delavan, at a cost of over half 
a million dollars. Mr. Delavan, from 
1832 to the time of his death in 1870, 
was connected with every pi'ominent 
temperance movement in the world. 
He began his crusade by emptying 
his own costly wines into the street. 



DOC — DRI 



40 



Tlie Dela-\'an was started as a tem- 
perance house, and great was the 
chagi-in of the owner when, by a flaw 
in the lease, the lessee discovered that 
he conld sell licjuor, and did so. It 
was for many years the leading hotel 
in Albany. 

Docks. — Strictly speaking-, there 
are no docks in Albany, excei:)t at the 
Lumber distidct, as the term means 
an inclosed basin, or the water-way 
between two wharves ; but the quays 
are by custom called docks. 

Dogs. — The prevalent superstition 
that dog-s ai"e more likely to run mad 
one season of the year than another is 
perpetuated in a city ordinance, which 
prohibits all dogs fi'om going- at large 
in June, July, August, and Septem- 
ber, unless pi-opei-ly muzzled, under 
penalty to their owners of .'55 fine. 
Dogs so running at large may be 
killed by anybody. The police make 
a )3i'actice of poisoning a gi*eat many 
every year. 

Dou-w's Building. — South-west cor. 
of State and Broadway ; devoted to 
stores and offices ; erected in 1842. 

Dramatic Societies. — Albany has 
for many years sustained, with greater 
or less enthusiasm, amateur theatrical 
societies. Those at present in exist- 
ence are the Adelphi Club ; meets at 
101 Hudson ave. ; is composed i)vin- 
cipally of Hebrews. John McCul- 
lough Dramatic Association. Ruby 
Seal Dramatic Association. 

Drives. — The di-ives in and about 
All>any are numerous and pictur- 
es(iue. Washington Pai-k, with its 
three miles of excellent roadway, may 
be taken as the centi-e trom which the 
drives radiate. The most freqiiented 
is the New Scotland turnpike, or the 
Hui-stville road, as it is commonly 



called, which, starting at the Lexing- 
ton and Madison ave. entrance to the 
Park, leads to a drive of inexhaust- 
able extent and variety. Two miles 
out is the famous Log Tavern, the 
glory of which has somewhat faded 
under modern management. Seven 
miles distant is the pretty village of 
Slingerlands, while a di-ive of a dozen 
miles along this smooth plank-road 
brings us to the foot of the romantic 
Indian Ladder. A mile further takes 
us to the top of the mountain, from 
which the view is almost as sublime 
as is that from the hotel verandah on 
the Catskills. A lovely drive on the 
New Scotland road, and a much 
shorter one, is to the covered bridge, 
three miles from Albany, and then 
turning to the right make the circuit, 
coming out at McKo\NTisvilie, on the 
Western avenue road, and then to 
the city. This is a drive of about 
seven miles, and is simply exquisite, 
the view from Sunset hill, the road 
through the dense pine woods, and 
the little church in the forest, being 
the most attractive features. Another 
pleasant drive is out Western avenue 
to the Boulevard, turn to the right 
and take the i-oad west, which is a 
continuation of State street. This 
leads over the sand, the appearance 
of which is desolate for two miles, 
but after that the shrubbery gi-ows 
dense, and the approach to Rensse- 
laer lake (see Water-works) is one of 
the most charming bits of landscape 
possible to imagine. For equestrian- 
ism this route is especially agreeable. 
The Boulevard at the intersection of 
Madison and Western avenues also 
points the way to the well-known 
Shaker road, via West Albany, and. 
to the drives of Newtonville, that 
most prosj^erous and beautiful of 
Albany suburbs. The Troy road, . 
once the fashionable drive of two 
cities, is no longer popular. One rea- 
son is that the railroad crossing-s make 



41 



BUD 



the approach to it dangerous, but 
principally because in dry weather 
it is merely a cloud of dust, and dur- 
ing" the damp season the mud is ankle 
deep. Another boulevard, however, 
constructed by the Van Rensselaer 
estate, and I'unning* parallel with 
the old road affords a splendid drive 
and a matchless view of the river as 
far down as Castleton. Upon this 
boulevard the new residence of 
Emmet, the actor, is located. The 
road, however, does not appear to be 
popular, for the reason, probably, 
that it has a melancholy termination 
at the Rural Cemetery. The drives 
on both sides of the river are among" 
the most beautiful in the State, and 
are larg"ely frequented by Albanians 
who are the happy owners of horses. 
The road below Kenwood, past the 
Corning- farm, and as far south as 
Coeymans, is excellently kept and 
sing-ularly attractive, as is the one 
which from Kenwood goes up the hill 
and bending" to the west intersects with 
the southerly extremity of Delaware 
avenue. Over the i-iver the drives are 
of rare and bewitching" beauty, espe- 
cially the Ridge road, running- from the 
hills back of Greenbush to Castleton. 
From every point on this noble drive 
the view is one of exceeding" charm. 
To the east is a g-lorious landscape, 
suggestive of peace, contentment and 
prosi^erity ; to the south the Hudson, 
like a silver thread, glides along its 
winding j^athway to the sea, while to 
the west the city of Albany, with its 
signs of bustle and thrift indicates 
the activity, energy and intelligence 
of the people. This diive is proba- 
bly the most thoroughly delightful of 
any near the city. Of course during 
the winter months these roads are not 
frequented for pleasure driving, the 
sleighing being confined to the park, 
Western avenue and the canal. A 
city ordinance allows the speeding of 
horses on the avenue during the 



sleighing season; therefore on a bright 
winter afternoon the scene is one of 
sparkle and animation, when the 
wealth and fashion of the town goes 
sleighing and blooded trotters come 
flying down the road to the merry 
music of the bells, and the excited 
cries of the throng which usually 
gathers on the sidewalks to witness 
the vigorous winter sport. 

Dudley Observatory, The, is lo- 
cated in the northei'u part of the city, 
near the line of the Central railroad. 
The grounds on which it is placed are 
the highest in Albany, and are 200 
feet above mean tide . They ai"e about 
eight acres in extent, and are planted 
with trees and shrubbery. The build- 
ings consist of the Astronomical, the 
Meteorological, and the Physical ob- 
servatories, and a lai-ge dwelling- 
house, the official residence of the 
director. The Astronomical Observa- 
tory is a handsome structure of brick 
and freestone, in the general form of 
a cross, 80 by 70 feet. It is sur- 
mounted by a large revolving turret, 
which contains the gi-eat equatorial 
i-efractor of 13 inches apei'ture, and 
15 feet focal length. In the west 
wing of the Observatory is a lai'ge 
and excellent transit instrmnent, 
which is among the latest produc- 
tions of the celebrated firm of Pistor 
& Martins, of Berlin. In the east 
wing is the great Olcott Meridian 
Circle, one of the largest and finest 
of its class. This insti'iauent is also 
the work of Pistor & Martins. Its 
optical qualities ai-e not exceeded by 
any similar instrument in the worlcl. 
The object-glass is eight inches in 
diameter, and the telescope is about 
10 feet in length. The mounting of 
this instrument is specially massive 
and costly. Its principal feature con- 
sists in three enormous monoliths of 
limestone, of which one, weighing 
several tons, forms the cap-stone of 



DUD 



42 



the main pier, while the other two, 
weig-hing- each nearly eig-ht tons, rest 
uprig-ht upon this and serve as the 
direct supports of the instrument. 
In the same room is a variety of deli- 
cate and costly apparatus, auxiliary 
to the principal instrument, which is 
in constant use for the most refined 
operations of astronomy, and employs 
the chief activities of the observing- 
coi*ps. Among- other remarkable in- 
struments belonging to the Observa- 



in August, 1856, under the auspices 
of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science (which, that 
year, held its annual session i:i this 
city), and in the presence of many 
distinguished men of science from 
abroad. Geological Hall had been 
opened on the previous day. The 
address commemorating the inaugu- 
ration of the Dudley Observatory was 
delivered in the Academy Park by 
Edward Everett, and has since be- 




tory are the Sheutz tabulating engine, 
the Clark comet seeker, the disc and 
}-»rinting chronogi'aphs, astronomical 
clocks, self-i-ecording meteorological 
instruments, etc. The Observatory 
also possesses an astronomical library 
of about 2,000 volumes, besides nu- 
mei'ous pamphlets and charts. 

This institution was founded by the 
muniticence of Mrs. Blandina Dudley, 
and leading citizens of Albany. The 
act of incoi'poration was secured 
in 1852. The Observatory building 
was formally dedicated to astronomy 



come celebrated as a fine specimen 
of American oratory. Previous to the 
delivery of the address, an additional 
gift of $50,000 to the Observatory was 
unexpectedly announced fi-om Mrs. 
Dudley; whereupon Prof. Agassiz, 
who was seated on the platform, arose, 
and, delightedly swinging his hat, 
proposed, in trumpet tones : " Three 
cheers for Mrs. Dudley ! " It is need- 
less to say that the audience was 
electrified, and warmly responded to 
the summons. 

The total donations to the Observ^a- 



43 



EAR 



tory Tip to tlie present time exceed 
$200,000. Of this sum, Mrs. Dud- 
ley g-ave $105,000. More than $100,- 
000 have been expended in build- 
ings and equipment, and about 
$100,000 is safely invested as a per- 
manent fund for the support of the 
institution. 

Since 1878, the astronomical opera- 
tions of the Observatory have experi- 
enced a new impulse, in the zone 
work, which has been undertaken in 
co-operation with European observa- 
tories, under the general direction of 
the International Astronomical So- 
ciety. In aid of this entei'jwise, con- 
siderable donations have recently 
been made by citizens of Albany and 
others. 

From the normal clock of the Ob- 
servatory, standard time is furnished 
to the various railroad and telegraph 
offices in this vicinity. At 9 a. m. 
and 9 P. m. the fire bells of the city 
are struck in coincidence with a sig- 
nal from the Observatoiy clock, by 
the Fire Alarm Telegraph service. 
At noon, each day, the standard time 
of the Observatory is transmitted 
over the New York Central railroad 
as far west as Buffalo; so that the 
Dudley Observatory time is prac- 
tically the standard for all northern 
and central New York. 

Among the distinguished astrono- 
mei'S who have been in charge of this 
Observatory are Dr. B. A. Gould, 
now Chief astronomer of the Argen- 
tine confederation, S. A. ; Professor 
0. M. Mitchel, who afterward died in 
1862, Major General of U. S. Volun- 
teers, and Dr. Brunnow, since As- 
tronomej" Royal of Ireland. 

The Observatory is open on Tues- 
day evenings, when visitors are ad- 
mitted in limited numbei's. Cards of 
admission should be obtained by pre- 
vious application, either to the Direc- 
tor of the Observatory or to any one 
of the sixteen Trustees, to whom the 



management of the institution is en- 
trusted. 

The present organization of the 
Observatory is as follows : 

Board of Trustees. — Robert H. 
Pruyn, pres. ; Isaac W. Vosburgh, 
treas. ; John F. Rathbone, Dudley 
Olcott, Samuel H. Ransom, Joseph 
H. Ramsay, Erastus D. Palmer, 
Charles Van Benthuysen, Stephen 
0. Shepard, Charles B. Lansing, 
Clarence Rathbone, John M. Crapo, 
Thomas Hun, Eliphalet N. Potter, 
Samuel B. Ward, Frederick Town- 
send. 

Secretaiy and Director. — Lewis 
Boss. 

Early History. — Albany is the 
oldest surviving Eui'opean settlement 
in the 13 original States. Jamestown, 
Va., founded seven years earlier (in 
1607), has long since ceased to be in- 
habited, and nothing but the ruins 
of a church-tower and a few tomb- 
stones are left to mark the spot, even 
a portion of the site having been 
washed away. Albany comes next. 
It was in September, 1609, that Hen- 
drick Hudson dispatched from Hol- 
land, by the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, to search for a north-west route 
to India and China, came sailing up 
the river which now bears his name, 
thinking surely that the long looked- 
for ** passage " was found at last. 
But aniving in the vicinity of where 
Hudson now stands, the yacht " Half 
Moon " found difficulty in proceeding, 
and the mate and four sailors came 
up stream in a small boat, which they 
moored, it is believed, at a spot now 
in Broadway. The site of the future 
city was covered with pine, maple, 
oak and elm, and between its hills 
five brawling brooks ran laughing to 
the beautiful river. Subsequently 
they were known as the Nor- 
mans kill, the Beaver kill, the Rut- 
tenkill (which flows down Hud- 



E AS — ELM 



44 



son ave.)> the Foxen kill (down 
Canal st.), and the Patroon's creek. 
Poor Hudson returned the way he 
came, went back to Holland, and 
subsequently, in the serv-ice of the 
London Company, discovered, far to 
north, the bay which bears his name, 
and then, throug-h a mutiny among* 
his crew,^'as set adrift in a small 
boat, to die alone amid the ocean he 
had so fearlessly explored. In 1G14, 
Hendi'ick Corstiaensen, under a g-i-ant 
of the United New Netherlands Com- 
pany, erected a trading"-house, 26 feet 
wide and 36 feet long-, on the island 
below the city, nearly ojiposite the 
residence knowTi as Mount Hope. 
This was sui-rounded by a stockade 
50 feet square, and a moat 18 feet 
M-ide. It was garrisoned by 10 or 12 
men, who had two cannon and 12 
stone guns with which to defend 
themselves. Here they carried on an 
extensive fur trade with the Indians, 
until the spring- freshet of 1617 
nearly destroyed their domicile, when 
they moved '* up town " and erected 
a new fort on the hill near the Nor- 
manskill, or 1st kill as it was then 
called, the other four being- numbered 
in succession noi'thward. In 1623, 
anothei" organization, called the West 
India Company, erected a fort on a 
spot near what is now the steamboat 
landing, and called it Foi't Orange, in 
honor of the prince who presided 
over the Netherlands. In the same 
year colonists were sent over, but in 
1626, only 8 families were resident 
here. In 1629 the Patroon system was 
transplanted to this country (see Pa- 
troon), and the following year more 
colonists arrived at Rensselaerwyck, 
a domain 48 miles broad, and which 
extended 24 miles on both sides of the 
i-iver, from Beeren island to Cohoes. 
In 1()34, the village began to assume 
a name independent of the fort, and 
was called Beaverswyck, or Beaver's 
Fuyck, or the Fuyck, so named from 



the bend in the river. Subsequently 
it was known as Williamstadt, and 
became the centre of the fur trade in 
North America. In 1664, the province 
came into the hands of the English, 
who speedily changed the name of the 
settlement to Albany, in honor of the 
Duke of York and Albany, New Am- 
sterdam on Manhattan island under- 
going a similar transfoi*mation. In 
1686, Albany was incorporated a city 
by Gov. Dongan, the bounds being 
one mile wide, from the i'i\'er back 
sixteen miles. The town from its veiy 
earliest settlement was x^rotected from 
the incursions of the French and In- 
dians by palisades, a kind of fortifica- 
tion consisting of upi'ight j30sts driven 
firmly into the ground. In 1*695 the 
boundai-ies of the stockade were, 
Hudson St. on the south, Steuben st. 
on the north, the river on the east, 
and Lodge st. on the west. Afterward, 
as the town increased in population, 
these lines were extended. The 
stockade then reached as far south as 
Hamilton street, and on the north it 
crossed Broadway, near Orange and 
Van Tromp sts. At this point the 
north gate was placed, and it was 
the line dividing the city of Albany 
from the Colonie. "When the towTi was 
first fortified, it contained but thi*ee 
streets: Jonkers and Handlera (cor- 
responding to State st. and Bi-oad- 
w^ay), and Pearl. In 1795, the towm of 
Colonie was annexed. In 1798, the 
city became the capital of the Btate. 
(See Congress of 1754.) 

East Albany is j)art of the village 
of Greenbush, and is reached by the 
lower railroad bridge, or by the feiTy 
at the foot of Maiden lane. 

Elm Tree Corner. — The name by 
which the Tweddle Hall comer was 
known for many years, bex^aiise of an 
ancient, crooked elm which stood 
there till the widening and improve- 



45 



EPI 



ment of N. Pearl st. in 1877. _ Our 
cut gives a view of the spot as it ap- 
peared when the Lydius house (see 
Old Houses) stood opposite. The 
Vanderheyden palace is also shown 
•with another tree in front of it. The 
following- verses by Mr. W . D. Mor- 
ang-e, celebrate one peculiarity of 
the spot, which has not yet wholly 
passed away : 



west of the Hudson was opened for 
divine service. It was a stone build- 
ing-, 58x42 feet, standing a short dis- 
tance from the site of the present St. 
Peter's, in the middle of State st., at 
the base of the hill, which was after- 
wards cut down to the gradual slope 
which leads to the capitol, but which 
at that time was crowned with the 
English fort. (See cut, p. 46.) Rev. 




It don't appear that the Old Elm Tree 
Was a slippery elm, you know; 

But neverihcless it ■svill doubtless be 
Set dawn in the records so. 

When the snow congeals on the slanting 
prade, 

Where the Elm Tree Avcnt to rot, 
And scores of bi-oken heads have made 

Their mark on the sacred spot, 

That place of broken skulls will be 
By many a frantic mourner, 

Set down in the town jroography, 
As the *' Slippery Elm Tree Corner." 

Episcopal Churches. — In Novem- 
ber, 1716, the lirst EngUsh church 



Thomas Barclay, chaplain to the fort, 
was the i*ector. 

St. Peter's was the title under 
which the church was incorporated 
in 1769. The first edifice was taken 
down in 1802, and a second, built 
where the i)i'esent edifice stands, was 
consecrated Oct. 4, 180B. This lasted 
till 1858, when it was razed to make 
way for the present elegant stmcture, 
consecrated Oct. 4, 1860. It is built 
of Schenectady blue stone, with New 
Jersey brown stone trimmings. The 
interior is 136x68 feet, and 64 fee* 



EPI 



^ 




from floor to ceiling*. Seating* capac- 
ity, 900. The tower, one of the rich- 




est specimens of French Gothic in this 
country, was completed in 1875 by the 



munificence of the family of the late 
John Tweddle. The chimes of eleven 
bells were presented by Mr. George 
Tweddle, and cost ?6,'000. A bell, 
mistakenly known as Queen Anne's 
bell, bearing- date of 1751, is used 
only to nng- in the new year. It is 
said to have been the bell that first 
proclaimed independence in this city. 
A communion service, the gift of 
Queen Anne to a projected chapel 
among the Onondagas, which was 
never built, was given to this chiu'ch 
at the frontier post, and has been in 
use ever since. The organ has just 
been remodelled. The parish house 
on Lodge st. was built in 1875, at 
a cost of 5^24,000. Whole value of 
church property, $280,000. Number 
of communicants ONer 400. Sunday 
services at 10:30 and 4 ; Wednesdays 
and Fridavs, 10:30. Rector, since 
Aug. 1, 1874, Rev. Walton W. Batter- 
shall, D. D. 

The Cathedral op All Saints, in 
the city and diocese of Albany, was 
incoi'porated by act of Legislature in 
March, 1873. Its own statutes and 
by-laws were adopted in the follow- 
ing year, and in 1877 it was formally 
and fully recognized as part of the 
organic life and law of the diocese by 



47 



EPI 



a nem- con. vote of the convention. 
The chaptei' consists of the Bisliop as 
its oliicial and ex-oliicio head ; of four 
"principal persons," the dean, pre- 
centor, chancellor, and treasurer ; 
certain minor canons being" unmai'- 
ried clergy, and six laymen, holding- 
oliice for two, four and six years, 
elected by the " greater chapter." The 
g-i'eater chapter represents all the 
elected officers and bodies of the Dio- 
cesan Convention, (standing commit- 
tee, board of missions, deputies to 
convention, arch-deacons, etc.,) and 
the rectors of St. Peter's and St. 
Paul's churches in Albany. 

The scheme of the cathedral is 
adopted from the statutes of the En- 
glish Cathedral of the First Founda- 
tion ; with the marked exception 
(which is an admirable characteristic 
of the American church) of the intro- 
duction of lay communicants to the 
govei'ning body. The idea of the 
cathedral is to establish in Albany a 
free church, with frequent services, 
choral w^or^ip, constant preaching, 
and institutions of learning and char- 
ity. Every member of the diocese 
has his own right and place in the 
congi-egation, and has a voice, through 
his elected . representatives, in the 
choice of the clerical and lay mem- 
bers of the chapter. "The j)resent 
building, cor. Hawk and Elk sts., is 
only the chapel of the cathedral 
church, which it is hoped will be 
begun before long. It seats about 
1,000 people. It maintains a daily 
service twice every day. The pupils 
of St. Agnes school (which see) and 
the membei-s of the Sisterhood wor- 
ship in it, besides a congregation, fill- 
ing the building about three-fourths 
full. The seats, by the act of incor- 
poration, ai-e forever free. There 
are no endowments, and the support 
comes wholly from the fi'ee-will offer- 
ings of the congregation. Rt. Rev. 
Wm. Croswell Doane, Bishop ; Rev. 



G. W. Dean, chancellor ; Rev. E. T. 
Chapman, treas.; Rev. T. B. Fulcher, 
minor canon. 

St. Paul's. — Lancaster st. above 
Hawk. Rev. J. Livingston Reese, 
D. D., rector. Organized Nov. 12, 
1827. The fii'st church edifice was in 
S. Ferry st., consecrated Aug. 24, 
1829. After the sale of this building 
to the CathoUcs in 1839, the theatre 
on S. Pearl st. was bought by the 
parish, and at an expense of some 
^10,000 was transformed into a 
church, and consecrated Feb. 22, 
1840. At that time the Rev. Wm. 
Ingraham Kip, now Bishop of Cali- 
fornia, was rector. Aftei' the elec- 
tion of the Rev. Dr. Kip to the Epis- 
copate, the Rev. Dr. Starkey, now 
Bishop of Noi'thern New Jei-sey, was 
rector for four years. The present 
edifice was intended for a new con- 
gregation, belonging to the Dutch 
Refoi'med Church, and was known as 
the Dudley Church. When partly 
completed, it was sold, on account of 
debt, to the vestry of St. Paul's, who 
completed the building and added a 
chancel. It was used for the fii-st 
time for public service Sept. 21, 1862. 
The Rev. Dr. Rudder, afterwards of 
St. Stephen's, Philadelphia, was then 
rector. The present rector entered 
on his duties in June, 1864. In Octo- 
ber, 1877, the semi-centennial of the 
parish was celebrated. The church 
has 600 communicants ; 720 children 
and 80 teachers in its Sunday School ; 
a large and flourishing mission chapel 
on Madison ave. below Pearl, where 
services are held twice a Sunday, 
under the care of the assistant min- 
ister. No mortgage nor floating debt. 

Trinity. — Trinity place. Rev. Ed- 
ward Selkii'k, rector. Was organized 
Sept. 4, 1839. The parish was small, 
but managed to build, in 1841-2, at 
the cor. of Franklin and Herkimer 
sts., an edifice holding about 300 peo- 
ple. On the 1st of Jan., 1844, Rev. 



ERI-EXC 



48 



Mr. Selkirk became rector, and for 
37 years has been with this x^arish. 
The present building" was consecrated 
Jan. 21, 1849, and will seat about 50U. 

Holy Innocents. — N. Pearl st. 
cor. of Colonic. Rev. Samuel E. 
Smith, rector. This was the fifth 
parish org-anized by the Episcopal 
Church in this city. The building was 
the first specimen of early English 
architecture erected in Albany, and 
was opened Feb. 8, 1850. Mr. Wil- 
liam H. De Witt not only gave the 
site but assumed the entire cost of 
the building. It seats 350, and pew 
rents are free. 

Grace, — Cor. Robin st. and Clinton 
ave., was org-anized in 1846. The 
Rev. Mansell Van Rensselaer, D. D., 
LL. D., was the first rector. Under 
his ministrations services were held 
in an upper I'oom cor. State and Lai-k 
sts. From here they moved to a 
larger room in Spring st., where 
services were conducted until the 
present building was erected cor. of 
Lark and Washington ave. in 1850. 
In 1873 the building was moved to its 
pi-esent location. In 1875 the rectory 
was built at a cost of nearly §9,000. 
There have been eight rectors since 
its organization : Rev. Mansell Van 
Rensselaei-, D. D., LL. D. ; Rev. John 
Alden Spooner; Rev. John Radclift' 
Davenport, P. D. ; Rev. Theodore M. 
Bishop, D. D. ; Rev. Philander K. 
Cady, D. D. ; Rev. Edwin B. Russell ; 
Rev. James Hutchings Brown ; Rev. 
I)a\-id Louis Schwartz. The present 
number of communicants, 223. The 
seats are free, and the church depends 
entirely ujion the offertory for sup- 
port. The services : Morning prayer 
and sermon, 10^ a. m. ; Sunday school, 
2^ p. M. ; evening prayer and sermon, 

li P. M. 

Erie Canal. — The first boat through 
from Buffalo on the Erie canal passed 
through the lock into the Albany basin 



at thrc» minutes before 11 A. m., Oct. 
26, 1825. Cannon, placed in heai-ing 
of one another, announced the con- 
summation of the great woi-k from 
Albany to Buffalo, and fi-om Albany 
to Sandy Hook. The signal was I'e- 
tunied m the same way and reached 
here from New York five minutes 
before 12 m. 

Evangelical Churches. — These are 
entii-ely German organizations, servi- 
ces being conducted in that language : 

Evangelical German Association. 
Elm St., north of Grand; Rev. M. 
Yauch, j)astor ; J. Dolch, supt. 

German Evangelical Protestant 
Church. — Clinton, cor. Alexander; 
Rev. RoT>ert Yuengst, pastor ; Rev. 
Richai'd Ki'ause, vicar ; Adam Hink- 
elmann, supt. 

Excursions. — The traveler who has 
exha,usted sight-seeing in Albany, or 
the resident who wishes to go a 
pleasuring, may, in the summer time, 
take his choice of a number of short 
excursions at small expense. 

By Boat. — The Albany and Troy 
line of steamei's afford a delightful 
river glide of six miles and return for 
20 cents, and on Saturdays foT* 10 
cents. This is a favorite method of 
giving young children a breath of 
fresh air. The boats, the Whitney 
and Sanders, leave, every hour from 
the foot of Maiden lane, are swift, 
safe, clean and comfoi-table. Their 
Sunday patronage is very large. The 
same management runs boats down 
the river as far as New Baltimore, 
touching at the pleasant villages of 
Cedar Hill, Castleton, N. Coeymans, 
and Coeymans. Excursion to New 
Baltimore and return, 40 cents. On 
Saturdays this ti-ip can be made after 
five o'clock p. M., returning the eame 
evening. For $1 one can spend the 
day on the I'iver, going as far as 
Rhinebeck by the Day line, and re- 



49 



EXE — FAI 



turning" in tlie same way. This affords 
a charming- view of the upper Hudson 
and the Catskill mountains. 

By Rail. — The trip to Troy can be 
made on this side the river, by the D. 
& H. C. Co.'s raih'oad, depot foot of 
Maiden hine. Fare 20 cents. Cars 
leave every liour. In this way one 
sees the Lumber district, has a charm- 
ing- view of the Hudson, the villas on 
the Troy road, the Rural and St. 
Ag-nes cemetei'ies, Fair grounds, Erie 
canal, the great iron works, and a 
comprehensive view of Troy itself. 
Trains also g-o to Troy from the Union 
depot about as often, crossing- the 
bridge and going- up on the other 
side, but the views are not to be com- 
pared with the other route. For 
Cohoes and Cohoes falls take the D. 
& H. C. Co.'s trains, fare 25 cents. 
Cohoes is a perfect bee-hive of in- 
dustry, and the falls are an object of 
great interest and beauty. Other ex- 
cursions which can be made in one 
day on this line of roads are to Howe's 
Cave (which see), fare one way, $1.20 ; 
to Sharon Spring-s fare one way, ij^l . 77 ; 
to Cooxierstown, allowing- four hours' 
stay, fare, J?3.08 ; to Round Lake, fare 
85 cents (during camp meetings ex- 
cursion tickets at reduced i-ates), to 
Saratoga, fare $1.20 ; through Lake 
George to Fort Ticonderoga and I'e- 
turn via. Whitehall, fai-e for the i-ound 
trip, $6, tickets good for two days, 
and affording rides by cara, stage and 
steamboat. The great Hoosac tunnel 
may also be visited from here iii one 
day. 

Executive Mansion. — On Eagle 
St., south of Elm ; stands well back 
from the street on a commanding and 
beautiful site. 

Exempt Firemen's Association. — 
Lawrence Carey, pres. j O. V. Wal- 
lace, vice-pres. ; Thomas Hogan, sec; 
Visscher Ten Eyck, treas. Board of 
4 



managers meets quarterly, first Tues- 
day in Jan., April, July and Oct., at 
City Building. The income of a small 
invested fund and the fees for mem- 
bership are distributed among the 
indigent members of the Association. 
Membership, $1. Limited to the old 
department. 

Expresses. — Packages and par- 
cels may be sent from Albany* via 
the National Express Co. (office. 
Maiden lane cor. Dean st.), over the 
roads of the Delaware & Hudson 
Canal Co., the Harlem road, and the 
Hoosac Tunnel line and connections ; 
by the American Express Co. (office, 
coi'. Broadway and Steuben st.) over 
the Boston & Albany Railroad and 
the Central and Hudson Rivex* Rail- 
road, and, through theii* connections, 
over 80,000 miles of railroad, and to 
4,500 different offices. 

Baggage Express. — Baggage is 
transferred in this city conveniently 
and at small expense to the owner. 
Wygant & Co.'s agents pass through 
all trains approaching Albany, and 
collect checks, delivering baggage to 
all the steamboats and depots, and to 
the hotels and private houses. They 
also call for baggage, and may be 
summoned by telephone or by leav- 
ing oi'ders upon call-books at the 
general office, cor. Maiden lane and 
Dean st.; baggage rooms at the de- 
pots ; Huested's, cor. Eagle st. and 
Hudson ave. ; and Rice's, cor. Clin- 
ton ave. and Broadway. The regu- 
lar charge inside of Lark and Arch 
sts. and Livingston ave. is 30 cts. for 
a single piece of baggage and 25 cts. 
for each additional piece. Beyond 
these limits, charges according to the 
distance. Special rates are made for 
amusement combinations. 

Fair Grounds. — On the Troy road 
above Menand's. Reached by the 
Broadway horse-cars, and by the 



FEA — FEM 



50 



steain-cai's of the Delaware & Hud- 
son Canal Co.'s railroad, depot foot 
of Maiden lane. Orig-inally intended 
for the use of the State Ag-i'icultural 
Society, and contain a small race- 
course, two exhibition buihling?;, be- 
sides ample accommodations for 
poultry, horses, sheep and cattle. A 
handsome grove of trees makes it a 
pleasant lAace for picnics, while there 
is plenty of shelter in case of rain. 

Pearey & Sons, Thomas. — Boot 
and shoemanufacturers. Established 
1844. This factoiy has become one 
«of the institutions of Albany. It fur- 
nishes employment to 600 operatives, 
besides those eng-aged in making" 
boxes and other .supplies. A thirty- 
horse power eng"ine and forty-horse 
power boiler sui)j)ly the power and 
neat. Impi*oved machinery is used 
wherever practicable. Bottoms are 
fastened on by McKay sewing ma- 
chines, Goodyear sewing machines 
and a Standard screw-wire machine. 
The old style hand-sewed and hand- 
pegged work forms an interesting 
feature for those not accustomed to 
see the various processes. Hand- 
made woi'k has become so popular 
again that this firm have difficulty in 
filling their orders. A fii"st-class 
medal was awaj-ded Thomas Fearey 
& Sons, by the U. S. Centennial Com- 
mission, on the following report of 
the Boot and Shoe Committee : 

"An extensive exhibit of medium- 
grade machine-sewed shoes for the 
masses. Good, serviceable work; 
material prime ; projiortions good ; 
prices reported very low." 

** Medium-gi'ade goods for the 
masses " are specialties, but three 
grades of goods better than medium 
grade are manufactui'ed by ma- 
chinery, besides the highest grade of 
hand-sewed work. The products of 
this factory are noted for their good 
fitting and wearing qualities. Sales 



are made all over the country by 
agents to the retail shoe dealers and 
general stores. The total cax^acity 
of all departments is 2,000 pairs a 
day. 

Female Academy. — The oldest 
educational institution in the city, 
was founded by Ebenezer Foot in 
1814, as " Union School, in Mont- 
gomery street." In 1821 it was in- 
coi"porated by act of Legislature. 




The present rather imposing looking 
building on N. Pearl st. was opened 
May 12, 1834, and cost J^30,000. 
" The front faces the east, and is 
ornamented with a beautiful Hexa- 
style portico of the Ionic order. The 
proportions of the columns, capitals, 
bases and entablature, are taken fi'om 
the temple on the Ilissus, the most 
beautiful example of the Ionic among 
the I'emains of antiquity." The old 
Albany library, of several thousand 
volumns, was stored here, and finally 
became the j)^'operty of the institu- 
tion. (See Freemasonry.) 

Present Condition. — The academy 
has recently been put upon a new 
basis, with the most satisfactory re- 



51 



FER — FIR 



suits. It now combines the features 
of both a (lay and boarding'-school, 
pupils from out of town being" re- 
ceived into the principal's own home. 
The sanitary condition of the build- 
ing* is perfect, especially as regards 
those first great requisites, light and 
air. The course of study extends 
from the Kintergarten to a post- 
gi'aduate coui'se, and pupils are 
therefore received at all ages and 
stages of development. The import- 
ance of this prolonged tuition, under 
one system, cannot be over-estimated. 
The corps of professors and teachers, 
headed by Miss Lucy A. Plympton, 
as principal, is full ^Aid efficient. The 
art department, under Prof. William 
P. Morgan, is unexcelled in the city 
as the work of the pupils conclusively 
shows. French is taught by Prof. 
Armand de Potter, a gentleman of 
varied attainments and extensive 
culture. The department of music is 
in charge of the well-known teacher, 
Mrs. Harcourt. The standards of 
scholarship and deportment are both 
high, and pupils are incited by all 
appi'opriate means to reach them. 
Discipline, though enforced with 
kindness, is stnct. In short, the 
academy has never been in a more 
prosperous condition thaii now, and 
the present indication is that its future 
will be successful and brilliant. 

Ferries. — A ferry was established 
across the river at this point in 1(342, 
and has been in operation ever since. 
It is the oldest in the United States. 
In 1807 the scow which was used was 
swamped, and thirty-three persons 
were dro\vned. . Three boats are now 
run, one from the foot of North Ferry 
st. to Bath ; one from Maiden lane to 
East Albany, and one from South 
Ferry st. to Greenbush. Fare, two 
cents. The right of i-egulating ferry 
on both sides, between the origi- 
nal four wards of the city and Green- 



bush, is vested in the city by the 
charter. 

Fire Department, The, as at pi-e- 
sent organized, was established by 
chap. 197 of the Laws of 1807. Five 
commissioners with the Mayor, ex 
officio, president of the boai-d, have 
entire charge of all its affairs. They 
are chosen by the common council for 
a term of five years, one going out of 
office every year, on the first Monday 
in June. With the exception of the 
one who acts as seci-etary (for which 
he receives §1,000 a year), they serve 
without pay. The rooms of the board 
and of the chief engineer are in the 
City Building. 

Engineers. — The chief engineer has 
sole command at fires, makes daily 
examination of the affairs and prop- 
erty of the department, and makes 
full I'eports of th« fii-es to the board. 
Salary, J?2,500 per annum. 

The assistant engineers attend all 
fires, and in case of the chief's ab- 
sence, the first one at the fire assumes 
his duties. Salary, !^250 per annum. 

Engines and Trucks. — The appa- 
ratus is stationed at the various 
houses, as follows : 

Steamers : No. 1, 236 Washington 
ave. ; No. 2, 157 Livingston ave. ; No. 
3, 895 Broadway; No. 4, 69 Hudson 
ave. ; No. 5, 289 South Pearl st. ; No. 

6, cor. Swan and Jefferson sts. ; No. 

7, cor. Ontario st. and Clinton ave. ; 
No. 8, cor. Broadway and N. First st. ; 
No. 9 (reserve), house of Engine 6 ; 
No. 10 (reserve), house of Engine 3. 
Trucks : No. 1, 57 Westerlo st. ; No. 
2, 126 CHnton ave. ; No. 3 (reserve), 
house of Engine 7. Insurance Patrol, 
41 Hudson ave. 

The steamers, with the exception of 
the reserves, are all of the Amoskeag* 
pattern, and with their tenders, or 
hose-carts, are valued at $5,150 each ; 
the trucks, at |2,250 each. They are 



FIR 



52 



drawn by about thirty hoi*ses, worth 
^00 each. 

The Companies consist of a foreman, 
salai-y, ^12') ; assistant, salaiy, J^lOO ; 
14 members at i$75 each. The Truck 
companies have 20 membei-s each. 
The jjermanent employees are an en- 
gineer (§1,080), tii'eman (;?720), driver 
($720), to each eng-ine ; and a tiller- 
man (ip720), and di-iver ($720), to each 
truck. 

The annual expense of running the 
department is about J*!76,000, and for 
efficiency it is not excelled by any de- 
partment in the United States. 

The Insurance Patrol, or Protec- 
tives, act with the department, but 
are supported by the insurance com- 
panies doing business in this city. 
Their object is to protect property 
from both lire and water. The super- 
intendent has undei" him one assistant, 
two drivers, and seven men. The 
Buj)t. receives $1,000 ; the drivers, 
{J5720 each ; the assist, supt., $100, and 
the patrolmen the same as the fire- 
men. The patrol is under the man- 
agement of the Boai-d of Under- 
writers. (See Underwriters, Board 

OF.) 

The Alarm Telegraph. 
The fire alarm in use is known as 
Gamewell's American Fire Alarm 
System, and was first put in opera- 
tion in this city, June 1, 1868. The 
office is in the upper story of the City 
Building ; supt., salary, $1,500 ; asst., 
salary, $1,040. Seventy-five alarm 
boxes, eight church bells, and the 
various engine and truck houses of 
the department, are connected ^vith 
this office by 70 miles of wire, divided 
into five circuits, an<l operated by 
means of a 300 cup battery. The keys 
of the boxes are in charge of persons 
living near by, and are so made that 
they cannot be withdrawn from the 
lock, aftei' turning it, till they are 
released by some one from the tele- 



gi*aph office. Each key is numbered , 
and receipted for. With this restric- { | 
tion, false alai-ms have become un- 
known, although injudicious alarms 
ai"e sometimes sounded. The place 
where the key is deposited is plainly 
indicated near the box. To sound an 
alarm, all that is necessary is to pull 
a hook. This strikes a bell in the 
office, in accordance with the number 
of the box. As soon as an operator 
(one of whom is on duty constantly) 
knows certainly which box is indi- 
cated, he places machineiy in motion 
which strikes the same number on a 
gong in each of the engine houses and 
on the eight church bells. For in- 
stance, if box 29 is pulled the bells 
strike twice and then, after an inter- 
val of seven seconds, nine times ; this 
is repeated every 20 seconds till every 
one in the city who has a list of signal 
boxes knows, or may know, that the 
fire is within the vicinity of the corner 
of Maiden lane and Broadway. One 
blow indicates that the fire is out. 
The hammers and striking machinery 
in the various church towers are 
entirely independent of the regular 
tongues and ropes, and ai-e so ar- 
ranged that they \vill strike a given 
number of strokes before they must 
be wound up again. Each stroke is 
registered, and they are attended to 
accordingly. Observatoiy time (see 
Dudley Observatory) is transmitted 
to the office every 10 minutes, and at 
9 A. M. and 9 p. m. one stroke is given 
on all the bells and gongs connected 
with the telegraph. This not only 
serves to regulate the timepieces of 
the whole city, but is a test whether 
or not the striking machinery is in 
order. The \\'ires are tested every 20 
minutes in the 24 hours. This is done 
by xiassing a current over each wire, 
and the result is registered inside of 
a watch-clock on a i-evolving disc, 
which also indicates the time when 
the trial is made, and, of ccRU'se, 



5-3 



FIR— FOL 



whether it is made at all, or not ; thus 
not only testing the wire, but the ope- 
rator. In short, a perfect system of 
I'egistrations prevails in this depart- 
ment, from one end to the other. 

Messages are sent over the wires 
by the Morse system, when necessary, 
and there is also an elaborate tele- 
l)hone service by which all the engine 
houses are reached. 

The iire alarm boxes are located as 
follows : 



o 5 S. Pearl & McCnrlj- av. I 
"is. Penii & Third av. 
„ 5 Green and 4th av. 

? Green and Arch 
. 5 B'way and 4th av. 
^l B'u-ay and S. Ferry 

5 Green and Herkimer 

6 B'way and Madison av. 

7 Hamilton and Union 

8 Broadway and Hudson 

9 State and Green 

., ( Delaware and Clinton 
) S. I'earl and Schuyler 

,„ \ Elizabeth and 3d av. 
I Morton and Grand 

14 S. Pearl and Westerlo 

15 S. Pearl and Mad. av. 

16 Madison a v. an 1 Philip 

17 S. Pearl and Plain 

18 Grand and Beaver 

19 8. Pearl and State 

21 DcWitt & Montgomery 

23 Canal b'ge <fe N. Ferry 

24 Broadv,-ay & N. Ferry 

25 R. K. Crossins:, B'way 

26 Lumber and Water 

27 B'way and Clinton av. 
2'^ B'way and Columbia. 
29 B'way and Maiden lane 
31 N. Pearl &. Van Woert 
.3-2 N. Pearl & Livingston av 

34 Monroe and Chapel 
„^ ( Orange and Lark 

I Orange and Swan 
3ti Canal and Hawk 
37 N. Pearl and Canal 

35 Lodge and Pine 
89 Eagle and State 



Wash'gton av. & Hawk 
Lancaster and Hawk 
State and Swan 
Lancaster and Dove 
Wash. av. and Dove 
State and Lark 
Hudson av. and Willett 
Central av. and Knox 
Wash, and Lex'g'n avs. 
Bradford and Kobin 
Central av. and Perry 
Clinton av. and Quail 
{ Central av. &• Ontario 
I ■• Watervliet 

Ontario and Third 
11. H. shops, W. Albany 
Eagle and Hudson 
{ Eagle and Elm 
I Engle and Park av. 
Hamilton and Hawk 
Sladison av. and Swan 
.Tetlerson and Dove 
Madison av. and Lark 
Penitentiary 
Alms House 
Ontario &. Madison av. 
Clinton av.& TenBroeck 
Second and Swan 
Livingston av. & Swan 
Third and Lark 
.Second and Knox 
Clinton & Lex"pton avs. 
Hawley's mill, Lu'r D. 
Slip 24. Lumber Dist. 
Mohawk & N. Pearl, 
North Allian; 
South and Broadway, 
Sacred Heart, Kenw'd 



ri,> 

y. ) 



The first alarm is given by striking 
three or more rounds ; the second by. 
striking ten blows. The alarms are 
struck upon the Presbyterian church, 
State st. ; Second Reformed church, 
Beaver st. ; Fourth Presbyterian 
chui'ch, Broadway ; Third Reformed 
church, Soutli Ferry and Green sts. ; 
St. Ann's church. Fourth ave. ; Sixth 
Presbyterian church, Second st. j St. 
Patrick's church. Central ave. and 
Perry st. ; Sacred Heart church, N. 
Albany; steamers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 



and 8 ; trucks 1 and 2 ; insin-ance 
patrol, and chief engineer's office. 

Firemen's Relief Association, or- 
ganized April 4, 1876 ; W. K. Clute, 
pres.; John G. Schneider, vice-pres. ; 
Philir) O'Brien, treas.; Louis J. Miller, 
sec; L. T. Morrill, M. D., examining 
phys. Annual meeting lirst Tuesday 
in May. All members of the depart- 
ment are members of the association, 
but others may join. Fees from {p2 
to i?5, according to age. On the death 
of a member his family are paid as 
many dollars as there are members in 
the association, and to meet this an 
assessment of ^1.1 is le^^ed on the 
survivors. Membership, 829. 

First Railroad. — The first railroad 
in the State was begun in Aug 1880, 
and called the Mohawk and Hudson. 
It was from Albany to Schenectady. 
The first train over the whole line ar- 
rived here May 14, 1832, and was re- 
ceived by a large assemblage of citi- 
zens, and the firing of cannon. The 
road had been in partial operation 
before this, and in Oct., 1831, was 
carrying 387 passengers a day. Sept. 
24th of that year a famous excursion 
was made, a lithograph of which has 
been extensively circulated. 

First Steamboat. — Robert Fulton's 
steamboat, the Clermont, arrived at 
the foot of Madison ave. Sept. 5, 1807, 
thus completing the first steamboat 
trip of any length ever made in 
America. The rate of speed was 
about five miles an hour ; fare from 
New York, §7. (See Steamboats.) 

Folsom's Business College was 
established in 1857, by H. B. Bryant 
and H. D. Stratton, and was the 
fourth link in their international 
chain of business colleges. E. G. 
Folsom, founder of the old Cleveland 
Mercantile College in Ohio, in 1851, 



FOR — FRE 



54 



in which both Bryant and Stratton 
were formerly students, came to Al- 
bany and became partner with them 
in 1862. In 1867, just before the 
death of Stratton, Mr. Folsom pur- 
chased their entire interest in the 
Albany Business College, and was 
sole owner of the institution until 
1878, when C. E. Carhart became 
partner. 

The institution has now been in 
successful operation for 23 years, 
during- which time over 4,000 stu- 
dents have become members. The 
averag-e yearly attendance the past 
few years has been 240. The course 
of study being constantly improved 
and enlarged, so as to include studies 
essentially commercial, now embraces 
besides a fev/ of the rudimentary 
branches of penmanship, arithmetic, 
grammar, orthography and corres- 
pondence, the science and practice of 
accounts, political economy, mercan- 
tile law, commercial geogi'aphy, men- 
tal and moi'al science, detection of 
counterfeit money, etc. 

Foreign Travel has been reduced 
to an exact science by Cook of Lon- 
don, and those who have copied and 
improved upon his methods. Among 
these is Prof. Armand de Potter (ad- 
dress Albany Female Academy) who 
annually organizes and conducts a 
party of tourists through Europe, 
leaving New York about the 18th of 
June, and visiting Scotland, England, 
Belgium, Gei-many, Switzerland, 
Italy and France ; returns in Septem- 
ber. Under his arrangements, one 
can also make a shorter tour, or re- 
main from three months to a year in 
any European city, enjoying advan- 
tages that can be obtained in no other 
way. Those who place themselves 
under the Professor's care have in him 
a companion thoi'oughly conversant 
with the European languages and 
familiar with the cities most visited j 



find everything in readiness for them, 
ai"e relieved of care, saved much of 
the annoyance and fatigue of ordinaiy 
travel ; can settle the question of cost 
before starting and what is more, save 
largely through the special rates for 
which M. de Potter has arranged. 

Fort Orange. — One of the names 
by which Albany was knoMii in its 
Early History, (which see). 

Fort Orange Club, — Organized 
Jan. 31, 1880, Pres., Erastus Corning; 
vice-pres., Frederick Townsend ; sec, 
Grange Sard, jr. ; treas., James D. 
"Wassonj house committee, Robert 
Lenox Banks, Samuel B. Ward, 
Abraham Lansing. The design of the 
club is to establish and maintain a 
library, reading and assembly rooms, 
and to promote social intercourse 
among its members. The number of 
regular members is limited to 200. 
Admission fee, $50 ; annual dues, 
150. 

The Club House is at 110 Washing- 
ton avenue, and is very handsomely 
fitted ux^ for the purpose. It was 
erected in 1810 by Samuel Hill, a 
hardware merchant, and was one of 
what were for some time the only three 
houses on the hill ; the others being 
occupied by the Governor and the 
Mayor, respectively. It was in this 
house that Aaron Burr boarded in 
1824, while engaged in some legal 
business in this city. 

Free Masonry. — The first organi- 
zation of free-masons existing in Al- 
bany after its settlement, was Lodge 
No. 74 (Registiy of Ireland), com- 
posed of officers in the Second bat- 
talion Royal, holding a warrant from 
the Grand Lodge of Ireland dated 
October 26, 1737. There is eveiy 
evidence that they were scholars and I 
gentlemen, as they brought with them f 
and kept up a large and valuable 



55 



FRE 



library of rare books, whicli they 
left here when the battalion was 
ordered away. Many, if not all the 
volumes are now in the library of the 
Albany Female Academy. 

In April, 1759, the battalion having- 
been ordered to some other post, left 
the city. Several citizens had been 
admitted to the lodg-e during- the stay 
of the battalion, and the officers of the 
lodge left authority for the resident 
members to continue the meetings. 
February 21, 1765, the Provincial 
Grand-Master George Harrison, 
granted them a warrant under the 
name of Union Lodge (now Mount 
Vei-non). 

Henry Andrew Francken came 
from the Island of Jamaica, and on 
the 20th of December, 1767, institu- 
ted Ineffable and Sublime Grand 
Lodge of Perfection. The original 
charter of the body is still in its pos- 
session, and has been its only author- 
ity from that time to this. Grand 
Council of Princes of Jerusalem was 
organized at the same time. March 
5, 1768, Provincial Grand-Master 
George Harrison granted a warrant 
to Masters' Lodge No. 2 (now 5). 

Union Lodge purchased fi-om the 
city a plot of g-round on the N. W. 
corner of Lodge st. and Maiden lane. 
Masters Lodge and the Ineffable 
Lodge purchased the interest of 
Union Lodge, and the city having- 
donated an adjoining piece of g-round, 
a lodge house was erected, the corner 
stone of which was laid with cere- 
mony. May 12, 1768. This was the 
first lodge-house in America. The 
building- after completion was occu- 
pied by the two bodies for some years, 
but the i-ecords fail to show at what 
time it was vacated. The ground is 
still the property of Masters' Lodge, 
and has been leased to Saint Petei-'s 
Church for a term of y-eai*s. The 
rectory of the Church stands upon 
the ground. 



Temple Lodge No. 53 (now 14), 
was organized November 11, 1797. 
Temple Chapter, No. 5, R. A. M., 
and Temple Commandery No. 2, K. 
T., were instituted the same year. 
There were no additions to the num- 
ber of bodies until 1824, when Albany 
Sovereign Chapter of Rose Croix, and 
Albany Sovereign Consistory were 
instituted. Washington Lodge No. 
85 was instituted in 1841 ; Mount 
Moriah Lodge No. 143, now Ancient 
City Lodge No. 452, in 1852; and 
Wadsworth Lodge No. 417, in 1856 ; 
DeWitt CHnton Council No. 22, R. & 
S. M., in 1861; Capital City Chapter 
No. 242, R. A. M., in 1870; Albany 
Conclave No. 8, Knights of the Red 
Cross of Constantine, in 1872 ; Gutten- 
berg Lodge No 737, German, in 1873 ; 
Temple Tabernacle No. 5, U. S. A. 
K. T. P., in 1878. The growth of the 
order has been all that could be de- 
sired, each of the bodies making a 
small percentage of gain each year. 
That they are established on a solid 
basis is evidenced by the fact that all 
bodies instituted, whether more than 
a century ago, or recently, still live 
and have a following. The returns 
made May 1, 1849, show the mem- 
bership to have been 117 ; May 1, 
1879, the membership was 1362. 

The meetings of all the bodies are 
now held in the granite building 
owned by the Albany Sa^dngs Bank, 
situated on the N. W. cor. of State 
and Chapel sts. There are two 
lodge rooms, a librai-y, an ai-mory, 
waiting and reception rooms, all of 
which are handsomely furnished, and 
admirably adapted to the uses of the 
fraternity. 

The Grand Chapter of Royal Arch 
Masons of the State, meets in Albany 
annually on the first Tuesday in Feb- 
ruary, and have done so since 1798. 

For many years the meetings were 
held in the building on the S. W. cor. 
of Broadway and Steuben st. A 



FRI — GAS 



56 



removal was made in 1861 to 41 & 
43 N. Pearl st., in the building" occu- 
pied by W. M. Whitney & Co. The 







removal to the present place of meet- 
ing- was made in 1875. Previous to 
the occupancy of the present hall, a 
public parade was made, and the hall 
formally dedicated. The fraternity 
have publicly paraded, and laid the 
corner stones of the New Capitol and 
the U. S. Custom House Court House 
and Post Office. 

Friendly Few, The, composed of 
of the male members of the first four 
classes which graduated from the 
High School. Organized Feb., 1878; 
meet annually ; James H. Manning, 
pres. ; John Montignani, sec. j Rob- 
ert Imrie, treas. 

Fruit and Flower Mission, in 

charge of the ladies' auxiliary board 
of the Albany City Tract and Mis- 
sionary Society. Chairman of the 
committee, Mrs. Samuel Patten, 192 
State at. j treas., Mrs. Robert Strain, 



143 N. Pearl ; sees.. Miss Maiy W. 
Olcott, 2 Columbia pi. ; Miss Esther 
Mayell, Greenbush. A committee is 
in attendance from 9 to 12 eveiy Tues- 
day and Saturday, in the lecture 
room, Geological Hall, to receive gifts 
of flowers, growing plants, fruits, ice 
cream, biscuit, eggs, and sick room 
delicacies ; also illuminated cards and 
reading matter. 

Garbage. — For a long time, hogs 
were considered the best possible 
scavengers Albany could have, and 
wei'e allowed to run at large ; a 
custom which N. P. Willis alluded to 
as *' more Dutch than decent," there- 
by bringing down some scathing de- 
nunciations on his own head. On the 
9th of April, 1832, after much discus- 
sion, a law was passed restricting 
swine in their accustomed liberties, 
but it soon became a dead letter, and 
so remained till within comparatively 
a few years. Garbage is now col- 
lected by persons who make a regular 
business of it, and it is said find it 
profitable. According to the ordin- 
ance, garbage must be removed at 
least once a week in January, Feb- 
ruaiy, March, April, November and 
December ; twice a week in May and 
October, and three times a week in 
June, July, August and September. 

Gas. — The city, north of Steuben 
and Canal sts., above Eagle st. 
and Central ave., is supplied with 
gas by the People's Gas Company, 
office 604 Broadway ; south of those 
streets, by the Albany Gaslight Com- 
pany, cfiice comer of State and 
Chapel sts. 

The Albany Gaslight Company was 
incoi*porated March 27, 1841, and the 
streets were first lighted with gas 
Nov. 10, 1845. This company has 
now a capital of $250,000. Its offi- 
cers are H. Pumpelly, pres. ; H. H. i 
Mai'tin, vice-pres. j S. W. Whitney, 



57 



GEO — GOV 



sec. and treas. ; Isaac Battin, supt. 
It owns and controls about 40 miles of 
pipes, and lights 775 street lamps for 
the city. The g-as furnished, when 
burned at the ordinary pressure in a 
burner consuming- five feet per hour, 
is expected to give a light equal to 
that of 19 sperm candles. The price 
of gas is $2.50 per thousand feet. 

People's Gas Company. — Organized 
Mai-ch 1st, 1880, and is essentially a 
continuation of the Peo}3le's Gaslight 
Company, which was organized in 
opposition to the old company, in 1872. 
In a shoi't time, however, a com- 
promise was ari'anged, and the city 
divided between the two. The works 
on the Ti'oy road, near North Albany, 
are much larger than are required 
for the share of the business which 
fell to the lot of the new company, 
and the investment failed to pay. A 
year ago last October, the property 
was sold under foreclosure of mort- 
gage, was purchased by the mort- 
gagees, and the present company 
formed. Its officei's are George A. 
Woolverton, pres. ; Geo. L. Stedman, 
vice-pres. ; H. Q. Hawley, treas. ; 
Gideon Hawley, cashier. Capital, 
$50,000. Bonded debt, $350,000. The 
company has 22 miles of pipe, and 
lights 864 street lamps for the city. 
The pi-ice of gas is $2.50. 

Geological Hall. (See Museum of 
Natural History, ^tate.) 

Government Building, The, by 

which title the U. S. Custom House, 
Court House and Post-office is po2:)u- 
larly known, was authorized by act 
of Congress, March 12, 1872, which 
limited its cost to $850,000, but made 
no appropriation, and requii-ed the 
site to l)e given by the city of Albany. 
The Exchange Building, which cov- 
ered the block bounded by Broad- 
way, State, Dean and Exchange sts., 
was purchased by the city at a cost 



of $100,000, and presented to the Gov- 
ei'nment for a site upon which to 
erect the new building. The site be- 
ing deemed inadequate, the act of 
March 8, 1878, appropi'iated $150,000 
for the purchase of the Mechanics' 
and Farmers' Bank property, on the 
north side of Exchange st., to be ad- 
ded to the site. Subsequently the 
act of June 28, 1874, appropriated 
$5,000 additional for the site, making 
cost of site to the city and Govern- 
ment, $255,000. The original desigTi 
of the building was an elaborate 
Gothic structure, estimated to cost 
$750,000. The work of demohshing 
the Exchange Building and clearing 
the site was begun m December, 1875, 
and continued until March, 1876. 
Congress having passed an act that 
no money available should be ex- 
pended or further appropriations 
made for public buildings until a 
limit had been set to the total cost of 
construction, and having fiiiled to set 
a limit upon the cost of this building, 
work was suspended. The act of 
March 8, 1877, limited the cost to 
$500,000. The following June work 
was resumed, and has been carried 
on without intermission from that 
time until the pi-esent. The limit set 
upon the cost necessitated a new 
plan, the style of which is Italian Re- 
naissance, treated to utilize air and 
light to the necessities of the various 
offices. 

The building will be of gi-anite. 
118 feet on Broadway, 150 feet on 
State and Exchange sts., and 126 feet 
on Dean st.; three stories high, with 
Mansard roof; the towers on each 
corner being carried up an additional 
story, and the south-west or main 
tower, cor. Broadway and State st., 
the highest point. A high basement 
under all will be used for heating ap- 
jiaratus, bonded warehouse, and re- 
ception and shipping mail matter. 
The first floor will be devoted to post- 



GRA — GRE 



58 



office uses ; second to offices for the 
customs and revenue service, and the 
third to the U. S. Coui'ts and officers 
connected therewith. The assig-ment 
of rooms will be made by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury upon the com- 
pletion of the building-. 

At present wi'iting- the walls have 
been carried up to about the middle 
of the third story. The total cost to 
Oct. 30, 1880, was $256,367.46. Lia- 
bilities against the appropriations, 
$73,748.60, which include labor and 
material for completing- the bailding- 
up to the roof. The corner stone of 
the building- was laid with Masonic 
ceremonies. May 7, 1879. The super- 
intendents of construction have thus 
far been resident architects. "With 
ample appropriations, the building- 
can be completed and ready for occu- 
pancy by the spring- of 1883. 

Grand Army of the Republic. — 

Tliis oi-g'anization, composed of sol- 
diei*s and sailors who served their 
country in the war of the rebellion, 
is quite strong- in this city, number- 
ing- over 400. The three posts are 
Lew Benedict, Post 5, organized Jan., 
30, 1867, meets Thursday evening-s 
at Grand Army Hall, 465 Broadway ; 
Lewis O. Morris, Post 121, meets first 
Tuesday evenings of each month; 
Geo. S. Dawson, Post 63, meets third 
Tuesdays in each month There is 
also a Post of the Sons of Veterans. 
The head-quarters of tho department 
of New York are in Gray's building-, 
44 State st. 

Grave Yards. — "When the First Re- 
formed church stood in State st., the 
grave yard belonging to it was where 
the old Second Reformed church now 
stands on Beaver st. ; and the early 
settlers are said to lie there three 
deep. The present site of St. Peter's 
was once a gi-ave yard ; so was the 
land east of the cor. of Hudson and 



Grand ; also the land south of the 
coi'. of Howard and South Pearl. In 
1789 the lot west of Eagle, between 
State and Lancaster, was appropri- 
ated for a common burying ground ; 
the churches, previous to that time, 
having had separate places of inter- 
ment. Still later, a portion of what 
is now Washington park was used for 
burial purposes ; and thei-e was also 
a place of sepulchre on Arbor Hill, 
between Second and Third sts., west 
of Ten Broeck st., the land being 
given by the Pati-oon to the inhabit- 
ants of the town of Colonie for burial 
purposes. St. John's cemetery (the 
old one) on Delaware ave., south of 
Morton st., was purchased for bm-ial 
purposes Aug. 28, 1841. (See Ceme- 
teries.) 

Gray's Book Store. — A large and 
attractive looking granite building, 
located at Nos. 42 and 44 State st., 
and owned by S. R. Gray, w^ho 
began business in 1850, and by in- 
dustry and fair dealing has built up 
a large and prosperous trade. His 
store is considered head-quarters for 
all kinds of books and stationery, 
and especially for religious and theo- 
logical literature, Sunday school pub- 
lications, etc. A large supply of 
general literature is always kept in 
stock, and additions are received as 
soon as issued from the leading 
pi-esses of the country. The dejiository 
of the Albany County Bible Society, 
organized in 1810, is located here. 
The arrangement of the store is well 
adapted to show the fine line of goods 
in stock, and visitors who, attracted 
by the display in the windoW' s, step 
inside the door, are always made to 
feel that they are welcome. 

Greenbush was called Tuscameatic 
by the Indians, but derived its pres- 
ent appellation from the Dutch **Aet 
Green Bosch," or "The Pine Woods." 




THE GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



59 



GRE — HAR 



It was erected into a township by- 
act of Leg-islature, passed April 10, 
1792. The village was incorporated 
April 14, 1815 ; population, 6,742 ; is 
reached by the South ferry or by the 
lower railroad bridg-e. East Albany 
is part of Greenbush. 

Green Street was early spoken of 
as the Vodden market, that is, the 
Rag- market ; and later as Cheapside. 
It received its pi-esent name in honor 
of Gen. Greene of the Revolution, 
but the final e has bee a dropped. 

Green Street Theatre, erected in 
1812, and opened Jan. 18, 1813, un- 
der the management of John Bern- 
ard ; was dedicated as a church Jan. 
1, 1819 ; reopened as a theatre July 
5, 1852. Subsecxuently became a con- 
cert hall, and here Adah Isaacs Men- 
ken first appeared in her afterwards 
famous I'ole of Mazeppj.. Until re- 
cently the building has been used as 
a pork-packing establishment, but is 
at present open with a cheap variety- 
show. (For its full history see 
Players of a Century ; a Record of 
the x\lbany S'age. Joseph McDon- 
ough, Albany, publisher.) 

Hack Pares. — Hacks may be found 
stan;liiig on Broadway, between State 
st. and Maiden lane. Prices estab- 
lished by city ordinance,are as follows: 
For each passenger, any distance 
within the paved streets, not exceed- 
ing one mile, 50 cents (omnibuses, 25 
cents) ; over one mile, and not exceed- 
ing two miles, 75 cents ; over two 
miles, and not exceeding three miles, 
$1 ; to the Alms-house and back, "svith 
privilege of detaining carriage at 
Alms-house one hour, ^2 ; to Peniten- 
tiary and back, with pri\'ilege of de- 
taining carriage at Penitentiary 30 
mmutes, 75 cents ; attending funeral 
from any part of the city east of Robin 
st. to any public cemetery, $2. In 



other cases, for every hour detained, 
3 1 ; for the first and eveiy additional 
hour, 75 cents ; or from 8 a. m. to 6 
p. M., Jg8. For 128 lbs. baggage, the 
same rate as for a passenger. A card, 
with " Licensed Hack " and number 
and name of proprietor, must be 
conspicuously displayed inside the 
vehicle. 

Harbor. — The port of Albany ex- 
tends from two miles north of the city 
to two miles south. The depth is 
from 600 to 900 feet, the east side 
being shallow. 

The Harbor Master is nominated 
by the Governor, and confirmed by 
the Senate. It is his duty to regulate 
and station all vessels within the lim- 
its of the port ; to prevent them from 
obstructing the passages to the basm, 
etc. He is paid by fees of one and 
a-half cents pei* ton per annum ; and 
there are also fees for settling dis- 
j)utes. Charles H. "Winne holds the 
office at present. 

Hardware. — The apjilication of the 
arts to household furnishing is a long 
step towards idealizing certain de- 
pai'tments at least, of the hai-dwai-e 
trade, and as truly gi-aceful and 
artistic shapes ai-e now found in it 
as adorn the stores where beauty is 
the only i-equisite, Albany has always 
been a centre of the hardware trade 
for a large extent of country, owing 
to the intimate relations between this 
and the stove mdustry. The men 
who came to buy stoves, sought for 
hardware also. The establishment 
of this kmd now doing the largest 
business m the city, or in this section, 
is that of Maurice E. Viele, ISTos. 39, 
41 and 43 State st. This double store 
has a front of 53 feet. The first floor 
is devoted to retailing, and is where 
almost anything made of iron or steel 
can be seen and purchased. Build- 
ers' hardware, which embraces an 



HEL — HID 



60 



immense variety in these days ; cut- 
lery in all its branches, and general 
hardware, make up a very larg-e 
assortment. 

On the second floor are the samples 
for the wholesale trade, which is a 
prominent depai'tment, several sales- 
men being- kept constantly upon the 
road taking- oi'dei-s, in Massachusetts, 
Vermont, Northern New York, and 
from 75 to 100 miles west on the 
Centra] and about the same distance 
on the Susquehanna railroads. 

The upper stores are devoted to 
storag-e, making in all live stories in 
each building, or ten lofts on State 
St. ; but this is not all, Nos. 1, 2 and 
4 Norton st. are stocked with bar 
and sheet iron, tin plates, and the 
hea\nest of the goods. Altogether, 
the assortment is as large and com- 
prehensive as any in the entire State, 
not excepting New York city. There 
the trade is divided, no single house 
carrying so many departments ; but 
in Albany, the carriage-maker and 
the blacksmith, the builder and the 
manufacturer, the mechanic and the 
housekeeper, all go to Viele's. To 
properly and successfully conduct a 
business so ^vide in its scope, i-equires 
constant industry and vigilance, and 
Mr. Viele is notably one of the busiest 
men in Albany, yet he still finds time 
to further the interests of several of 
the most praiseworthy public enter- 
prises of which the city can boast, 
and is always ready to do his share 
towards the promotion of the welfare 
of the community in which he lives. 
Mr. Viele began business in 1845, 
having, in connection with the late 
Alexander Davidson, in that year 
bought out the old and well-known 
firm of M. Van Alstyne & Son, then 
doing business cor. State and Green 
sts. In 1851 Davidson & Viele bought 
the stock of Humphrey & Co., 
another old hardware house, and 
moved to Nos. 41 and 43 State st., 



where Humphrey & Co. had carried 
on the business for many years. The 
firm of Da\idson & Viele was dis- 
solved in 1859 by the death of Mr. 
Davidson. Shortly after, Mr. Viele 
associated with him Messrs. Coles and 
Woodruff, and for four years the firm 
was known as Viele, Coles & Wocd- 
ruif. The two latter retired in 1865, 
since when Mr. Viele has carried on 
the business alone, purchasing the 
large stock of Cantine Tremi)ei', who 
was doing business cor. of State and 
James sts., in 1870 ; that of Van Sant- 
ford & Anable in 1874, and that of 
the late firm of L. Prupi & Son, In 
1875. In 1879 he leased the premises 
No. 39 State st., and now occupies 
the vai'ious buildings as before stated. 
The aggregate of the transactions of 
these 30 years is very great ; many 
millions of dollars worth of hardware 
and metals have been bought and 
sold, and many hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars paid to the numerous 
employees. Very few are now in active 
business in Albany who began their 
business career before Mr. Viele. 

Helderbergs, The, seen apparently 
to the west of the Catskill range, are 
a northern extension of the formations 
constituting the base of those moun- 
tains, and abound in lakes, caves, 
and scenery of great natural beauty. 
The Indian Ladder and Thompson's 
Lake, attract many visitoi*s. 

Hidley's Music Store. — In the 
spring of 1855, J. H. Hidley, whose 
store, cor. Broadway and Steuben st., 
attracts attention, began business a 
few doors south of his present loca- 
tion. At that time, the whole music 
trade of the city would hardly pay 
the salary of a competent superin- 
tendent. By energy, perseverance, 
liberal advei'tising, and strict atten- 
tion to the demands of the trade, Mr. 
Hidley soon built up a business that 



61 



HOL — HOR 



for its mag"nitude and the amount of 
stock in all departments, has no supe- 
rior in the State outside the meti-o- 
polis. His stock of sheet-music, aside 
from his o^vn publications, and em- 
bracing- the prints of the leading- pub- 
lishing houses in the country, is 
probably lai*ger than that of all the 
other dealers in the city. His piano 
and organ departments are stocked 
with the best instruments that money 
can buy, and Mr. Hidley's well- 
known liberality and integrity in busi- 
ness ensure for him the contidence of 
the public. 

Holidays. — Upon legal holidays, 
the banks and the public and govern- 
ment offices are closed by law. Notes 
coming due on these days, must be 
met the day previous. The names 
and dates are : Christmas, Dec. 25 ; 
New Yeai''s, Jan. 1 ; Washington's 
Birthday, Feb. 22 ; Decoration Day, 
May 30 ; Independence Day, July 4 ; 
Election Day, the first Tuesday after 
the first Monday in November ; and 
Thanksgiving Day, usually the last 
Thui'sday in November. 

Horse Cars, The, in this city are 
run by two companies : The Broad- 
way and the Lumber district roads 
by the Watervliet Turnpike and Rail- 
road Company, all the others by the 
Albany Railway. 

Watervliet Turnpike and Rail- 
road Company. — Office at N. Albany. 
Charles Newman, prea.; James Wil- 
son, vice-pres.; T. P. Way, treas. and 
sec; M. C. Foster, supt. Chartered 
Aprd 15, 1862 ; cars began running in 
1863. There are two routes, one 
branching from Broadway into the 
Lumber district (fare 6 cents), the 
other continuing to W. Troy ; through 
fare 15 cents ; way passengers from 
5 to 11 cents ; time for whole trip 65 
minutes ; number of cars, 30 ; horses, 
140. N. Albany, the Fair gi-ounds, 



Old Men's Home, Island Park and 
Watervliet Ai-senal are reached by 
this route. 

Albany Railway. — Organized Sep- 
tember 24, 1863. Ground was broken 
for the State st. route Nov. 2d of the 
same year. Cars began running Feb. 
22, 1864, and May 9th gi-ound was 
broken for the Pearl st. road to Ken- 
wood. Office, 77 State st. John W. 
McNamara, pres. and treas.; Robert 
C. Pruyn, vice-pi'cs. ; James H. Man- 
ning, sec; Thomas B. Burnham, supt. 
The I'oad owns nine miles of track, 
much of which is double ; 38 passen- 
gers cars and 170 horses. Its stables 
are on Central ave., and at the lower 
end of South Pearl st. The uniform 
fare is 6 cents for a single ticket, but 
five tickets are sold for 25 cents. 
Thei'e are four lines : 

The West Albany cars start from 
Broadway and State st. at 7 a. m., 
and every half hour till 11 p m.; go 
up State past the. New Capitol, up 
Washington ave. to Central (leaving 
passengers for the park at Knox st. ), 
pass near the i-eservoirs, and I'each 
West Albany in 45 minutes from 
starting. Cars run ovei* the same 
route to Ontario st. every ten minutes, 
from 8 A. M. to 11 p. m., except Sun- 
days, when all cars run through to 
West Albany, starting every 15 min- 
utes. 

Hamilton st. line : Leave Tweddle 
Hall for Quail st. at 6, 7, 7:40, 8, 8:40, 

9 A. M., and every 20 minutes after 9 
A. M. until 11 p. M. Leave Quail st. 
at 6:30, 7:30, 8:10, 8:30, 9:10 a. m., and 
every twenty minutes after 9:10 a. m. 
until 1 1 :30 p. M. Leave Tweddle Hall 
and Knox st. evei'v ten minutes from 

10 A. M. imtil 9 p. M. (Nov. 6. 1880.) 
This is the direct route to the park, 
and persons who have not the time 
or strength to walk through it wiU 
get a fine idea of its beauties by rid- 
ing past on this line. 

Pearl st. line : Leave Van Woert st. 



HOS 



62 



6:30, 7:15, 7:30, 8, and then every fif- 
teen minutes to Whitehall road (every 
thirty minutes to Kenwood) till 10, 
then 10:15 and ]0:45 in the city. 

Clinton ave. line : Leave Tweddle 
Hall 7, 7:45, 8, 8:30 A. m., and then 
eveiy fifteen minutes until 10:30 and 

11 p. M. 

Hospitals, Dispensaries, etc. — With 
the exception of a Foundling" hospital 
and a Home for Incurables, Albany 
is well supplied with institutions of 
this sort, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing^ : 

Albany Hospital, Eagle st. cor. of 
Howard, incorporated Ai)ril 14, 1849, 
was founded by private subscription, 
and first occupied the buildings cor, 
of Do^•e and Lydius sts. The present 
building- (formerly the county jail) 
was remodeled at a cost of lt'21,135.69, 
besides a payment to the County 
Treasurer of Jjfe,395. It was occupied 
in Aug-. 1854. In 1872 a larg-e addi- 
tion was built, with all the latest im- 
provements, at a cost of over |30,000. 
The wards will accommodate 75, and 
the private rooms, 50 jiatients. The 
De Witt ward for children has 6 beds. 
The whole hospital, through the in- 
terest taken by different churches 
and the beneficence of its friends, is* 
fitted and furnished hke a home. 
The medical and surgical staff is 
composed of 18 of the best physicians 
in the city — two of whom are in at- 
tendance eveiy day — besides thi-ee 
resident physicians. Patients taking- 
private rooms may be attended by 
their own physicians, and have the 
advantag-es of careful nursing- and 
diet. The charge for ward patients 
is ^ to ;?6 per week, and for private 
rooms from ^ to §15. 

Charity patients are admitted by 
permits from the overseer of the 
pool', or uiv)n application to the offi- 
cer of the hospital. The manage- 
ment is composed of a board of fif- 



teen governors, who are elected an- 
nually by the members of the cor- 
jwration. A gift of !S?50 entitles the 
donor to a vote for life. During 1880 
the city paid the hospital 1^54,500 for 
the care of its sick, which was less 
than $3 per week per patient, while 
the average cost is §6. 

The present officers of the Board 
of Go\'ernors are, Rufus W. Peckham, 
pres.; Thomas H. Fearey, sec; Ed- 
win Safford, treas. 

The Albany Hospital Dispensary 
is under the immediate control of the 
Governors, and care of the medical 
staff of the hospital. In 1879-80 there 
were 3,399 different persons treated, 
and most of them provided \vith med- 
icine one or more times without 
charge. 

St. Peter's Hospital, cor. of Broad- 
way and N. Ferry st., in charge of 
the Sisters of Mercy. The building 
was erected by the Patroon, for his 
son Stephen Van Rensselaer, who oc- 
cupied it for many years. It was 
enlarged and opened as a hospital in 
Nov., 1869, the family of the late 
Peter Cagger contributing largely 
towards the entei'prise. No one is 
excluded on account of religious be- 
lie foi' unbelief. Those who are able, 
pay according to the accommodations 
furnished. A certain number of free 
beds are also maintained- The prox- 
imity of the hospital to the railroad, 
causes many cases of accident to be 
taken there. 

St. Peter's Dispensary, at St. Pe- 
tei-'s Hospital. Opened in 1869, since 
which time over 20,000 persons have 
been ti-eated gratuitously. 

Child's Hospital, Hawk below 
Elk, in charge of the Sisters of the 
Holy Child Jesus. Opened March 
26, 1875. Can accommodate 52 pa- 
tients. Any suffering child that can 
be helped by hospital treatment may 
be admitted. Number of patients 
Dec. 1st, 42 ; supported by contribu- 



63 



HOW— HUD 



tions fi'oni individuals and churches, 
an appropriation from the common 
council, and a small amount from out- 
side towns and counties. The hospi- 
tal had its beg-inning- in a very small 
Avay, six years ago, and has gi'own 
fi'om the two crippled chiidi-en with 
which it started, and from the small 
and uncomfortable house, i-ented from 
month to month, to its present pi o- 
portions. It occupies two excellent 
buildings, built for the purpose, and 
a third is projected ; the plan of sepa- 
rate hou.-es for hospital uses being- 
found to be much better than a larg-e 
building-. This institution is a part 
of the Christian work undei'taken by 
the Cathedral of All Saints (see Epis- 
copal Churches) under the direction 
cf the Bishop. The Diocesan Sister- 
hood have the care and nui'sing- of the 
children, but the hospital is under the 
management of aboard of ladies rep- 
lesenting- many congregations. The 
services of the doctors and surgeons 
have been gi*atuitous. Over loO chil- 
di*en have been treated during the 
j)ast year, and many of them saved 
from being life-long cripples, or from 
total bUndness. 

Albany City Homceopathic Hospi- 
tal, 123 N. Pearl st., chartered in 
1872, was consolidated in 1875, Avith 
the dispensary (incorporated in 1868). 
Supported by voluntary contributions 
and some aid from the city. The 
medical staff includes the leading 
homoeopathic physicians of the city. 
A. P. Palmer, pres.; N. B. Perry, 
vice-pres.; M. V. B. Bull, treas.; G. 
A. Van Allen, sec. 

Howe's Cave, 89 miles from Alba- 
ny, on Susquehanna division D. & H. 
C. Co. R. R. , is one of the most remark- 
able natural curiosities in the United 
States ; for beauty, variety, and ex- 
tent, it is only equaled by the Mam- 
moth Cave of Kentucky, while it has 



the advantage of being more con- 
venient of access, as the entrance is 
immediately at the raih'oad station. 
The cave is Hghted by gas from the 
mouth to the lake ; visitors are fur- 
nished with costumes and torches, 
and are accompanied by experienced 
guides ; the temperature of the cave 
is about GO'-"' Fahr., the year through. 
The Cave House has been thoroughly 
renovated, and the adjoining grove 
improved and beautitied. Excellent 
accommodations, upon the American 
or European plan, are affortled at 
reasonable prices. The x^rincipal in- 
dustry at Howe's Cave is the manu- 
facturing of " Ramsey's Hydraulic 
Cement," from native material. This 
cement has gained a celebrity almost 
equal to the celebrated ''English 
Portland." 

Hudson Avenue. — One of the ]:)rin- 
cipal avenues leading to the park ; is 
paved with granite block, the Nich- 
olson pavement put down several 
years since having proved a failure. 
The easy grade makes it a favorite 
route for teamsters going up the hill. 
The valley through which it runs w^as 
once the course- way of the Rutten kill. 
From 1844 to 1847, from 50 to 250 
persons and 60 teams were employed 
in filling up the ravine from Hawk to 
Lark sts., which was 800 feet broad 
and 50 feet deej). It was here that 
the last public execution in Albany 
took place, Aug. 24, 1827, when Jesse 
Strang was hanged for the murder of 
John Whipple. Over 80,000 people 
gathered on the hillsides to witness 
the tragic scene. The Hudson Ave. 
Methodist, First Baptist, and Fii-st 
Presbyterian churches are grouped 
together on this street, and just west 
(cor. of Eagle st.) is the picturesque 
State Arsenal. At the cor. of Broad- 
way, now occupie<i by the Commercial 
Building, once stood the old Staj)T 
Huis (which see). 



HUD — ITA 



64 



Hudson River. — This, the most 
beautiful of livers, has been known 
by many names. Beside its various 
Indian appellations, it was called by 
Hudson himself. Great River of the 
Mountains; by the Dutch settlers, 
Gi-eat North River of the New Neth- 
erlands (to distinguish it from the 
South, or Delaware river), and the 
North i-iver it is still sometimes called. 
The Dutch also called it the Mauritius, 
or Prince Maurice's river, after Mau- 
rice of Nassau, Prince of Orang-e, and 
it was known as such till the Eng-lish 
chang-ed it to its present title, Hud- 
son having- been an Englishman. 

At Albany. — The mean-tide at Al- 
bany is 2.46 feet above that at Gov- 
ernor's Island ; the mean rise and fall 
is 2.32 feet. At mean low water, 
boats can carry an a^'erage of nine 
feet, the channel depth from State st. 
bridge to a mile south vai-ying fi'om 
9 to IS feet. 

At Van "Wie's point, four miles 
below the city, where the observa- 
tions were taken, the tidal current is 
a little less than two feet a second in 
mid stream ; the mean velocity of the 
entire river is three-fourths of a foot 
a second, ebb tide estimates. 

Industrial School Building. — A 

ruin of l)i'ick and mortar, situated 
south-west of Washington pai-k. It 
was l)egun, in 1857, by the city, as a 
school tor poor children, but, after 
costing ^30,000 or 1540,000, was never 
used for that purpose oi* any other, 
except for barracks during the wai-. 
It has been allowed to deteriorate 
till it is n(^w utterly good for nothing; 
a w^aste of public property entirely 
indefensible. 

Industrial Schools, The, two in 

niunber, ai-e under the care of the 
Children's Friend Society, which was 
organized In 1856, and incoi-porated 
ApiH 7, 1863. They are located in 



Canal and Hamilton sts. The man- 
agei-s seek to gather into the schools 
vagrant childi-en who, from poverty 
or vice of pai-ents, are unable to 
attend the public schools, and to 
instruct them in morals, industry and 
the elements of learning. Girls are 
received between the ages of 4 and 
16 ; boys, 4 to 7. They are given one 
good meal a day. The articles of 
clothing, etc., made by them in 
learning to sew, are disti'ibuted as 
rewards for good behavior. The 
schools are supported by individual 
contributions, the income from a 
I'eserve fund, bequests, etc. From 
Feb. 1, 1879, to Feb. 1, 1880, the 
whole number of scholai's was 242 ; 
number of meals supplied, 22,742. 
Mrs. John L. Winne, Mrs. S. H. 
Freeman, directors ; Miss Agnes 
Pruyn, sec. ; Miss Monteath, treas. 

Internal Revenue, T7. S. — The 

headquarters of the 14th district 
United States Internal Revenue is at 
59 State st., Ralph P. Lathroj), 
collector. The disti'ict comprises the 
counties of Albany, Schenectady, 
Schoharie, Saratoga, Montgomery, 
IJulton and Hamilton. The aggregate 
collections in this district, from the 
time when the system went into 
effect in 1862, to June 30, 1879, were 
$21,453,802.73. The average yearly 
collections ai'e now about ip600,000. 

Island Park. — A race course on the 
right of the Troy road, nearly oppo- 
site the Fair Grounds. 

Italians. — The Italian colony in 
Albany consists of some twenty -five 
families. They are a quiet, inoffen- 
sive people, the most of them jioor, 
T)ut some are well-to-do. Services 
are held esjiecially for them in the 
Church of Our Lady of Angels, and 
they have recently oi'ganized a be- 



JAI — JEW 



nevolent society. 
Societies.) 



(See Benevolent 



Jail, The, 74 Maiden lane, east pf 
Eag-le St., was first occupied by pris- 
oners June 2, 1853. One week later, 
the grand jury condemned it as 
being- an unsafe place of deten- 
tion for expert rogues, a verdict 
which experience has often verified. 
The jailor, appointed by the sheriff, 
receives a salary of {^1,500 and house 
rent. 

Jews.— There are about 3,000 He- 
brews in this city, most of theili Ger- 
man, althoug-h a few are Bohemians, 
a few Poles and a few French. "With 
the exception of the limited number 
who worship at Beth El Jacob in 
Fulton St., they are mostly the Re- 
formed Jews, that is, they conform m 
most thing-s to the ideas of the present 
ag"e ; all, however, observe the rite 
of circumcision (in males), the day 
of atonement ; and most of them ai'e 
careful to eat no pork nor any meat 
not killed in the Jewish method, 
which is by cutting the jugular vein 
in the first place, not after the animal 
is knocked down. In this way all 
the blood is drained fi-om the carcass, 
and many besides Jews consider such 
meat more wholesome. The killing 
is done by a slayer, who also exam- 
ines each animal carefully, and if 
diseased., or blemished it is rejected. 
The Hebrew Sabbath begins Friday 
night and lasts from even to even. 
Public ser\'ices are held in the syna- 
gogues Friday night and Saturday 
morning. Most of the Jews read 
Hebrew, although all do not speak it. 
As citizens, they are very orderly, 
the ajipearance of one in the police 
court being an unusual sight. They 
care for their own poor, and among 
themselves ai-e xevy sociable and 
domestic in their habits. 



/Synagogues. 

Anshe Emeth. — South Pearl st. 
opp. Herkimer. Rev. Max Schle- 
singer, pastor. This is the largest 
and handsomest Hebrew place of 
worship in the city. The society was 
organized in 1850, with Dr. Isaac M. 
Wise as I'abbi, and now embi'aces 
about 150 families. Services held 
here consist of prayers, reading of 
the law, music and a sermon, the 
latter in English or German, the 
prayers and reading in Hebrew. 
A. Sunday school is held on Sun- 
day. 

Beth El. — South Ferry st. cor. of 
Franklin. Rev. Adolph Friedmann, 
pastor. Partially organized in 1832, 
but did not take the name till 1838, 
when a building was procured on 
Herkimer st. The society is, there- 
fore, the oldest of the sect in this 
city. It was -wdthout a rabbi tiU 
1854, when Sampson Falk officiated 
as such. In 1864 the South Ferry 
Street Methodist Church was bought, 
dedicated Jan. 20, 1865, and has since 
served them as a synagogue. They 
were considered as orthodox, till, 
under the ministration of Hev. Louis 
A. Son, they adopted the Minhag 
litual of Rev. Dr. Wise. 

Beth El Jacob. — ^The synagogue 
of the orthodox Jews, in Fulton st. 
above Madison ave. Rev. Josiah 
Goetz, pastor. This society is very 
small, but the traditions of the race 
are observed here more carefully 
than elsewhere. The women sit 
apart from the men, and each mem- 
ber, dui'ing the service, wears around 
his neck a woolen scarf called the 
Talitth. The pastor is also the 
"slayer," before mentioned, and not 
only kills animals in certain slaughter 
houses, but chickens, turkeys, etc., 
for pi'ivate families, having a I'egular 
route for that purpose. 



KEN — LAG 



Q6 



Kenmore, The, on N. Pearl st., cor. 
Columbia, is the newest, handsomest, 
best located, and most popular hotel 
in Albany. Since its erection in 1878 
two large extensions have been built 
to accommodate its constantly in- 
creasing- patronage. Adam Blake, 
the propiietor, was for many years 
landlord at Congress Hall, and when 
that historic but somewhat dilapi- 
dated caravansary was pulled down 
to make room for the new cax^itol, he 
hap]-)ily succeeded in combining in 
his new and beautiful hotel the " good 



Kenwood. — At the southern term- 
inus of the South Pearl st. railroad, 
on the Normans kill, about two miles 
from State st. 

Kitchen Garden. — In charge of a 
committee of the ladies' auxiliary 
board of the City Tract and Mission- 
ary Society. Mrs. A. Rathbun, 
supt. ; Mi's. Wm. L. Learned, sec. 
and treas. Holds sessions in the old 
mission building on Rensselaer st., 
Monday and Saturday afternoons at 
4 o'clock. Is pi'eparatory to the 




"will " of the past with all the conven- 
iencies and luxuries of the present. 
The location, near to the Capitol, 
State Hall, etc., is also but a little 
way from the post-ofhce and depot, 
though far enough from the latter to 
escape ail noise, smoke and cinders 
of the locomotives. The house is fur- 
nished with elevators, telephone, 
steam heaters, hot and cold water in 
every room, in fact, wdth eveiy appli- 
ance necessary to the welfare and 
comfort of the guests. Architectur- 
ally, also, the Kenmore is the most 
elegant structure on the finest street 
in Albanv. 



Cooking School (which see). Num- 
ber of pupils, 50. Their tuition, $2 
each, is paid by benevolent ladies, 
and also covers a course of instruc- 
tion in the cooking school. They are 
taught the duties of the household 
with miniature utensils. 

Lager Beer. — Twenty yeai*s ago 
lager beer was almost unheard of 
outside of Germany. To-day it may 
be called the national di'ink of Amer- 
ica, so generally is it consumed by 
those who use alcoholic beverages of 
any kind. For many years Albany 
had been noted for its ale, but it was 



m 

za 
m 
< 
m 
:x} 

■< 
o 

ZD 
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m 

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m 

JO 

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67 



LAG 



not till 1878 that it became equally 
famous for lager. True, the drink 
had previously been made here in a 
small way, but that year saw the 
completion of the Beverwyck, which 
is unquestionably the model lager 
beer brewery of the United States, if 
not of the world Its reputation as 
such is wide spread, and attracts 
hundreds of visitors from all over 
the country. 

The partners in the Beverwyck 
Bi'ewing Co. were experiemeed in the 
manufacture of ale and porter, of 
which they had made, and (under the 
style of Quinn & Nolan) still make, 
large quantities ; but quick to re- 
spond to the demand for a. lighter 
and more sparkling beverage, they 
erected the colossal structure on N. 
Ferry st. for the production of lager 
only. The accompanying cut makes 
a description of the exterior unneces- 
sary, save to say that, architecturally, 
it is altogether the tinest building de- 
voted to manufacturing purposes in 
the city — the imposing belfry and 
clock-tower, and the heroic statue of 
*' Gambrinus," atti'acting special at- 
tention. Inside everything has been 
arranged apparently without regard 
to cost, but with the sole view to 
utility and the perfection of detail. 
The first floor, u^ed as the engine and 
pump-room, is paved with Vermont 
slate purple and green, and from it 
the centre is open like the grand hall 
of some gi'cat hotel or library, while 
the handsome balustrades give the 
effect of galleries rising tier upon 
tier to the lofty roof. Directly in the 
centre is an artesian well 230 feet 
deep, from which water is drawn to 
supply the coolers. Pumps of the 
most approved patterns for pumping 
beer, air, ice-water, and for the boil- 
ers, etc., are arranged ai'ound the 
room ; all the machinery being nickle- 
plated, and shining like a service of 
silver. Perfect neatness, order and 



discipline prevail everywhere. Two 
great copper kettles in which the beer 
is brewed, holding 180 barrels each, 
and alone costing $20,000, extend from 
the second to the third stories, and 
are double hammered and polished, 
as is all the copper-woi'k about the 
concern. This altbrds some idea of the 
magnitude upon which the establish- 
ment is constructed, but an elaborate 
description cannot here be given. 
Two boilers, each of 100 horse-power, 
are in a separate building, with walls 
made secure against all possible acci- 
dent. The storage capacity is 60,000 
barrels ; the brewing csipsicAty of the 
establislament 90,000 barrels per 
annum. The sale of Beverwyck 
lager is very extended and constantly 
increasing. Its distribution about 
the city is by means of a stud of 50 
horses ot the finest Kentucky, Ohio, 
and Wayne county (N. Y.) stock, with 
wagons and trucks corresponding in 
strength and durability. Such a con- 
cern as this must have some inspira- 
tion and guiding spirit, and both of 
these are found in the president and 
treasurer of the Beverwyck Brewing 
Co,, Hon. M. N. Nolan, a man whom 
the yorld calls *' lucky ; " and so he 
is, but it is the luck which comes, and 
comes only, from a combination of 
indomita1)le purpose, resistless force, 
and superior executive capacity, Mr. 
Nolan is now serving his second term 
as Mayor of the city, having been re- 
elected by an overwhelming majority. 
He has also just been elected to rep- 
resent this district in the XLVIIth 
Congress of the United States. Mr. No- 
lan is ably assisted by Mr, M. Schrodt, 
a native of Altheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, 
who is secretaiy of the company, and 
has been connected in business with 
Mr. Nolan for several years. The 
cost of the Beverwyck brewery was 
$350,000. It was built by the cele- 
brated architect and millwright, Mr. 
Charles Stoll, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 



LAW — LIT 



68 



Law SchooL — The Albany Law 
School, a bi-anch of Union University 
(which see), is on State st. above 
Swan. Was organized April 21, 
1851, with Chief Justice Bronson as 
president. Amos Dean was promi- 
nent in the enterprise, and he was 
followed by Isaac Edwards. During* 
the 30 years of its existence about 
1,800 students have graduated. One 
special featiu-e which the students 
enjoy is access to the great law li- 
brary of the State. Orlando Meads 
pres. board of trustees ; Wm. L. 
Learned, vice-pres. ; M. T. Hun, sec. 

Legislature, The, meets annually 
on the tirst Tuesday in January, at 
the capitol. The senate consists of 
82 members, elected biennially ; the 
assembly of 128 members, elected 
annually ; salaries $?1,500. Albany 
county constitutes the 17th senatorial 
district, and sends four members to 
the assembly: First dist., 1st, 2d, 
3d and 5th wards of Albany, and 
towns of Bethlehem, Berne, Coey- 
mans, Rensselaervilie and Westerlo ; 
Second dist., 10th, 11th, 14th, 16th 
and 17th^Yards of Albany, and towns 
of Guilderland, Knox and New Scot- 
land; Third dist., 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 
12th, 13th and part of the 9th wards 
of Albany ; Fourth dist., the remain- 
der of the 9th ward of Albany, Co- 
hoes and Waterviiet. 

Leland Opera House. — Stands on 
the site of the theatre erected in 1824-5, 
on S. Poarl st. between Beaver and 
Hudson ave., and opened May 13th of 
the latter year, under the manage- 
ment of Charles Gilfert ; turned into 
a church in 1839, (see Episcopal 
Churches.) Opened as a theatre in 
1863, (see Academy op Music ;) rebuilt 
by Lucien Barnes, and opened Dec. 30, 
18G9. Its present manager, J. W. 
Albaugh, assumed the position Nov. 
26, 1873. It is well arranged both 



for actors and audience, and is the 
only place of amusement open con- 
tinuously during the seas^on. Seating 
capacity, 1,298. For fui-ther particu- 
lars see *' Players of a Century ; a 
Record of the Albany Stage." Jos. 
McDonough, Albany, publisher, (See 
Amusements, Record of.) 

Liberal Association, Albany. — 

Meets Sunday evenings, in rooms at 
Martin Opei-a House, and discusses 
scientific, social, theological and poli- 
tical questions, upon a free platform. 
A. Strever, pres. 

Libraries. — The only public libra- 
ries in ^ Albany are the State Ubrary, 
the Y.'M. a. library, the Albany In- 
stitute library, and the High school 
library. (See separate heads.) 

Licenses. — Aside from the liquor 
business, Albany derives less money 
from licenses than any other city in 
the country. Pawnbrokers pay an an- 
nual fee of ^25 ; circuses, !J>25 a day, 
halls and theatres nominally, ^25 a 
year, or less, at the discretion of the 
mayor, and this includes all traveling 
shows. Hackmen, cartmen, milk- 
men and venders, add nothing to the 
revenue of the city by the way of 
license. 

Literary and Scientific Societies.— 

The following are the principal hter- 
ary and scientific societies of the city : 

Beck Literary Society, composed 
of students of the Albany Academy, 
and occupies rooms in that building. 
Founded Dec. 11, 1857. Regular 
meetings, Friday afternoons. Officers 
elected three times a year. 

Nature Club. — Organized Oct. 17, 
1877 ; object, to promote the scientific 
and social interests of members. 
Meets on the first and third Mondays 
of each month, at the residences of the 
members. Pres., Dr. Geo. S. Stevens ; 



69 



LIT — LUM 



vice-pres., Prof. J. A. Lintner ; sec, 
Prof. R. Prescott. 

Dana Natural History Society. — 
Meets, first Tuesday of every month, 
in Female Academy. Organized 
§. Nov. 19, 1868, by (52 ladies ; object, 
B study of natm-e, and collecting a 
m, library and cabinet to aid in this 
study. Papers are read, scientific 
subjects discussed and recent diticov- 
eries in science presented, at every 
meeting. Classes in special topics of 
study are formed in the winter. 
Field meetings are held in. summer 
and autnmn. Mrs. Jonathan Tenney, 
pres. ; Miss Julia A. Hoag, sec. ; Mrs. 
Robei't D. Williams, treas. Annual 
meeting, last Monday in November. 
Present membership, 50. (See Al- 
bany Institute.) 

Iiittlefield Stove Works, The.— 

Mr. D. G. Littletield, the originator 
of this company, first appeared in 
Albany in 18.53, as an inventor of^ 
base-burning stoves. Until 1865 he 
was associated with others in the 
manufacture of his " Morning Glory " 
and other base-burning stoves and 
furnaces. In 1865, an association was 
formed, under the name of the Little- 
field S.tove Company, which prose- 
cuted business in Montgomery st. till 
1871, when they moved into their new 
buildings on grounds bounded by 
Pearl and Pleasant sts.. Central rail- 
road and Patroon's creek, and com- 
prising about three acres. The 
portion used for foundry purposes is 
98,000 sq. feet. The buildings, eight 
in number, form a hollow square and 
are so arranged that the raw material 
passes progressively through the dif- 
ferent apartments till it reaches the 
sample-room in the shape of com- 
pleted stoves and furnaces. The first 
story is occupied by the offices, 
sample-rooms and a portion of the 
mounting-room ; the other floors for 
storage. A large square, or park, 



intervenes between the buildings. 
To ensure the comfort of the work- 
men was evidently a leading considei;- 
ation with the projector of these works. 
The difFei'ent shops ai'e supplied with 
pure spring water, found ujjon the 
grounds. In this respect the estab- 
lishment possesses a great ad\'antage 
over other large concerns in the city, 
as it is entirely independent of the 
water conunissioners. The different 
apartments are roomy, clean and 
well ventilated, making it an insti- 
tution well worthy of a ^'isit by any 
person having a propensity to exam- 
ine model estabhshments. This Com- 
pany originally organized to manu- 
facture base-burning stoves and fur- 
naces, under letters-patent gra-nted 
to Mr. Littlefield, are now engaged in 
the manufacture of a lai-ge line of 
stoves and i-anges, in addition to their 
base-burning wares. 

Lumber District. — Albany is prob- 
ably the oldest lumber market in 
the United States. The towns on 
the banks of the Hudson, after ex- 
hausting the timber in their vicinity, 
sought the upper portions of the river 
for supplies. Saw mills were there 
erected and boards and scantling 
were rafted down to this place, hauled 
out of the water and piled on the 
bank, thus forming the first lumber 
yards in Albany. One of these was 
below the South Ferry, and the other 
near the foot of Quackenbush st. and 
between that and Lumber st., now 
called Livingston ave. The sloops 
which were the only crafts that plied 
the river, hauled in as closely as pos- 
sible to the shore, and to load them, 
men carried out the lumber on their 
shoulders, through the water or over 
cribs ef timber. When the Erie and 
Champlain canals were completed, 
all this was changed ; lumber was 
brought down on boats (then carry- 
ing but thirty to fifty thousand feet). 



LUM 



70 



the Albany Pier and the wharves 
which were built for the Albany Basin 
aftbrded storage room enough for the 
lumber, which was then principally 
received from the northern and cen- 
tral portions of the State. Soon the 
extension of the ti-ade to Canada and 
the Western lakes required more 
room, and as the canal I'an nearly 
parallel with the river, slips wei-e ex- 
cavated f]-om the canal towards the 
river, and the spaces between became 
lumber yards. As the business in- 
creased these wei-e continued until 
they now reach 1^ miles fi'om canal 
lock No. 1, having- an average dis- 
tance between the river and canal of 
about 1,000 feet and forming the 
Luml)er District. The length of 
dockage including the river front is 
about ten miles. Here the pine of 
Canada and the spruce and hemlock 
of northern JNfew York, first meet the 
pine of Michigan and the hardwoods 
of the west, giving a full assortment, 
and vessels carry it to the east and 
south, fi-om Maine to Florida. 

Advantages. — Although the rail- 
roads are competing fur the trade 
east and south, and the lai'ger canal 
boats (carrying 150 to 200 M.) freight 
a considerable quantity through to 
New York and vicinity, the un- 
equaled facilities for storage till 
seasoned, for handling and selecting 
into sizes and qualities and the com- 
plete assortment of all kinds found 
here, with the capital, capacity and 
character of the dealers, have en- 
abled Albany to hold the greater 
part of the trade and it is the largest 
lumber mart east of the Alleghanies. 

In addition to the luml)er I'eceived 
hei'e, the Albany dealers sell large 
quantities which go through direct, 
\\dthout breaking bulk, to New York, 
New Jersey, etc., which are not inclu- 
ded in the receipts at Albany, report- 
ed by the Auditor, (see Appendix,) 
but are embraced in gross receipts at 



tide-water. Besides the receipts by 
canal, a large amount of lumber, and 
particularly of shingles and clap- 
boards, are received here by rail; 
but there is no data from which the i 
precise amount can be obtained. | 
The sales of lumber shipped by rail, 
after the close of river navigation, are 
increasing every year and now reach 
large proportions. 

The conveniences for doing busi- 
ness in the district are unrivalled. 
A street railroad runs to and 
through it ; telegraph and telephone 
lines afford immediate communica- 
tion ; large planing mills are i-eady 
to quickly dress lumber in every way 
and to any amount, and good, clean 
dining halls await the wants of cus- 
tomers. Hydrants at regular inter- 
vals, with a full supply and heavy 
head of watei*, a,nd hose for immedi- 
ate use, are ready for the extinguish- 
ment of tires. It is a remarkable fact 
that during the last 50 years the 
damage by fire in the district, north 
of Fei'ry st., has not exceeded $(5,000, 
and yet there is no place in the world 
where so la]-ge an amount of lumber 
in contiguous inles can be found. 
The view of the district fi'om the 
Shaker I'oad, the boulevard, or the 
hills ojiposite the city, is one of 
the sights of Albany. 

The Board of Lumber Dealers 
was organized in 18G3 ; incorporated 
May, 18t)9 ; has an arbitration com- 
mittee with power to settle disputes 
between members and upon the 
award a judgment of the supreme 
court shall be rendered, which shall 
not be i-emoved, i-eversed, or modi- 
fied. It is to the honor of the dealers 
that these extraordinary powers have 
never been required nor exercised. 
Twenty-five firms belong to the board. 
Officers elected annually. Following 
are the names of the presidents since 
1863 : Henry Q. Hawley, Wm. N. 
Fasseti, Wm. H. Ross, Benjamin A. 



71 



LUT — MAI 



Towner, Doug-las L. "White, "Wm. G. 
Thomas, Oscar L. Hascy, James O. 
Towner, Ezra G. Benedict, Charles 
P. Easton, James E. Craig-, Eli C. 
Clark, Jr., Henry S. Van Santford, 
James B. Kelly, Dean Sage, Joshua 
Rathbun. 

Present officers : Lemon Thomson, 
pres. ; John McDonald, vice-pres. ; 
Wm. M. Weaver, treas. ; Edward 
Easton, sec. 

Lutheran Churches. — "With one ex- 
ception, the Lutheran churches in this 
city are German. This is the 

First Lutheran, cor. Lodge and 
Pine sts., Rev. Irving Magee, D. D., 
pastor. Next to the Reformed Dutch, 
this is the oldest chui'ch oi-ganization 
in the city, and the Albany Lutheran 
congregation is the oldest of that de- 
nomination in America, although the 
precise date of its establishment can- 
not be ascertained. The first edifice 
was built in 1668 or '70, on the site of 
the present City Building, S. Pearl 
St., and was paid for, the old record 
says, " the first penny and the last." 
The first minister was Rev. Johannes 
Fabritius. The Episcopalians wor- 
shiped in this church part of the day 
in 1714 (See Episcopal Churches), 
and in 1784-6, the two congregations 
had a minister in common. The 
society was incorporated in 1784, 
and in 1787, another church built 
on the Pearl st. lot in the centre of 
the present st. In 1816, a third 
church, 40x60, was erected on the site 
of the present edifice, and cost $25,- 
000 ; Philip Hooker, architect. The 
church o\vned real estate, bounded by 
Eagle, Lancaster, Hawk and State 
sts., upon which they erected houses. 
In 1843, Rev. Henry N. Pohlman, 
D. D., became pastor, and in 1868 was 
followed by Rev. Samuel Sprecher. 
During his pastorate in 1871, the 
present church edifice was erected. 
It is 69x126 feet, and cost |85,000, 



exclusive of the ground. In 1872 the 
present pastor took charge. In 1878 
the parsonage was built, at a cost of 
about $10,000. The official board is 
constituted as follows : Elders, Joseph 
Kennedy, Simon Vine, and Sylvester 
Shaffer ; deacons, Chas. E. Jenkins, 
Chas. E. Van Aeniam ; trustees, J. 
Van Wormer, George Jenkins, A. S. 
Draper, Geo. N. Collier, William H. 
McNaughton, and H. E. Pohlman. 
The Sabbath School, of which S. 
Shaffer is supt., has 529 members. It 
meets at 9 A. m. ; church services at 
10| and 7^. Prof. Geo. Noyes Rock- 
well is org-anist and choirmastei*. 
During- the earlier years, no record 
of the members was kept. There 
have been however, enrolled up to 
the present time, 1,224 members; 
present number entitled to conimun- 
nion, 458. » 

First German Evangelical. — 
Fourth ave. cor. Franklin j Rev. Wil- 
ham A. Fi'ey, pastor. 

German Evangelical Trinity. — 58 
Alexander st. ; Rev. C. J. Petersen, 
pastor. 

St. John's Evangelical. — Central 
ave. ; Rev. Ernest Hoffman, pastor ; 
Augustus Straud, supt. 

St. Paul's Evangelical. — Western 
ave. ; Rev. Peter Eirich, pastor ; Wm. 
G. Shulz, sujot. 

Madison Avenue. — Originally 
Lydius st. ; so named after Rev. 
Johannes Lydius, and said to be the 
only street so called in the Union. 
Changed to Madison ave. May 20, 
1867. 

Maiden Lane. — A narrow street 
extending from the river to Eagle st., 
and the shoi'test and steepest route 
from the depots to the capitol. At 
its foot is the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road ferry to E. Albany. Near its 
foot is the Saratoga depot. The 
Union depot also discharges passen- 



MAR— MED 



72 



g-ers into this street. From Broad- 
way to Pearl the street has been 
greatly impi'oved of late, and has 
become an important business thor- 
oug-hfare. The jail is on this street, 
near Eagle. 

Market, State Street. — Is a pi*om- 

inent, but not wholly unobjectionable 
feature of Albany. Here farmers, 
butchers, etc., in the morning, draw 
their wagons up in line on both 
sides of the hoi'se I'ailroad tracks, 
and without license, fee oi* restric- 
tion of any kind, vend their wares. 
Sometimes the wagons extend round 
into Eagle st. There is, of course, 
not the slightest protection from the 
weather, and the business is carried 
on in the most primitive method im- 
aginable. The only thing to be said 
in its favor is, that here consumer 
and producer meet without the inter- 
vention of middle-men or the pay- 
ment of any license, and that conse- 
quently Albany is victualed cheaper 
than any other city in the country. 
But this could just as well be done in 
some less conspicuous place, and the 
removal of the mai-ket is only a mat- 
ter of time. It has already been 
ordered by the common council, but 
the action was reconsidered. So 
noble an avenue should cease to be a 
nuisance.. 

Martin Opera-House. — S. Pearl 
st. cor. Beaver. Erected in 1870. 
Is the largest public hall in the city. 
Is let for balls, meetings, and theat- 
rical and musical entertainments. 
Hassceneiy, curtain, dressing-rooms, 
etc. Will* seat 1,306. The lower 
floors are devoteid to stores and offices. 
(See Amusements, Record of.) 

Medical Associations. — The fol- 
lowing are societies instituted and 
conducted by physicians for their own 
benefit, and that of medical science : 



Albany Academy of Medicine. 

Albany County Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, has about 25 mem- 
bers. 

Albany County Medical Society. 
—Organized July 29, 1806. 

Medical Society of the State of ' 
N. Y.— Organized, 1807. Meets an- 
nually in Albany, first Tuesday in 
February. 

Medical College. — The Albany | 
Medical College, on Eagle st., between 
Jay and Lancaster, is the medical de- 
partment of Union Univehsity (which 
see). The building was erected by 
the common council, at a cost of 
$24,000, as a free school on the Lan- . 
castei'ian plan, and opened with cere- I 
mony April 5, 1817. The school 
lasted till 1834, when it was super- 
seded bv the common school system 
of the State. 

The Medical College w^as founded 
by Di\s. Alden March and James H. 
Armsl^y, and was organized in 1838, 
succeeding a medical class taug-ht 
by Dr. March since 1821. The old 
building" was leased, rent free, by 
the common council to the college, 
the trustees at once expending 
$.5,000 in repaire. The title to 
the build-ing was j>nrchased in 1877, 
and now rests with the board of 
trustees. 

The first course of lectures was 
begun Jan. 8, 1839, and the institu- 
tion was incoi'x^orated Feb. 16, fol- 
lowing. Since then, 4,652 students 
have attended its 50 sessions, and 
1,455 have graduated. Over 24,000 
lectures have been delivered. In 
April, 1873, it became a part of Union 
University, retaining its original 
rights, and separate existence and 
powers. Its faculty of 19 members, 
g"ive their services, and the entire in- 
come is used for the support of the in- 
stitution. It o^^^ls a highly valuable 
library, much of which was selected 



73 



MET 



by T. Romeyn Beck. Its laboratories 
are extensive and complete. Its mu- 
seum is the finest in all departments, 
of any medical collection in America, 
and is unsurpassed (if equalled) in Eu- 
rope, and is so regarded by physi- 
cians throughout the land. It is open 
daily, and is visited by thousands. 
who gaze Avith wonder if not with 
admiration upon its countless speci- 
mens. Other advantages which the 
college presents, besides the acknowl- 
edged pre-eminence of its faculty, 
are; Abundance of clinical illustra- 
tion afforded by the intimate relations 
existing between the college and the 
hospitals ; and, through the wise 
policy of the management, a suf- 
ficient supply of anatomical material, 
thus meeting every requisite of a 
medical college of the first class. 
That it is of the first class is demon- 
strated by its standard, which insists 
upon preliminary examinations, a 
graded coui'se, and the absolute re- 
quirement of three terms instead of 
two. These regulations are made 
possible through the liberality of the 
staff, before mentioned, and which 
places the colle*-e upon the basis of a 
funded institution, independent as to 
whether it has few students or many. 
It is a notable fact, however, that 
since the standard was raised, the 
attendance has increased, and that 
the present class is one of the largest 
(160) ever entered. The college is 
patronized largely by the alumni, 
who have an association organized 
Jan. 20, 1874, numbering 870. Its 
annual meeting is held on commence- 
ment day. The trustees of thfe col- 
lege have for president, Amasa J. 
Parker ; vice-pres., Robt. H. Pruyn ; 
treas. and sec. Geo. Dexter; regis- 
trar. Dr. Jacob S. Mosher. 

Methodist Churches. — Following 
^vili be found brief accounts of all 
the Methodist churches in the city : 



Hudson Avenue, — Located on 
Hudson ave., between Grand and 
Philip sts. ; value of church propei"ty, 
including parsonage, which adjoins 
the rear of the church on Plain st., 
1^25,000. Dedicated Sept. 27, 1844, 
Rev. John Newland Maffitt preach- 
ing. In 1865-6 the edifice was closed 
for extensive impi*ovements, and 
March 27, 1866, formally reopened, 
Bishop Simpson delivering the ser- 
mon. This is the oldest Methodist 
Episcopal society in the city. In 1765 
or 6, Capt. Thos. Webb, of the Brit- 
ish army, stationed in Albany as bar- 
rack-master, began holding family 
ser\nces at his own house, to which 
his neighbors were invited. Conver- 
sions occurred, and a small society 
was formed. In 1790, a circuit, in- 
cluding this society, was formed, with 
James Campbell as circuit preacher. 
In 1791, a house of worship was 
erected, south-east cor. of Orange and 
Pearl sts., where it still stands. When 
the Methodists left it, in 1813, the Bap- 
tists for a time occupied it as their first 
house of woi'ship in the city, and sub- 
sequently the Scotch Presbyterians. 
In 1798 the city of Albany was made 
a station. In 1813 the society erected 
a church on Division st. In 1816 a 
Sunday school was established, one of 
the first in the city. The Division st. 
church was occupied by the society 
till the building of the present edifice 
in 1844. The following is the list of 
the pastors from 1798 : Rev. Messrs. 
Joel Ketchum (1798), Cyrus Stebbins, 
John Crawford apd Gideon A. Knowl- 
ton (1799-1804), Elias Vanderlip 
(1805), William Phoebus (1806-7), 
Truman Bishop (1808), Daniel 
Ostrander (1809-10), Lewis Pease 
(1811-12), Samuel Marvin (1813), P. 
P. Sandford (1814), Thomas Drum- 
mond (1815), WiUiam Phcebus (1816), 
Truman Bishop (1817), Joseph Craw- 
ford (1818-19), Samuel Marvin (1820), 
Phineas Rice (1821-2), Tobias Spicer 



MET 



74 






(1823-4), Josiah Bowen (1825-6), 
James Young- (1827-8), J. C. Green 
(1829-80), Samuel Luckey (1831), 
J. B. Stratton (1832-3), Charles 
Sherman (1834-5), A. M. Osborn 
(183(3-7), Truman Seymour (1838-9), 
Noah Leving-s (1841-2), Henry L. 
Starks (1842-3), Z. Phillips (1844), 
Allen Steele (1845-6), Andrew 
Witherspoon (1847), John Clai-k 
(1848-9), Henry L. Starks (1850-51), 
Stephen Parks (1852-3), Robert Fox 
(1854), Stephen D. Brown (1855-6), 
L. D. Stebbins (1857-8), B. O. 
Meeker, (1859-60), Mark Trafton 
(1861-2), C. F. Burclick (1863), Ira G. 
Bidwell (1864-5-6), Jesse T. Peck, 
now one of the bishops of the M. E. 
Church (1867-8-9), Merritt Hulburd 
(1870-1-2), D. W. Dayton (1873-4-5), 
Philip Krohn (1876-7), W. H. Meeker 
(1878). Present pastor. Rev. E. 
McChesney ; members, 359 ; proba- 
tioners, 3*5. Sunday school supt., 
Henry Gallien. 

•' Garrettson Station, North Pearl 
st. Dedicated Jan. 11, 1852. Church 
valued at {f?25,000, and the parson- 
age adjoining at {^7,000. This church 
was organized in August, 1828. It 
was for one year connected with the 
Watervliet Circuit. The tirst place 
of worship was an old l)nilding called 
Mechanics' Hall, then standing cor. 
Chapel and Columbia sts. The lirst 
stationed preacher was Rev. John J. 
Matthias, during whose pastorate of 
two years the membership rose from 
about 100 to 437. In 1829 the old 
circus property wa^ purchased, and 
during the following winter and 
spiing was fitted up for church pur- 
l^oses, and in June, 1830, was dedi- 
cated, the Rev. Messrs. Samuel 
Merwin and John Newland Maftitt 
preaching on the occasion. This 
structure was occupied till the erec- 
tion of the present one in 1851-2. 

During the last twenty-five years, 
the church has been served by the 



follo^ving pastors : John P Ne\vman 
(1856-7), C. W. Gushing (1858-9), N. 
G. Spaulding (1860-1), J. E Bowen 
(1862-3), G. S. Chadbourne (1864-6), 
Dexter E. Clapp (1867-8), W, G. 
Waters (1869-70), W. J. Heath (1871 
-3), S. M'Laughlin (1874-6), J. W. 
Thompson (1877-8). Present j^astor, 
Rev. G. A. Barrett. Members, 185 ; 
probationers, 45. 

Ash Grove. — Located on an ample 
and beautiful lot cor. Ash Grove place 
and Trinity place. Corner-stone laid 
in August, 1864 ; dedicated July 6, 
1865 ; seats 1,100 ; cost of church and 
adjoining parsonage, including lot, 
§100,000. No debt on church edifice ; 
about !t^l,000 on parsonage. In May, 
1834, some 40 members were set ofi" 
fi'om Garrettson Station Church and 
organized under the name of Wesley 
Chapel Church. Their fii*st house of 
worship was a building cor. Dallius 
and Bleecker sts. In 1^835 they pur- 
chased a lot on Herkimer st., between 
Frankhn and Pearl. A church was 
built on this lot and dedicated in Sep- 
tember, 1837. On April 20, 1839, it 
was destroyed by fire. The society 
then worshipped for a time in a build- 
ing formerly occupied by the Uni- 
versalists in Herkimer st. In 1842 
this place of worshij) having been sold 
to the Jews, the society was dis- 
banded. May 22, and Wesley Chapel 
ceased to exist. But the Sabbath 
school teachers immediately met and 
resolved to hold their gi-ound in the 
south part of the city. A small room 
was hii'ed in John st., and the first 
Sabbath school was held there on 
May 29. On June 20, 1842, the httle 
company was incorporated as a new 
society under the name of the Ferry 
Street M. E, Church. A church was 
erected cor. Ferry and Franklin sts., 
and dedicated Dec. 4, 1842. In 1863 
the membership having become too 
large for the old church it was also 
sold to the Jews, and the beautiful 



75 



MET 



property known as Ash Grove, lying 
on Westeiio, Grand, and Broad sts., 
purchased at a cost of ip24,000, and 
the present edifice built and dedi- 
cated, Bishop Simpson preaching* the 
semion. In the old mansion which 
formerly occupied the site of the 
church, Wm. H. Seward lived when 
Governor of the State. The following 
are the names of the ministers who 
have been the regular pastors of this 
society : Revs. Hiram Meeker, Daniel 
F. Page, S. Remmington, William 
Grifhn, Alfred Saxe, Timothy Bene- 
dict, Lyman A. Santford, John Fraser, 
A. A. Farr, Charles Devol, Hiram 
Dunn, E. H. Foster, C. F. Burdick, 
\V. R. Bro\vn, Stephen D. Brown, 
W. P. Abbott, 8. McChesney, S. 
M'Kean, H. Graham, and J. E. C. 
Sawyer. Present pastor, Rev. J. "W. 
Alderman, D. D. Number of mem- 
bers, 390 ; probationers, 22. E. G. 
Sherley, supt. 

Groesbeckville Mission Sunday 
School, located on Benjamin st., is 
connected with the Ash Grove Church. 
H. A. Blanchard, supt. 

Trinity, cor. Lark and Lancas- 
ter sts. Corner-stone laid, Oct. 10, 
1875; dedicated, Dec. 28, 1876. 
The transept was erected in 1867. 
Cost, including lot, {^75,000. The 
parsonage, closely adjoining on 
Lancaster st., cost $8,000. This 
church is a beautiful English Gothic 
structure of brick, with stone trim- 
mings. The auditorium seats 800, 
and the transept 480 ; spire, 175 feet. 

In 1835 the three Methodist Epis- 
copal churches in Albany, viz. : Divi- 
sion st. , Gai-rettson Station and Wesley 
Chapel, jointly resolved to establish 
another church further up towii, and 
unitedly rented a building on State 
St., originally erected and occupied 
by the Primitive Methodists. The 
Law School is on the site formerly 
occui^ied by this building. At the 
next session of Troy Conference, Rev. 



Charles T. Clarke was appointed pas- 
tor over this new charge. Their 
membership rapidly increased, and 
in 1836 they were organized as the 
West Station M. E. church. In 1850 
they erected a larger edifice, cor. of 
Washington ave. and Swan st. Here 
they continued till they moved into 
the ti'ansept of the present structure, 
in 1867, when they took the name of 
Trinity church. The following is a 
list of the pastors since 1860 : Revs. 
M. Bates (1860), S. M. Merrill (1861-2), 
A. J. Jutkins (1863), Bostwick Haw- 
ley (1864-5), Richard Meredith (1866, 
1867-8), T. A. Griffln (1869), Charles 
Reynolds (1870-1-2), W, H. Rowsom 
(1873-4), Thomas Kelly (1875-6-7), J. 
F. Clymer (1878-9). Present pastor, 
S. M. Williams. Members, 452 ; pro- 
bationers, 28. Connected wath the 
church is a large and flourishing Sun- 
day school, of which Henry Kelly is 
supt. 

Grace, cor. Ten Broeck st. and Liv- 
ingston ave., now (Dec, 1880) in pro- 
cess of erection. A beautiful structure 
of unique design, which is estimated 
to cost, with lot, $23,000. (See cut, 
J). 76.) The adjacent parsonage on 
Ten Broeck st. cost $4,000. The 
corner-stone of the church was laid 
Sept. 21, 1880, Rev. J. E. C. Sawyer, 
Presiding Elder of Albany District, 
delivering the address. 

On May 3, 1869, the two churches 
formerly known as the Broadway and 
Arbor Hill M. E. Churches, were con- 
solidated, and the new society thus 
constituted took the name of Grace 
M. E. Church. The present site was 
immediately purchased, and in the 
following autumn work was begun 
on a large wooden sti-ucture intended 
to serve as a house of worship for a 
few years. Till this was completed, 
services were held in the old build- 
ings of the two consolidated societies. 
This edifice w^as dedicated Dec. 19, 
1869, the Rev. Samuel Meredith, 



MET— MIL 



76 



preaching". Early in the present year 
it was determined to erect a more 
sightly and substantial structure. On 
Sunday, April 11, appropriate clos- 
ing- ser\dces were held in the old 
building, conducted by the pastor, 
Rev. H. D. Kimball. During- the fol- 
lowing- week it was demolished, and 
the grading of the lot for the new 




chnrch was begun. It will be dedi- 
cated early in 1881. 

The following is a list of the pastors 
of this society : Revs. J. W. Alder- 
man (1869-71), Homer Eaton (1872-4), 
B. B. Loomis (1875-7), H. C. Sexton 
(1878). Present pastor, H. D. Kim- 
ball. Members, 351 ; probationers, 8. 

Central Avenue, south side of 
Central ave. between Pen-y and 
Robin sts. Cost of edilice and lot, 
^7,000. A debt remains of about 
$2,000. This church was for some 
-years a mission of the Albany Metho- 
dist Sunday School Union. It has 



been served by the following pastors : 
P. P. narrower (1871-2), Chas. Rey- 
nolds (1873), D. R. Lowell (1874-5), 
J. S. Bridgford (1876), J. C. Russum 
(1877-8), Rufus Wendell (1879). 
Present pastor, Rev. Hiram Blanch- 
ard. Members, 52 ; probationers, 5. 

Methodist Preachers' Meet- 
ings are held every Monday morning 
in the Garrettson Station Methodist 
Church, except once in every two 
months, when a union meeting of the 
Albany and Troy preachers is held 
in one of the two cities. Papers on 
religious or theological topics are 
read and discussed. 

Military Associations. — Besides 
the National Guard (which see) Al- 
bany boasts of some famous inde- 
pendent companies. The oldest of 
these is the Burgesses Coi^js, organ- 
Oct. 8, 1833. Armory, Bleecker Hall, 
529 Broadway. Oscar Smith, com. ; 
J. C. Cuyle]-, pres. 

The Albany Jackson Corps was 
organized Aug. 13, 1868. Armory 
in the upper stoiy of the City Build- 
ing. James Macfarlane, Maj., com- 
manding. 

The Meegan Corps (armory 59 
N. Pearl st.) is of later date. M. F. 
McGowan, capt. 

Military Statistics, Bureau of 
the, is at 219 State st., and is open to 
visitors daily, from 9 A. m. till 5 r. m., 
except Sundays and Saturday after- 
noons. This collection grew out of a 
desire to perpetuate in some way the 
patriotic memories of the war of the 
Rebellion. It was at tirst j^roposed 
to erect a suitable building- for the 
X")Uiiiose, and over $30,000 was sub- 
scribed by towns and by individuals. 
This money is now on deposit, and 
the intei-est helps to suppoi-t the bu- 
reau. When the new capitol is fin- 
ished, room will be furnished there 



77 



MIL — MOR 



for a I'epository of these almost sacred 
relics. At present, they are in a 
building- liable at any time to take 
fire, in which case a loss would result 
that would be irreparable. 

The Collection. — The objects of 
greatest interest are the battle-tlag-s 
of the various State regiments, 804 in 
number, some of them torn in shreds, 
others still bearing- plainly the names 
of the battles in which the regiments 
participated. Thei-e are 28 rebel 
ensig-ns captured from the enemy, 
and many other ti-ophies to interest 
the curious. Over 8,U00 photog-raphs 
have been collected, and many are 
framed and on exhibition. There is 
also a larg-e collection of newspapers 
in which the histoi'y of the war was 
written in the time of it ; many speci- 
mens of ordnance ; some relics of the 
Revolutionary war and of the war of 
1812 ; an interesting collection of 
Lincoln memorials, including a piece 
of the bloody shirt taken from his 
person on the night of the assassina- 
tion. 

Ellsworth Memorials. — Another 
interesting group is the clothes worn 
by Col. Ellsworth when he was shot 
down in Alexandria, and the rebel 
flag which he took from the Marshall 
House, an act which led to his un- 
timely death. 

Milk. — It has been estimated that 
between 17,000 and 18,000 quarts of 
milk are used in this city daily, of 
which nearly half comes from over 
the river, and the rest from Albany 
county, and by rail from the north 
and west. About 70 milkmen make 
their daily rounds. They come from 
all directions, and from distances 
ranging from three to twenty miles, 
some with two and three teams, others 
with a single horse. They arrive 
between 4 and 5 in the morning, and 
return anywhere from 9 o'clock till 
noon. Thei'e is no di\'ision of the city 



between them, and each sells where 
he can get a customer ; consequently 
an endless amount of travel ensues, 
which were there any co-operation, or 
combination, would be done away 
with. As a general thing, the person 
who owns the dairy and business, 
drives the team, while l)oys i-anging 
from eight to sixteen years of age, de- 
liver the milk, and collect the pay or 
tickets. The ticket system is much 
liked by the milkmen, as they not 
only in that w^ay sometimes get their 
money in advance, but it is more con- 
venient, and is generally used. The 
business is not always cash, and occa- 
sionally bills are run as high as forty 
or fifty dollars, and then collected by 
due process of law. The majority of 
bad debts are small in amount, but 
I'epresent a considerable sum in the 
aggregate. A good many people find 
it easier to change their milkman than 
to pay him. There is a sharp com- 
petition in the business, but generally 
a friendly spirit prevails, and dealers 
frequently supply one another. What 
were called milk associations were 
formed a few years since, by persons 
who received their supplies by rail, 
and put down the price, but a combi- 
nation has since been effected, and the 
price raised to 8 cents. Milk sold in 
Albany is not often adulterated, but 
some of it is very weak. 

Missionary Societies. — The follow- 
ing missionary societies have exist- 
ence in Albany: 

Albany Baptist Missionary Union j 
Albany City Tract and Missionary So- 
ciety ; Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church, Albany 
branch; Woman's Presbyterian Board 
of Foreign Missions of the Synod of 
Albany ; Woman's Union Missionary- 
Society. 

Morse's Geography.— The fifth 
edition of Morse's Geography, and 



MUS 



78 



his Gazetteer of 1797, both have the 
following- notice of Albany : 

*' The city and suburbs by enumera- 
tion in 171>7, contain 1,263 building-s, 
of which 803 are dwelling- houses, 
and 6,021 inhabitants. Many of them 
are in the Gothick style, with the 
g-able end to the street," etc. Mr. 
Munsell, in attempting- to vindicate 
the doctor's Eng-lish, (juotes fi'om two 
earlier editions, but curioiisly enough, 
it is those which came after, that 
located the inhabitants of Albany in 
such an extraordinai-y mannei-. 

Museum Corner. — The north-west 
cor. of Broadway and State st. The 
Museum was erected by Thorp & 
Sprag-ue, and oj)ened as a place of 
amusement Jan. 1, 1831. It was used 




^s such till April 28, 185.5, and then 
converted into offices, etc. For a 
pcore of years it was the leading- 
theatre. It has been damag-ed by 
■fire several times. 

Museum of Natural History, The 
State, as its name implies, was in- 
tended primarily to embrace an exhi- 
bition of the products of the natural 
history of the State of New York in 
the several departments of Botany, 
Zoology, Geology and Mineralog-y. 



The existence of the State Museum, 
org-anized in 1836, is dii-ectiy due 
to the geological survey of the State, 
and the foundation of its collections 
was derived from the same source. In 
1840 Gov. Seward recommended that 
the collections of this survey be placed 
in the Old State Hall (then about to 
be vacated by the state officei-s) for 
"safe-keeping." This recommenda- 
tion was accepted; a legislative en- 
actment followed, and the State Hall, 
which was erected in 1797, was made 
the depository of the then existing 
collections ; and at a later period the 
State Agricultural Society was au- 
thorized to occupy a part of the build- 
ing. The want of sufficient accom- 
modation for the two organizations 
induced the legislature to make ap- 
propriation for a ne^v building to be 
erected in place of the old, and the 
collections, libraries, etc., of the State 
Cabinet and of the State Agricultural 
Society were transferred to the new 
building m 1858. In 1805 the legis- 
lature passed resolutions recognizing 
the importance of making the State 
Cabinet of Natural Histoi-y a museum 
of scientific and practical geology and 
comparative zoology. In 1870 the 
legislature passed a law organizing 
*' The State Museum of Natural His- 
tory," and providing an annual ap- 
propriation for its support. 

Geological Hall. 
The present building is of bi-ick, 
four stories high, fronting on State 
street, at the corner of Lodge, 
with a wing of three stories in the 
rear, devoted to a large lecture-room 
on the ground floor, and the museum 
of agricultural implements and pro- 
ducts in the stories above. On the 
lower 01' basement floor, and on the 
same level as the lecture-room, at 
the east end of the main building, are 
two I'ooms occupied with the work 
of cutting and preparing thin sec- 



79 



MU8 



tions of fossils of minute structure, 
for the purpose of microscopic study 
in the museum. The machinery and 




appliances for this work are of su- 
perior character, and the results are 
of great importance and interest to 
the museum and to science. 

The First Floor of the main build- 
ing is occujned by the offices and 
libraries of the State Museum and of 
the State Agricultural Society; and 
in the i-ear of the former a large 
working-room is fui'nished with about 
800 drawers for the reception of col- 
lections in process of preparation and 
arrangement. The main entrance 
hall exhibits a collection of dressed 
blocks of granite, marble, freestone, 
etc., the products of New York and 
adjacent states. 

The Second Floor is occupied by 
the collections illustrating the Geol- 
ogy and Palaeontology of the State. 
The wall-cases, and a single series of 
table-cases around the room, are 
occupied by the rock specimens, 
whether fossiliferous or otherwise, 



and are arranged in such order that 
in going from left to right they show 
the geological superposition of the 
formations, each light-hand case con- 
taining specimens of the rock or for- 
mation lying next above the one on 
the left. This is supplemented by a 
coloi'ed geological section extending 
ai'ound the room above the cases, 
and so arranged that each formation 
shown in the section is represented 
by characteristic si:)ecimens in the 
case below. Besides this illustra- 
tion, there are enlarged figures of the 
characteristic fossils placed in the 
upper pai't of the case above each 
formation. The entire ari-angement 
is simple and instructive, and easily 
understood. The collection of fossils 
(Palaeontology^ occupies the table- 
cases in the centi-al portion of the 
floor, and also a large number of 
drawers beneath the table-cases. 
This collection is arranged in the same 
simple and syateniatic order as the 
geological formations ; and under 
each formation thei-e is a natural his- 
tory ari'angement of the genera and 
species of the fossils. This collection 
of rock specimens, and of fossils, pi*e- 
sents the most comi)lete geological 
series of the older rocks, to the base 
of the coal measures, of any in the 
world, the older or palaeozoic rocks 
of the State of New York being 
more comj^lete and less interrupted 
in their order of succession. Also 
along the west side of the i*oom, 
are arranged a series of large blocks 
of magnetic iron ore representing the 
principal mines of Northern New 
York and of Orange county. 

The Third Floor is occupied by 
the collections from geological forma- 
tions above the coal measures, both 
American and European, and by the 
Mineralogical collections. The fossil 
series represent the period from the 
New Red Sandstone to the Pleisto- 
cene. The Pleistocene of North 



MUS 



80 



America is represented by the 
Cohoes mastodon skeleton, and other 
remains of mastodon and fossil ele- 
phants from ditTerent points; the 
Pleistocene of South America by the 
casts of the gigantic Megatherium 
and other forms of that age ; and the 
same of Europe, by the skeleton of 
the Megaceros Hibernicus. The 
wall-cases are. in part, occupied by 
a collection of the minerals of the 
State, and, in part, devoted to a gen- 
eral collection of minerals from all 
parts of the v/orld. 

The Fourth Story is occupied by 
the Zoological collection, representing 
the fauna of the State of New York, 
and to some extent other portions of 
the world. The western part of the 
room is devoted especially to the New 
York fauna, which is represented in 
its mannnals, birds, reptiles, fishes, 
crustaceans, and shells. The eastern 
part of the room is occupied, in part, 
by a case, containing a large collection 
of birds, with some mammals, which 
were presented to the Museum as a 
special and separate collection, by 
Mr. de Rham, of New York, and is 
known as the De Rham collection. 
Other cases at the extreme east end, 
and partially on the south side, are 
devoted to the skins and skeletons of 
fishes, and to a general collection of 
skeletons of mammals, birds, reptiles, 
etc. The Ethnological and Historical 
collections occupy some wall-cases 
upon the north side of the room, and 
the central-north side by cases con- 
taining chiefly corals and echino- 
derms. The centre of the room is 
occupied by two double ranges of 
table-cases, containing the Gould col- 
lection of shells, of (5,000 species, and 
more than 60,000 specimens ; and in 
the area, near the east end of the 
room a double range of table-cases 
contains the Mazatlan collection of 
shells, jiresented to the Museum by 
the late Philip P. Cai-penter. 



Since 1866, the collections of the Mu- 
seum have been more than doubled i 
in every one of the departments, while | 
in some classes, as in the shells, the 
increase has been more than fifty 
fold. At the pi'esent time, every avail- 
able space in the Museum is filled with 
specimens ; and in Geol(jgy and Palae- 
ontology the collections, for which no 
room can be found, are moi'e than 
twice as gi-eat as those already ar- 
ranged. All the collections are ar- 
ranged for study and comjjarison, 
and the Museum is stiictly an educa- 
tional institution, which is made avail- 
able by thousands of students, and 
by the public, and its influence is 
gi-adually pervading the entire com- 
munity. Its present greatest need is 
more space, and a building of at least 
twice the capacity of the present is 
absolutely required for the exhibition i 
and increase of the collections. f 

Being a State institution, the Mu- 
seum should be considei-ed as cosmo- 
politan. Its intentions are to cover 
the whole field of natural research, 
and to be a centre for the dissemmi- 
nation of a technical and popular 
knowledge of the products, fauna, 
and flora of the entire State. With , 
this view, it should be an object of I 
interest for the remote j-jortions of the 
State, as well as the immediate 
locality. 

Music, Doelker's Conservatory 

of, rooms 22 and 23 Beaver Block, 
has been established more than ten i 
years. The director. Prof. George * 
Doelker, received his education at the 
Musical University of Leipzig, and 
his method is that of Goetze, Mosche- 
les, Plaidy, Richter, and Haui)tmann, 
who were his teacheivs. He is a voice- 
builder, and teaches the correct man- 
ner of breathing, while sight-reading 
is not neglected. In harmony he 
claims to be competent, having not 
only studied Hauptmann and Helm- 



81 



MUS — NAT 



holtz, but translated Tiersch into 
English. 

Musical Societies. — The following 
are the principal musical associations 
L of Albany : 

f Albany Musical Association. Con- 

ductor, Mr. John G. Parkhurst ; re- 
organized in 1879, and in a flourishing 
condition. 

Albany Manner Quartet, meets 
every Friday evening in Lange's 
Hall. Prof. Geo. Doelker, conductor. 
Ferdinand Lange, pres. 

Columbia Philharmonic Society, 
meets Monday evenings in Beaver 
Block. Prof. George Doelker, pres. 
and conductsr. 

Eintracht Singing Society, meets 
Tuesday evenings at 371 S. Pearl st. 
A. H. Schoenewolf, conductor. 

Other societies are the Germania, 
Cecelia, Orpheus, Jr., Teutonia, Mo- 
zart, and Mendelssohn Vocal Club. 

Names of Streets. — Albany streets 
have had their names changed fre- 
quently, and not always for the bet- 
ter. Many of the following changes 
have occurred since 1805 : 

Kilby to Hamilton. 

Bone lane to Division. 

Cow lane to Union. 

Grass lane to Liberty. 

Nail to Lutheran. 

Lutheran to Howard. 

Barrack to Chapel. 

Market to Broadway (north) 

Court to Broadway (south). 

King to Lion. 

Lion to "Washington. 

"Washington st. to "Washington ave. 

Queen to Elk. 
. Boscawen to. Swan. 

Capitol to Park. 

Mark lane to Exchange. 

Middle lane to James. 

Howe to Fox. 

Fox to Canal. 

Vreehnghuysen to Franklin. 
6 



Jonkers to Prince. 
Prince to Deer. 
Deer to State. 
Dock to Dean. 
Bass lane to Bleecker. 
Store lane to Norton. 
"Warren to Dove. 
Johnson to Lark. 
Swallow to Knox. 
Schenectady to Snipe. 
Snipe st. to Lexington ave. ^ 
Schoharie to Duck. 
Pitt to Otter. 
Sand to Lafayette. 
Otter to Wolfe. 
Wolfe to Lydius. 
Lydius to Madison ave. 
Wall to Hare. 
Hare to Orange. 
Van Driesen to Green. 
South to Gansevoort. 
High to Ten Broeck. 
Hallenbeck to Grand. 
Preaudieux to Buffalo. 
Buffalo to Hudson. 
Hudson st. to Hudson ave. 
Mhik to West Ferry. 
West Ferry to Myrtle ave. 
Malcomb to Broad. 
Embargo alley to Dennison. 
Whitehall road to Whitehall ave. 
Whitehall ave. to Second ave. 
Van Vechten to Third ave. 
Delawai-e Turnpike to Delaware 
ave. 

Elizabeth to Second. 
John to Third. 
Willett to Washington place. 
Orchard to North Pearl. 
Patroon to Clinton ave. 
Van Schaick to Monroe. 
Tiger to Lancaster. 
Lumber to Livingston ave. 

National Guard, State of New 
York. — The head-quarters of the 
National Guard ai*e at the office of 
the Adjutant-General, in the Old 
Capitol. 

Ninth Brigade, 3d divi-sion^ has 



NEW 



82 



head-quarters at 92 State st., Brig.- 
Gren. T. Ellery Lord, commanding-. 

The Tenth Regiment has head- 
quarters at 119 State st., Col. John D. 
Brooks, commanding. 

The Twenty-fifth Regiment at State 
areenal (see Arsenal), Col. M. J. Sev- 
erance, commanding. 

Separate Troop F, cavalry, has an 
armory at 40 Beaver st. 

Albany Zouave Cadets, which is 
also A Company, Tenth Regiment, 
Capt. John H. Reynolds, has an 
armory at 80 and 82 State st. 

Washington Continentals, which is 
B Company, Tenth Regiment, Caj^t. 
Horatio P. Stacpole, has an armory 
at 110 State st. 

Newsboys' Lodging Room. — 

Under the charge of the ladies' aux- 
iliary board of the City Tract and 
Missionary Society. Located in the 
upper story of the old mission build- 
ing on Rensselaer st. Mrs. Dr. James 
McNaiighton, 244 State st., chaii-man. 
Is supplied with beds, toilet and bath- 
room, wardrobe and library. Terms, 
5 cts. a night. The matron, Mrs. L. 
E. Kelderhouse, teaches such boys in 
the evening as are willing to learn. 

News Company, Albany. — 512 

Broadway, John W. Robe, manager. 
The institution through which Albany 
and the surrounding country is in a 
great measure supplied with news- 
jiaper and periodical literature, be- 
sides large quantities of stationery 
and other goods usually kept at news 
stands and stores. The company was 
oi'ganized on the 11th of April, 1870, 
Mr. Robe having, at that time, had 
several years' exjierience in the busi- 
ness. Its success was immediate, 
and is visibly increasing every 
month. Within five yeai-s it has 
more than trebled, and now three 
stories, running through from Broad- 
way to James street, are not suffi- 



cient to fully accommodate the trade. 
Scarcely a jDassenger train leaves 
Albany in any direction that does not 
carry with it wares from this estab- 
lishment. Almost every news stand, 
from Pittsfield on the east to Buffalo 
on the west, from Poughkeepsie on 
the south to Lake Champlain on the 
north, and south-west to Bingham- 
ton, is supplied from this gi'eat depot. 
By special arrangements made with 
the American News Com]iany, the 
various monthly and weekly publi- 
cations are placed in the hands of 
this company on sale simultaneously 
with their apjiearance in INew York. 
Dealers in this vicinity, therefore, 
find it quite as much to their advant- 
age to deal with Mr. Robe as to go 
further away from home. Every- 
thing in the book-seller's and station- 
er's line is furnished, from a bottle 
of ink to the last new novel. The 
latest books are received on the day 
of publication and others are readily 
supplied. As many of the news 
rooms, especially in the country, are 
tobacco and cigar stores as well, 
these goods have within a few years 
been added to the assortment, and 
full lines are kept constantly on hand. 
The cigars, cigarettes and tobacco of 
the Albany News Company's brand 
are among the most popular in mar- 
ket, and the promptness with which 
such and all other orders are filled, 
is always gratifying. In the season 
of ball and croquet playing, lawm 
tennis, etc., the trade in games is a 
great featui'e. Price-lists of new^s- 
pajiers are sent free on application 
of dealers, and quotations on books 
and stationery are always furnished 
cheerfully. 

Newspapers and Periodicals. — 

The first newspaper pi-inted in 
Albany was the Gazette, issued 
probably in November, 1771, by 
Alexander and James Robertson. It 



83 



NEW 



was not a success and was soon dis- 
continued. The N. Y. Gazetteer or 
Northern Intellig-encer was started in 
1792, by Solomon Balcntine and 
Charles R.Webster, and lasted a year 
or so. On the 28th of May, 1784, 
Webster started another Gazette, 
which existed till 1845, when it was 
the oldest in the State. The first daily 
paper in this city was the Advertiser, 
established in 1815, and subsequently 
united with the Gazette. 

Newspapers of To-day. 

Albany Akgus. — Established Jan. 
26, 1813, as a semi-weekly; was issued 
daily on and after Oct. IS, 1825. United 
with the Atlas Feb. IS, 1856. Now 
published daily, semi-weekly and 
weekly — Sunday edition established 
May 13, 1877 ; Democratic, and the 
State, county and city pa|)er ; office, 
Beaver st. cor. Broadway ; Arg-as Co., 
propiietors. 

Albany Evening Journal. — Estab- 
lished March 22, 18:^0, as a political 
anti-masonic oi'gan, by B. D. Packard 
& Co. ; Thurlow Weed, editor. Now 
published as a daily, semi-weekly 
and weekly ; Republican ; official 
county paper. Office, 61 State st. 
The Journal Co., proprietors. 

Albany Morning Express. — Es- 
tablished May 4, 1857, by Stone & 
Henly ; Republican ; official city pa- 
per ; puT)lished daily. Office, Green 
St., cor. Beaver. Proprietors, Albany 
Morning- Express Co. 

Albany Evening Times. — Estab- 
lished as a morning- paper, April 21, 
1856, by Stone & Co. ; consolidated 
wdth the Evening- Courier, March 1, 
1861. First issued as an evening- 
paper, Sept. 25, 1865. In 1871 it 
became a member of the Associated 
Press. Democratic in politics. Has 
published a weekly edition since 
1872. Office, 401 Broadway, the 
Times Co., proprietors. 

Press and Knickerbocker. — The 



Sunday Press v/as first issued May 
15, 1870, and for several years was 
the only Sunday paper in Albany. 
On the 26th of February, 1877, the 
proprietors issued the Daily Press, 
and Aug-. 13 of the same year, boug-ht 
and consolidated with it, the Knicker- 
bocker, established in 1843 ; is one of 
the official city papers. The Press 
Co., proprietors. They alsS xmblish 
the Weekly Press and Legislative 
Journal. Office, 18 Beaver st. 

Evening Post. — Established Oct. 
23, 1865. Office, 7 Hudson avenue. 
M. & E. Griffin, proprietors; R. M. 
Griffin, editor. 

Fkeie Blaetter. — Daily German 
paper, established in 1852. Office, 
44 Beaver st. A. Mig-g-ael, editor and 
proprietor., 

Albany Daily Hbrold. — Daily 
German paper. Jacob Heinmiller, 
proprietor. Office, 87 Westoi-lo st. 

Albany Law Journal. — Published 
weekly by Weed, Parsons & Co. 
Established in 1870. 

Cultivator and Country Gentle- 
man. — Published at 395 Broad v/ay, 
by L. Tucker & Son. The oldest 
ag-ricultural weekly in the country. 
The Genesee Farmer was started at 
Rochester in 1831, by Mr. Tucker; 
the Cultivator, at Albany, in 1834, by 
Judg-e Buel. They were consolidated 
in 1840, and took the x>resent title in 
Jan. 1, 1S53. 

Poultry Monthly. — Published by 
the Ferris Publishing- Co., at 20 South 
Pearl st. 

The Work at Home. — Official or- 
gan of the Albany City Tract and 
Missionary Society ; also a record of 
tlbe general church work of the city. 
Edited by Rev. Charles Reynolds 
and George Sanderson, Jr. Office 
20 North Pearl st. Circulation, 3,000 
coi:)ies monthly. Subscription, |1. 

The Voice. — Published monthly, 
at 461 Broadway. Edgar S. Werner, 
editor and proprietor ; specialty, voice 



NEW— ODD 



84 



culture and the ciare of vocal defects. 
The only journal of its kind in the 
world J $1 a year. 

News Rooms. — Among the news 
dealers in Albany, who have the 
Hand-Book and a general line of pa- 
pei-s, periodicals, etc., foi'sale, are the 
following : E. S. Near, in the depots 
and at|!9 Steuben; William R. Pren- 
tice, Museum Building ; Hutman 
Brothers, 6 Martin Opera House ; 
Blunck & Moore, 63^ N. Pearl ; John 
A. Cox, 63 S. Pearl ; Matthew O'Neil, 
in the Kenmore hotel. (See, also, 
News Co., Albany, and Quinn's 
News Rooms and Stands.) 

New York and Albany Rail- 
road. — The contract for the construc- 
tion of the New York and Albany 
Railroad has been let, to be com- 
pleted in May, 1882. It will be laid 
on the west shore of the Hudson, 
have a double track, steel rails, and 
first class equii:)ment. Joseph H. 
Ramsey, pres.; H. R. Pierson, treas.; 
F. Frothingham, sec. 

Notman Photographic Company, 
The, with numerous branches in the 
United States and Canada, have 
achieved a success in photographic 
art which places them in the very 
first rank. Their recent development 
in the science has made possible 
some results hitherto supposed im- 
possible. Their magnificent art gal- 
eries, at 4 Park st., Boston, and P5 
North Pearl St., Albany, are well 
worthy of a visit to those fond of 
artistic work. 

Normal School, The State, was 

established May 7, 1844, as a five 
years' experiment (David P. Page, 
principal), and was made permanent 
in 1848. The present building, cor. 
of Lodge and Howard sts., was first 
occupied July 31, 1849. Previously, 



sessions had been held at 119 State 
St., in the building erected as a depot 
by the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, 
and now the armory of the Tenth 
Regiment. The Lodge et. edifice is 




four stories and a basement ; 120 feet 
by 78, and has a hall 46x98 ; cost 
^25,000. The principal, Rev. Joseph 
Alden, who came here in 1867, resides 
in the building. The design of the ( 
institution is for the instruction and " 
practice of teachers of common schools 
in the science of education and the 
art of teaching. Each county in the 
State is entitled to send twice as many 
piipils to the school as it sends mem- 
bers to the Assembly. The pupils 
receive tuition, and the use of text- 
books free. Males are admitted at 
eighteen and females at sixteen years 
of age. 

Odd Fellows, The Independent 
Order of, has four supreme grand 
lodges. One each in the United States, 
the German Empire, Australia, and 
New Zealand. In the United States 
there are 48 subordinate gi'and lodges, 
39 grand encampments, 6,734 subordi- 
nate lodges, and 1,818 subordinate 
encampments. Besides these there 
are 870 Rebekah degree lodges, com- 



85 



ODD 



posed of Odd Fellows of the scarlet 
degree, their wives and daughters. 
The total membership of the order in 
this comitry is 467,384. 

The tirst regular Odd Fellows lodge 
in the United States was Washington 
Lodge, instituted in Baltimore, April 
26, 1819. The tirst lodge regularly 
instituted in this State was Shakes- 
peare lodge, located at No. 17 Fair 
st., now 135 Fulton st., New York. 

In September, 1827, a charter was 
granted to Past Grand Russell Watts 
and Brothers John Snyder, John Os- 
born, Isaac L. Welch, and Peter H. 
Snyder, to open a lodge in Albany, 
and Nov. 7th of that year Philan- 
thropic Lodge No. f) was instituted in 
regular form. This lodge has for 
many years been extinct, as has also 
Union Lodge No. 8. 

In 1828, three of the six lodges in 
the State were located at Albany, and 
that year the Grand Lodge of the 
State was removed from New York 
to this city, and remained here until 
1836. Among the representative Al- 
banians who were members of the 
order at that time, wei-e John O. Cole, 
John Van Ness Yates, Joseph Barton, 
Wm. L. Osborn, Daniel P. Marshall, 
Chas. Dillon, Jacob Henry, Richard 
Starr, Alex. Cameron, Wm. Lelach- 
ure, Malcom McPherson, and P. H. 
Snyder. 

There are at present fourteen subor- 
dinate Odd Fellows lodges in this city, 
a.: follows : Hope Lodge, No. 2, in- 
stituted April* 24, 1826 ; reinstituted 
July 15, 1844. Clinton Lodge, No. 7, 
instituted Jan. 9, 1829 ; reinstituted 
Aug. 26, 1846 ; John O. Cole, father 
of F. W. Cole, was its first Noble 
Grand. German Colonial Lodge, No. 
16, instituted Feb. 13, 1835 ; Jacob 
Henry, first Noble Grand. American 
Lodge, No. 32, instituted Dec. 5, 
1837 ; reinstituted Feb. 11, 1840 ; 0. 
A. Kingsley, first Noble Grand. 
Firemen's Lodge. No. 19, instituted 



Jan. 4, 1838. Phoenix Lodge, No. 
41, instituted Oct. 3, 1840. Samari- 
tan Lodge, No. 93, instituted Aug. 4, 
1843. Mount Hermon Lodge, No. 38, 
instituted June 18, 1847. Scho-negh- 
ta-da Lodge, No. 87, instituted Dec. 
1, 1850. Mount Carmel Lodge, No. 
76, instituted Dec. 1, 1850. Eeaver- 
wyck Lodge, No. 261, instituted Dec. 
9, 1870 ; H. A. Anthony, first Noble 
Grand. Mountaineer Lodge, No. 321, 
instituted May 14, 1872. Albany City 
Lodge, No. 385, instituted April 6, 
1874. Capitol City Lodge, No. 440, 
instituted Sept. 23, 1875 ; L. De Blaey, 
first Noble Grand. These 14 lodges 
have a total membership of 1,520. 

Albany has also two encampments 
which are composed of Odd Fellows 
who have passed through the five 
degrees in the subordinate lodges : 
New York Encampment No. 1, in- 
stituted 1829 ; reinstituted Sept. 23, 
1846. (This was the first encamp- 
ment in the State, and for a time was 
endowed with Grand Encampment 
powers.) Albany Encampment, No. 
58, instituted Aug. 23, 1871. 

Amcmg the prominent men who 
have been connected with the order 
since its first inception in this city, in 
addition to those already named, are : 
Robt. H. Pruyn, Eh Perry, Rufus 
King, John 0. Cole, Hooper C. Van 
Voorst, Gen. John Groesbeck, R. G. 
Beardslee, Jacob Henry, John R. 
Taylor, Thos. W. Van Alstyne, H. D. 
Curran, Coi'nelius Ten Bi-oeck, Albert 
H. Brown, John Moi'gan, Warren S. 
Low, Stephen Van Schaick, S. G. 
Courtney, J. H. Van Antwerp, Wm. 
N. Strong, Geo. B. Steele, Joel Mun- 
sell, John R. Vernam, A. P. Palmer, 
Wm. A. Young. Wm. A. Wharton, 
Wm. A. Rice, R. H. Waterman, Lewis 
Rathbone, Jas. W. Cox. 

Albany has furnished the following 
Grand Masters and Grand Patriarchs 
for this State : Grand Masters, Jetar 
Gardner, Cornelius Glen, Wm. Lacy, 



OLD 



86 



Grand Patriarchs^ John R. Taylor, 
Horace D. Curran, Cornelius Glen, 
Francis Rogers. 

Al)ram De Blaey is the present 
District Deputy Grrand Master of 
Albany District, and Henry C Hut- 
tnan i)isti'ict Deputy Grand Patri- 
arch. 

There is a Funeral Aid Association 
connected with the order which at 
present numbers about 300 members. 
Upon the death of a member, the 
surviving" members each pay J^l.lO 
into the treasury, J^l.OO of which 
from each goes to the family of the 
deceased. 

The Grand Committee of this dis- 
trict is composed of all Past Noble 
Grands in good standing". The com- 
mittee has stated meetings quarterly 
to legislate in the interests of the 
order. Daniel H. Turner, sec. 

For eight consecutive years, com- 
mencing with \Vm. A. Rice in 1846, 
and ending with Gilbert L. "Wilson in 
1853, the Presidents of the Young 
Men's Association were taken from 
the membership of Hope Lodge No. 
2. Besides these, five other Presi- 
dents of the Association, commencing 
wath Robt. H. Pruyn in 1838, and 
ending with Robert L. Johnson in 
1859, were members of this lodge, 
making thirteen in all. 

About two years ago a movement 
was made by F. W. Cole (then Dis- 
trict Deputy Grand Master) and a 
few energetic members of the fi'atei-- 
nity, to secure a hall where all the 
lodges could meet, and Perry Hall, 
N. Pearl st., was leased and thi«ee 
suitable lodge rooms fitted up. All 
the lodges, except Firemen's No. 19 
and Beaverwyck No. 261, now meet 
there ; the hall being dedicated June 
11, 1879, since which time the order 
has flourished finely. Three city 
papers devote much space each week 
to Oddfellowship, the department in 
two of them being in charge of 



Daniel H. Turner, and the third ia 
edited by D. A. A. Nichols. 

Old Books. — To persons of genuine 
literai-y taste there is a charm about 
old book stores which the places 
where only fresh wares are on sale 
do not possess. An old book store is 
always a mine of concealed possibili- 
ties, where we may dig up at any 
time a literary treasure, worth, to us, 
its weight in gold. New books are 
all very well, but any one who has 
money may buy them. O'd books 
are to be had only for the searching. 
Then, one is free to spend hours in 
handling over and peering into second- 
hand books — a liberty which can not 
be taken with new ones. Ag'ain, the 
antique bookseller, to be successful, 
must know books thoroughly inside 
and out, and is generally almost as 
glad to talk about his wares as to sell 
them. Naturally his store becomes a 
sort of head-quarters for the literary 
guild, who meet to talk over their 
favorite authors and editions. Such, 
at least, is the case mth the stoi-e of 
Joseph McDonough, 30 North Pearl 
street. Its projirietor has gradually 
increased his business from a few 
shelves to a store 75 feet deep and 16 
feet high, lined to the top and rear 
with all sorts of books from a New 
England Primer to Bayle's Ciitical 
Dictionary. He is bujdng second- 
hand books constantly, and an ordi- 
nary private libi*ary is as completely 
absorbed in this mammoth collection 
as the Buddhist's dew drop, when it 

— " slips into the shining sea. " 

Of late Mr. McDonough has attended 
the trade sales to pretty good purpose, 
and his shelves and counters show 
many new books, all markeil below 
the regular rates. His trade in new 
and second-hand school books is some- 
thing remarkable. His catalogues, %. 
published semi-occasionally, are sent 



87 



OLD 



free to any person of a bookish bent 
who may apply for them, and are 
much soug-ht after. His store is an 
Albany institution well worth visiting". 

Old Capitol. — The modest brown 
sandstone building- at the head of the 
widest part of State street, directly 
in front of the New Capitol, and soon 
to be torn down to make way for the 
grand entrance to that mag-niiicent 
edifice, has connected with it more 
histoi'ic interest than any other build- 
ing- in the State. Its corner-stone 
was laid April 23, 1806, and a year or 
two after it was ready for occupancy, 
having been built at a cost of J|5110,- 
688.42, of which the State paid $78,- 
488.42; the county 1^3,000, and the 
city, $34,2U0. In the most part, this 
money was raised by lottery, as was 
a larg-e share of the State fun(is in 
those days. Previous to the completion 
of this building, the city, county and 
State officials were hived together in 
one building, on the north-east cor. of 
what are now Hudson ave. and Broad- 
way, an edifice comprehensive enough 
in its character to include the jail 
also, while the pillory and whipping- 
post were close at hand outside. The 
city having offered the State any un- 
appropriated ground for a site for a 
new public building, this spot on 
what was called Pinkster Hill (See 
Pinkster), was selected. The edifice, 
two stories and a basement, adorned 
with an Ionic portico and a cii*cular 
cupola, on which stands a wooden 
Themis, 11 feet high, with sword and 
scales in proportion, was considered 
ample and grand enough for all pur- 
poses, and here laws were made and 
executed for three score years and ten. 

Executive Chamber. — In the Gov- 
ernor's room, "Daniel D. Tompkins, 
DeWitt Clinton, Mart'n Van Buren, 
William L. Marcy, William H. Sew- 
ard, Silas Wright, Horatio Seymour, 
John A. Dix and Samuel J. Tilden 



have sat as goveraors, waiting hope- 
fully, or scheming for the one step 
higher than the chief magistracy of 
the greatest State of the Union, the 
chief magistracy of the Union itself, 
and strangely enough, only one of 
them ever reaching it. " This chamber 
has a real old-fashioned fire-place ; is 
plainly decorated, and has but one 
oil j)ainting, that of Gen. Lafayette, 
taken from life, when he was here in 
1825, by Charles Ingham. 

The Senate Chamber is the 
" first floor front," and the handsom- 
est room in the building. It con- 
tained poi'traits of Christopher Colum- 
bus, George Clinton, and Stewari L. 
Woodford. That of Columbus is a 
very ancient piece, having been pre- 
sented to the Senate in 1784, by Maria 
Farmer, a descendant of Jacob 
Leisler, the colonial governor of New 
York in 1689, who was executed for 
high treason on the accession of Wil- 
liam and Mary and to whom the pic- 
ture is believed to have belonged. 
The picture of Clinton is from life, 
and conceded to be a fine portrait 
and an excellent work of art. 

The Assembly Chamber has re- 
mained almost exactly as originally 
built, additions to the rear only hav- 
ing been made at various times to 
extend accommodations for the cleri- 
cal force. The history of the assem- 
bly chamber would comprise a men- 
tion of every distinguished man and 
measure that the State has knowai 
since 1808. The constitutional con- 
ventions of 1821, 1816 and 1869, held 
their sessions within its walls. Here, 
on the 4th of July, 1818, rested the re- 
mains of Gen. Richard Montgomery, 
on their way from Quebec to St. Paul's 
churchyard, New York city. From 
here took place July 8, 1857, the 
funeral of ex-Governor William L. 
Marcy, when 27 militaiy and 17 fire 
companies joined in the procession. 
Here also lay the lamented Lin ioln, 



OLD 



88 



on whose dead face thousandg of sad- 
dened men and women gazed fi'om 6 
o'clock A. M. till 1.30 p. M., April 
26, 1865. Lafayette was feasted 
here in 1825. Receptions to most 
of the State's distinguished vis- 
itors have been given here ; the 
meetings of State Agricultural, medi- 
cal, military and other societies were 
annually held here. Since its aban- 
donment by the State, a notable loan 
exhibition has been held here. It is 
now used by the courts who were 
turned out of doors by the City Hall 
fire of last winter. 

Other Rooms. — The rooms of the 
Adjutant-General are on this floor, on 
the other side of the hall from the 
Executive chamber, and the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction finds tem- 
porary accommodation in what were 
once the lobT)ies to the Assembly 
chamber. The offices of the State 
Survey and of the Adirondack Sur- 
vey are in the upper part of the 
building. 

Sun-dial. — On the southeast cor. 
of the building is a st(ine projection, 
oval in form, and having twelve 
notches in its outer i-im. It was made 
by an humble stone-cutter named 
Ferguson, from an engi'aving of the 
famous Scotch Ferguson's sun-dial, as 
given in his " Lectures on Select Sub- 
jects in Mechanics, Hydrostatics, etc." 
The stone-cutter Ferguson intended 
to make an exact working copy, as 
there represented, but he loft out the 
rather important adjuncts — the stile 
for casting shadows, and the required 
^our marks. Consequently, it proved 
to be of even less use than beauty. 
But Simeon De Witt, at that time 
surveyor-general and commissioner 
of the capitol, was so impressed with 
its woi'th that he consented to have it 
placed where it now is, and where, as 
Dr. F. B. Hough says, "it has stood 
for nearly three-quarters of a cen- 
tury, a veritable * what is it ? ' " 



Old Houses. — One of the most in- 
teresting features of Albany is its old 
houses, of which the most noteworthy 
are hereafter mentioned : 

The Staats House, cor. State and 
Pearl, is regarded as the oldest edi- 
fice in the city. It is one of two 
which stood there when South Pearl 
was a lane, entered by a gate. When 
the street was widened, the upper 
house, known as Lewis's tavei-n, was 
taken away. There formerly ran 
across the front of these two houses, 
under the eaves, in iron letters, the 
words A7ino Domini, and below, over 
the upper story, the figures, also in 
iron, 16(57. When the upper house 
was taken away, the word A7ino was 
left on the house still standing, and is 
there yet. 

Pemberton House, cor. Columbia 
and N. Pearl. When constructed, 
no two adjoining rooms were on the 
same level ; the ceilings were not 
plastered, but the beams and sleepers 
were polished and waxed, and the 
jambs of the fire-place faced mth ^ 
porcelain, ornamented Avith scripture 
scenes. In eai-lier days this house 
was occupie<i by the Widow Visscher. 
It was especially distinguished as the 
lodging place for Indians when they 
came to Albany for the purpose of 
trading their furs, too often for rum 
and worthless ornaments. Here many 
stirring scenes transpired, when the 
Indians held their pow-wows, and 
became uproarious under the influ- 
ence of strong drink. At such times 
the widow would use her broomstick 
freely. It was a potent sceptre in her 
hands in restoring order, for the most , 
stalwart Indian who had once felt 
its power, looked upon it with awe. 

Vanderheyden" Palace stood on 
Peai'l St., on what is now the site of 
Periy building. The "palace "was 
built in 1725 by Johannes Beekman. 
The bricks were said to have been*-- 
imported from Holland, and the house 




ODILI© CS^Ii^^m^i)^ 



89 



OLD 



was one of tlie best specimens of 
Dutch architecture in the State. It 
was occupied by Mr. Beekman as his 
family residence until his death in 
ITC'G, after which his two daughters 
resided in it until a short time pre- 
vious to the Revolution. In 1778, the 
mansion was purchased by Mr. Jacob 
Vandei-heyden. The dimensions were 
tifty feet front by twenty feet in depth, 
having- a hall and two rooms on a 
floor. (See Elm Tree Corner.) The 
edifice was so antique that it arrested 
the antiquarian fancy of Washington 
Ir\ang, and is described by him in 
the story of Dolph Heyliger, in 
" Bracebridge Hall," as the residence 
of Herr Antony Vanderheyden. The 
weather-\'ane, a horse under great 
stress of speed, now ghtters aljove 
the . peaked turret of the i^o^'^^-l 
at Sunnyside, Mr. Ir\dng having se- 
cured that relic to adorn his country 

The Lydius House stood till 1S32 
on the north-east cor. of State and 
Pearl. (See Elm Tree Corner.) It 
was built expressly for a parsonage. 
The bricks, tiles, iron and woodwork 
were all impoi-ted from Holland. 
They came over with the church bell 
and pulpit in 1G57. The partitions 
were mahogany, and the exposed 
beams ornamented mth carvings in 
high relief, representing the \'ine and 
fruit of the gi'ajie. To show the 
relief more perfectly, the beams were 
painted white. I3althazar Lydius 
was its only occupant for many years. 
He was an eccentric old bachelor, 
and was the terror of all the boys. 
He was a tall, thin Dutchman, with a 
bullet head, fond of his pipe and bot- 
tle, and gloried in celibacy until his 
life was in the "sere and yellow 
leaf." Then he gave a pint of gin 
for a squaw, and calling her his wife, 
lived with her as such until his death, 
m 1815. When his fine old mansion 
was demolished, it was believed to 



have been the oldest brick building 
in the United States. 

The Van Rensselaer Mansion, at 
the head of N. Broadway, was erect- 
ed in 1765, and is a line piece of 




architecture. It is commonly known 
as the Patroon's, and until lately was 
occupied by his descendants. The 
front door opens dii-ectly into a spa- 
cious hall, upon the walls of which is 
paper of most curious and elaborate 
design, put on when the house was 
built, having been imported from 
Holland expressly for the purpose. 
It is still in good condition. 

Schuyler Mansion, head of Schuy- 
ler St., a little west of S. Pearl, is of 
brick with a closed octagonal porch 
in front. It was built by Mrs. S. 
while her husband, Gen. Philip 
Schuyler, was in England in 1760-1. 
(The old family mansion, lai*ge and 
highly ornamented in the Dutch style, 
stood nearly upon the site of the pre- 
sent City Hall, and was taken down in 
1800). In this later mansion Gen. 
Schuyler and family dispensed a 
princely hospitality for almost 40 
years. When Gen. Burgo;^me sur- 
rendered at Saratoga in 1777, he and 
other pi'isoners were sent forward to 
Albany, Gen. Schuyler writing to his 



OUT 



90 



wife to give the Englisli general the 
very best reception in her power. 
"The British commander was well 



^^f- 



(afterwards the wife of the last of 
the Patroons) rushed down stairs, 
snatched her sister from the cradle 
and bore her oft' in safety. As she 
sprang up the staii-s an Indian hui'led 
a shaip tomahawk at her, which cut 
her dress within a few inches of the 
infant's head and struck the stair i-ail 
at the lower tui-n, where the dent is 
still pointed out. The assailants were 




received," wi*ites the Marquis de 
Chastellux, " and lodged in the best 
apartment in the house. An excel- 
lent supper was served him, the hon- 
ors of v.-hich were done with so much 
grace that he was affected even to 
tears, and said with a deep sigh : 
* Indeed this is doing too much for 
the man who has I'avaged their lands 
and bu7'nt their dwellings.' " In 
1781 a plan was laid to capture Gen. 
Schuyler and take him to Canada. 
A party of Tories, Canadians and 
Indians suiTOunded the house for 
several days, and at length forced 
an entrance. The family collected in 
an up]ier room, forgetting to take 
with them an infant child sleejnng in 
the nui*sery. The mother was flying 
back to the rescue when the Genei-al 
prevented her, but the third daughter 



frightened from their purpose, and 
fled to Canada, carrying with them 
much of the General's plate, but not 
the General. In this house Lafay- 
ette, Rochambeau, Baron Steuben, 
and many other notable personages 
were entertained. It is now the resi- 
dence of a private family, and is not 
open to stran gel's. 

Out-door Sports are keenly en- 
joyed in Albany, and various clubs 
are organized for their promotion, 
among them are the following : 

Albany Base Ball Club.— -Has 
grounds at Riverside park, just 
across the river, south of the Imver 
railroad bridge ; reached by bridge 
or boat. 

Albany Caledonian Club. — Organ- 
ized in January, 1874, and has 125 



91 



OYE — PAR 



\ 



members." Enjoys a field-day once a 
year. 

Alraxy Capital Turjs- Verbin. — 
Incorporated in 1869. Meets at 393 
Washing-ton ave. 

Albany City Curling Club. 

Albany Cricket Club. 

Albany Tennis Club. — Has a larg-e 
building- at Jay st. cor. S. Swan. 

Albany Yacht Club. 

Lone Star Base Ball Club, 

Mutual Boat Club. 

Olympic Boat Club. 

E. J. Fitzsimmons Base Ball Club. 

(See Rowing.) 

Overslaugh, from over slag. A 
bar, in the marine lang-uag"e of the 
Dutch. Bai'tlett says, in his "Dic- 
tionary of Americanisms:" "The 
overslaugh in the Hudson river, near 
Albany, on which steamboats and 
other vessels often run ag-round, is, I 
believe, the only locality to which 
this term is now applied among- us." 

Oysters. — To mention oysters in 
Albany is to aug-g-est Reeler's, .just as 
in New York the luscious bivalve 
bring-3 up the name of Dorlon. Keel- 
er's is at 85 Green st., where he has 
accommodations for feeding- 200 per- 
sons at the same time, and it is no 
uncommon thing- for him to do it. 
The secret of the popularity of the 
place is the quality of the oysters, 
the perfect manner in which they are 
cooked, and last, but not least, the 
price, 15 cents a stew. Keeler was 
the first in this city to place the price 
so low, and although many thoug-ht 
he had made a mistake, he and the 
X^ublic did not, and the result has 
nroved the wisdom of the experiment. 
The crowds that g-o there are limited 
to no class nor condition ; the fai'iner 
from the Helderberg-s, the merchant 
from the store, the clerk from the 
counting- house, ministers and law- 
yers, judg-es, editors and bootblacks, 



all eat Reeler's oysters, and declare 
there is nothing- like them, unless it 
be Reeler's clams. Open daily, from 
6 A. M. till 2 A. M. 

Pavement. — Thirty-eig-ht miles of 
the streets in Albany are paved with 
col)ble-stones ; 3.70 miles with granite 
block ; 1.15 with Telford macadam, 
in all about 43 miles of paved streets. 
The averag-e cost of cobble-stone 
pavement per lineal foot, $7 ; aver- 
ag-e cost of gi'anite block per square 
yard, $2.26 ; averag-e cost of repair- 
ing- exclusive of g-ranite block, 17 
cents per square yard. 

Pa"wnbrokers, are under no re- 
strictions in this city, in regard to 
rates of interest, but can charge what- 
ever they like. They are obliged to 
take out a 5?25 license annually, and 
to report daily to the chief of police 
all articles i-oceived by them with 
descriptions of the same. Ten and 
twelve per cent a month is frequently 
charged for money. Pawn tickets 
are made out in the shape of a bill 
of sale ; that is, if you pawn a hun- 
dred dollar gold watch for $20, you 
receive a j^aper signed by the broker 
stating that he has bought a gold 
watch from you for $20 and agreeing 
to resell it to you for $22, if applied for 
within one month ; if, in that time, 
you do not redeem your pledge, the 
watch, according to this pa]:)er, is his. 
Profits of the business must be enor- 
mous ; but it is trading on the neces- 
sities of the poor. There are six 
licensed brokers in the city. 

Parks. — Albany has one spacious 
and beautiful park (see Washington 
Park), but the others are simply 
better than no parks. 

Academy Park. — See separate 
head. 

Clinton Pa^k. — \Vest of N. Pearl 
st. and south of Clinton ave. Has 



PAT — PEA. 



"been pi'etty much destroyed by a 
broad walk crossing it (£ag-onally. 
Area, 16,415 square feet. 

Delaware Square. — South of 
Madison ave., and east of Lai'k st. 
Area, 64,000 square feet. 

Capitol Park. — In front of the Old 
Capitol, on Eag-le st. No care is 
taken of it ; waiting- for the improve- 
ments that will follow the demolition 
of the Old Capitol. Area, 99,000 
square feet. 

TowNSEND Park. — Area 20,700 
square feet. See separate head. 

Hudson Avenue Park. — A little 
breathing- spot between Union and 
Liberty sts., on Hudson ave. Area, 
10,851 square feet. 

Bleecker Park. — Ai-ea, 16,275 
square feet. See separate head. 

Bbverwyck'Park. — Five acres be- 
tween Washington ave., Ontario, 
State and Partridge sts. 

Van Rensselaer Park. — West of 
Ten Broeck, north of Second st. 
Area, 42,400 square feet. 

St. Joseph's Park. — West of Ten 
Broeck, north of First st. Area, 
42,900 square feet. The total area 
of the small Darks of the city is about 
14 acres. 

Patroon. — The Charter of Privi- 
leges and Exemptions, by which the 
feudal system of Patroonship was in- 
stituted in America, was passed by 
the Assembly of the XIX and Com- 
missioners of the States General, June 
17, 1629. By this charter, as first 
constituted, all members of the West 
India Company who planted a colony 
of 50 souls over 15 years of age were 
to be acknowledged Patroons of New 
Netherlands. They were allowed to 
extend their boundaries 16 miles on 
the shores of a navigable I'iver, or 
eight miles on both sides, the extent 
into the interior being unlimited. 
They possessed absolute title to the 
soil; had a monopoly of fishing, hunt- 



ing, and grinding, of all mines and 
minerals, and a pre-emption rig-ht of 
buying the colonist's surplus gi-ain or 
cattle ; their courts had jurisdiction 
in civil and criminal cases, in the 
latter even to punishment by death ; 
colonists could not leave the colony 
without written permission, and after 
their terms of service were fulfilled 
they were com]ielled to retxirn to Hol- 
land. They wei-e, in fact, little better 
than serfs. Killian Van Rensselaer, 
a pearl merchant of Amsterdam, 
availed himself of the privileges 
ofFei-ed by the company (of which he 
was a home director), and by pur- 
chase acquired title to land 24 by 48 
miles in extent. In 1640 the charter, 
which allowed all the privileges en- 
joyed by the feudal barons of Europe, 
was modified, there having arisen a 
controversy between the Patroons and 
the directors in regard to the fur trade 
and other matters. Killian Van Rens- 
selaer never came to this country, nor 
did his son Johannes, who succeeded 
him at his death, in 1648, but the 
affairs were administered by agents 
called schout-fiscaals. The first Pa- 
troon became very lordly in his pre- 
tensions, which were contested vigor- 
ously by the Amsterdam Chamber of 
the West India Company, and it was 
through these quarrels that the land 
on which this city stands was finally 
rescued from feudal tenure. Not so 
the land in the vicinity. Subsequent 
modifications of the charter restricted 
the Patroon's civil powers, but con- 
firmed the relations between landlord 
and tenant, and from those have 
arisen Anti-Rentism (which see, also, 
Early History). 

The last Patroon was Stephen Van 
Pk,ensselaer,' who died May 25, 1868, 
aged 80. 

Pearl Street is divided by State st. 
into North and South Pearl sts. South 
Pearl is really the Bowery, or Cheap- 



93 



PEN 



side of A.lhany. It is narrow, and 
the most of the buildings (with some 
notable exceptions) are low and poor. 
} Bat it is a busy spot, especially on 
Saturday nights, and at the lower end 
reminds one on Sundays of a foreign 
city. It was called Washingi;on st. 
for a time, because when the Father 
of his Countiy visited the city he 
warded through it with Gen. Schuyler, 
from his residence at the Schuyler 
Mansion (see Old Houses), to dine 
vdtla. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer in 
North Pearl st. Somehow the name 
did not stick. 

North Pearl st., until within a few 
years a place of residences, has been 
wi'.iened and greatly improved, and 
is now the business street of the city. 

Penitentiary. — Knox st. south of 
Madison ave. (Take Hamilton st. 
horse cars.) Situated in a park of 
some 12 or 15 acres in extent, front- 
ing upon a magnificent tree-lined av^e- 
nue, and occupying a commanding 
situation, this "castle on the hill" 
bears little external resemblance to a 
prison. Its erection was begun in 

1845, the work of construction being 
done principally by prisoners, who 
wei'e mai'ched from the jail and back 
again each day. The south wing was 
first completed, and was made ready 
for the reception of inmates in April, 

1846. Amos Pilsbury was its first 
superintendent, and to him, in a great 
n'leasure, is due the system which has 
given the institution its high re)-)uta- 
tion throughout the Union. When 
the State prisons were sinking many 
thousand dollars, the Albany Peni- 
tentiary was a source of abundant 
revenue to the county. "What is 
known as the sUeiit, or Aubura sys- 
tem, was adopted from the start. 
The convicts eat and sleep in their 
cells. They are marched to and from 
their work in lock-step, with averted 
faces, and are not permitted to speak 



to each other. The discipline that 
jjrevails seems almost perfect. They 
ai-e kept at work, most of them, in 
the shoe shops, although some brushes 
and a few chairs are made. One 
great seci'et of the financial success 
is, that for many years pi-isoners 
have been received from the United 
States courts, and from other conn- 
ties in the State, for whom board has 
been paid. These men have been 
set at woi'k, and their labor let out 
to contractors at small, but, under the 
circumstances, remunerative wages. 
On the death of Gen. Pilsbmy in 1872, 
he was succeeded by his son, Louis 
D. Pilsbury, who has since been ap- 
pointed general superintendent of ail 
the State prisons. He was succeeded 
in March, 1879, by John McEwen. 
Following is a summary of the finan- 
cial exhibit under the Pilsburys : 

From 1849 to Oct. 31, 1872, un- 
der General Amos PiLbury, 
earnings over onlinarv ex- 
penses ' $206,604 04 

Prom Oct. 31, 1872, to Oct. 31, 
1877, under Louis D Pils- 
bury, earnings over oi dinary 
expenses 168, 500 54 

Total »375,104 58 

The penitentiary had ci'iginally only 
90 cells ; now it has 625 cells. It has 
been enlarged to more than five times 
its original size ; new shops have 
been built, and a wall built inclosing 
the entire yai'<:l of the prison. These 
and many other minor impi-ovements 
were paid for out of the earnings, At 
a cost of ;gl63,393.48. In addition to 
this, thej^e was paid in cash into the 
county treasuiy, or by order of the 
county authorities, $140,237.85. The 
balance of gain is accounted for by 
cash on hand, debts due, and prop- 
erty on hand. Notwithstanding this 
fine showing, much dissatisfaction has 
been, at times, felt by the worldng- 
men, because of this system of con- 
tract labor, and many votes have 



PEO — PER 



94 



been influenced thereby. Visitors 
are allowed to g-o throug-h the institu- 
tion, every day, except Sundays and 
holidays, on payment of 25 cents 
each . D uring* the past year the aver- 
ag-e number of convicts has been about 
800. 

People's Line. — These steamboats 
are unquestionably the finest river 
craft in use in the known woi'ld. The 
fleet consists of the '* St. John," which 
beg-an running- March 17, 1864 ; the 
**I)ean Richmond," which made her 
first a2:)peaiance at Albany, July 20, 
1865 ; the " Drew," April 24, 1867. 
Dui'ing" the season of naNdg-ation, one 
boat leaves New York at 6 p.m., and 
one, Albany, at 8 p.m., daily, except 
Sundays, connecting- with the north- 
ern and western ti-ains. The third 
boat is held as a reserve. The sleep- 
ing- and eating- accommodations, equal 
in every res])ect to those of a first- 
class hotel; the freedom from dust 
and noise and jar, make transit by 
this route the perfection of modern 
traveling-. Tourists from abroad look 
upon these floating- palaces with per- 
fect wonder ; nothing- like them was 
ever dreamed of anywhere but in 
democratic America, where nothing- 
is too g-ood for the g-eneral public. 
The ti'ip from New York by this line 
in midsummer affords a view of the 
most beautiful portion of the Hudson 
scenery, while the passag-e through 
the Hig-hlands by moonhght is simply 
enchanting-. 

Perry & Co.'s Stove Works.— 

The manufactvire of stoves in this 
country has grown to an annual pro- 
duct of more than 2,000,000 in num- 
ber, absorbing some 250,000 tons of 
iron, and realizing in their sale from 
$30,000,000 to {^35,000,000. 

Previous to the year 1835, the stoves 
on the market were crude in their 
construction, rough and imperfect in 
quality, utterly destitute of ornament, 



and necessarily heavy from being cast 
directly from the oi-e in blast-furna- 
ces. This extreme thickness of plates 
was rather an element of weakness 
than of strength, by reason of their 
unequal expansion and contraction 
when in use, besides the further disad- 
vantage of inconvenience in moving. 

The firm of William V. Many & 
Co., propi-ietors of the Eagle Air 
Furnace, the second consti'uction of 
the kind north of the Highlands, was 
among the first in this country to 
manufacture improved patterns of 
stoves from pig iron in a cupalo 
furnace. ' i 

This finn continued in business f 
until 1843, when it was succeeded by 
Tread well & Peny, who with others 
continued the manufacture until ] SGO, 
when they were succeeded by John 
S. Perry, and subsequently by Perry I 
& Co. The business of this firm has ' 
increased from 1,000 tons of stoves a 
year, to the unprecedented amount 
of 9,000 tons, or about 75,000 stoves, 
representing from |1, 100,000 to 
{^1,200,000. 

This firm has on its pay-roll, 500 
citizens, and 900 convicts, nearly the 
whole number being em|^loyed every 
working day in the year. 

Their sales reach every State and 
Territory in the Union, besides many 
foreign countries, among which may 
be mentioned. Great Britain, Ger- 
many, Norway, Russia, Tui-key, Asia 
Minor, South Afi-ica, South Amei-ica, 
Mexico, etc. 

The facilities of this firm for the 
shipment of goods ai-e very great. 
Cai's ai-e loaded to a great extent 
along side of their own warehouses, 
and forwarded, withoiit breaking 
bulk, to every pai-t of the country 
where railroads exist. No fact is 
more significant of the wonderful 
progress which this c6unti'y has 
made during the past fifty years in 
the facilities for intercommunication. 



95 



PHO — PIE 



and this work is g'oing' on, the lines 
being- extended at the rate of 8,U00 
to 10,0JU miles a year. 

The city of Albany may justly be 
termed a railway centre. This fea- 
ture, with its cheap and abundant 
markets, and its salubrious climate, 
must always make it a favorable point 
for manufactui'ing-. 

The tirm of Perry & Co. are one of 
the pioneers in the stove business, 
and no concern has done more to 
improve the character and quahty of 
their goods. 

In the year 1873 they revolution- 
ized the construction of heating- 
stoves, when they put on the market 
the well-known Arg-and Base Burner, 
from which nearly every pattern now 
manufactured is modeled. 

Perry & Co. have sold more than 
150,000 stoves of this character, and 
the present sale is not less than 
15,0()() per annum. 

In the construction of rang-es, their 
success has been only second to that 
of the Arg-and. Their noted patterns 
known as the Belmont, the Brunswick, 
the Bei-wick and the Bristol, have a 
very extended popularity and sale. 

As a further indication of the mag-- 
nitude of the business of this firm, as 
well as of the g-ro^ving- aesthetic taste 
of the public, it may be mentioned 
that Perry & Co. employ over 200 
men in the department of polishing- 
and nickel plating- work for their 
stoves. This prog-ress is significant 
in view of the fact that not ten years 
have passed since the first stove was 
thus ornamented. There is no rea- 
son why stoves should not vie in ele- 
gance with other furniture. 

Photographs. (See Notman.) 

Pianos. — The inventor of the piano 
is as numerous as the author of 
"Beautiful Snow." The Italians, 
Germans, French and English all 



claim the honor, but an ai*ticle said 
to have been wi-itten by Maflei, and 
puV)lished in Venice in 1711, and i*e- 
produced by Di\ Rimbault, awai-ds 
priority to Cristofali, a harpsichord 
maker of Padua, who flourished be- 
fore that date. Pianos were known 
in England as early as 1757. Their 
manufacture in this country was be- 
gun in the first quarter of the present 
century, and now amounts in value 
to many millions annually. Pianos 
ai-e almost as common as centre tables, 
and no house is considei-ed fmniished 
without one. They range in price 
from $200 to §2,500. A large assort- 
ment requii-es a large capital and 
large warerooms. The music stores 
of a city are consequently a prominent, 
and to lovers of the art, one of its 
most interesting features. The largest 
music store in Albanv is that of 
C. E. Wendell, in the Pruyn Build- 
ing. 68 N. Pearl st., adjoining the 
Kenmore Hotel. The front, ^Adth 
its immense };)late-glass windows, 
is one of the handsomest in the 
city. Inside, the store, forty feet 
in width, stretches away 115 feet, and 
is filled with as fine a selection of 
pianos, from the celebrated Knabe 
and Marshall & Wendell manufac- 
tories, as can be found anywhere, and 
in all styles, grand, upright and 
square. The Palace organ is given 
a pi'ominent place, and thei-e are 
other musical instruments of all kinds 
quite too numerous to mention ; be- 
sides piles and pyi^amids of sheet 
music, music books, etc. In short, 
this may be considered musical head- 
quarters in Albany. During the 
winter, piano recitals, etc., are to be 
given here, a feature which the ex- 
cellent acoustic properties of this 
great music hall wiU make specially 
enjoyable. 

Pier, The.— Was built in 1825. Is 

nearly 4,400 feet long, 80 feet wide 



PIN — POS 



96 



and 20 feet hig-h. It encloses a basin 
of 32 acres which makes a liarbor for 
1,000 canal boats and 50 vessels of a 
larger class. It cost $130,000 The 
sale of lots on the pier took })lace in 
the July following its completion, 
when 122 lots brought $1^9,410. 
Although the pier is now nearly for- 
saken, the company is out of debt. 
Chauncey M. Depew, pi'e.>. ; M. T. 
Hun, sec. The opening in the pier 
at the foot of Maiden lane was au- 
thorized in 1836. 

Pinkster. — A negro festival which 
used to be celebrated on Capitol hill 
when slavery existed in the State. 
It began on the Monday following 
Whitsunday or Day of Pentecos , and 
lasted a week. The ground M'as laid 
out in the form of an oblong square, 
enclosed on three sides by i-ude 
booths, and here the dancing and 
meri'y-making took place. " Charley 
of the Pinkster hill," an old Afi'ican 
negro, was king of the revels. After 
his death the festival was not so much 
observed, and fell into disrepute. In 
1811 the common council foi-bade the 
erection of stalls on account of the 
scenes of disorder which prevailed, 
and so the custom died out. 

Police. — The head-quarters of the 
police department are in the City 
Building. The police board, which 
exercises entire control over the de- 
partment, consists of the mayor, ex 
officio, pres., and four commissioners, 
two of each party, elected to serve 
four years. With the exception of 
the one who acts as secretary, for 
which he receives §5500, they serve 
without pay. 

Precincts. — The city is divided 
into five precincts, each of which is 
in charge of a captain, two sergeants 
and one roundsman. 

The First precinct includes that 
part south of Hamilton and east of 



Eagle, extending to the liver and the 
south end of the city. Fo. ce, 22 pa- 
trolmen. Station, No. 59 S. Ferry st. 

The Second precinct line extends 
along the river from Hamilton to 
Quackenbush st., up Quackenbush 
and Clinton ave. to Lark, through 
Lark to Spruce, to Eagle to Hamilton 
to the river. Force, 20 patrolmen. 
Station, City Building. 

The Thii-d precinct includes all the 
city north of Clinton and east of Lex- 
ington aves. Force, 22 patrolmen. 
Station, 799 Broadway. 

The Foui-th precinct line I'uns from 
Eagle through Spruce to Laik, thence 
to Clinton ave., to Lexington ave., 
and along the south lins of the city to 
Eagle. Force, 20 patrolmen. Sta- 
tion, 153 Lancaster st. 

The Fifth precinct includes all west 
of* Lexington ave. Force, 12 patrol- 
men. Station, 284 Centi-al ave. 

In all, the force consists of the chief, 
salary, $2,. 500 ; five captains, salaries, 
§^1,200 ; 10 sergeants, salaries, !^1,000; , 
about 100 patrolmen, salaries, $900 ; 1 
5 detectives, with ca]_)tain ; 5 station- ■ 
house keepers ; six police-court of- 
ficers ; one propei'ty clerk ; one police 
surgeon ; total, 135. Tlie annual ex- 
pense of running the department is X 
about $125,000. f 

Population. — According to the 
official censuses, Albany in 1790, con- 
tained 3,506 persons ; in 1800, 5,349 ; 
in 1810, 10,762; 1820, 12,.541; 1830, 
24,238; 1840, 33,762; 1845, 42,139; 
1850, 50,762 ; 1855, 57,383 ; 1860, 62,- 
367 ; 1865, 62,613 ; 1870, 69,422 ; 1875 
(6 additional wards having- been 
erected), 86,013 ; 1880, 91,243. (See 
Census of 1880.) 

Post Office, south-east cor. Bi*oad- 
way and Columbia st. William H. i 
Craig, postmaster ; Isaac McMurdy, * 
assist. Open fi'om 7:30 a. m. to 7:30 
p. M. On Sundays, from 9 to 10 A. 



97 



PRE 



M., and from 6 to 7 p. m. The mail 
is delivered by 30 carriers, who make 
two trips daily throughout the city ; 
also to Greenbush, Bath, East and 
West Albany ; to Menand's, the ceme- 
tery and to Kenwood. In the busi- 
ness part of the city, deUvery is made 
five times a day. Collections from the 
letter boxes are made at the same time 
that the mail is delivered, the boxes on 
State between Broadway and Pearl 
being- last visited at 7 p.m. A g-eneral 
collection is also made at 5 p. M. on 
Sundays. All mails close on Sundays 
at 7 P. M. Boxes are rented at {^1.50 
per quarter; drawers at $3.00. Al- 
bany is One of the large distributing 
offices, and about thirty clerks are 
employed. 

Presbyterian Churches. — Presby- 
terianism in Albany dates back to 
1761 or 2. 

The First church originally occu- 
pied a building which stood on a lot 
bounded by Beaver, William, Grand 
and Hudson sts., but in 1796 moved 
into a new brick edifice cor. Beaver 
and South Pearl sts., now known as 
Beaver block. The present edifice, 
cor. Hudson ave. and Philip st., was 
opened March 10, 1850. It was 
finished on the outside in imitation 
of brown-stone, but the mastic peeled 
off, and within a year or two has been 
removed, at considerable expense. 
The building occupies an area of 120 
by 75 feet; the tower is 26 feet 
square, and 156 feet liigh ; seating 
capacity, 1,200. The lecture-room 
adjoining, was erected in 1856, and 
dedicated June 17, 1857. The cost 
of both was i^ll 5,000. The church 
has had 13 pastors, including the 
X>resent incumbent. Rev. Walter D. 
Nicholas, who was installed Sept. 16, 
1880. 

Second. — Chapel st. between Maid- 
en lane and Pine. The comer-stone 
of this edifice was laid Oct. 11, 1813, 



and the building dedicated Sept. 3, 
1815, cost Jj375,000 ; was renovated in 
1847 at a cost of $9,000. Will seat 
1,400. This church for many years 
was presided over by Rev. Dr. 
Sprague . It is no sv without a pastor . 
Membership), 465 ; Sunday school, 
518; Sunday services at 10| and 4; 
Sunday school- at 9. 

Clinton Squake. — Cor. Clinton ave. 
and N. Pearl st. Corner-stone laid 
July, 1844. Church dedicated Dec. 
3, 1845 ; will seat 850. House and 
lot cost $24,000 ; no debt. Organiza- 
tion formed Feb. 5, 1817, by the union 
of the Associate Reformed chm*ch 
(which can be traced back to 1796), 
with a number of members from the 
First Presbyterian church. At first 
the congregation worshij)ped in the 
building on Montgomery st., known 
as the Bethel ; in 1845 it removed to 
its present edifice. Pastors — Rev. 
Hooper Cumming (1817-1823), Rev. 
Joseph Hulbert (1823-1824), Rev. 
Jno. Alburtiss (1825-1828), Rev. Wil- 
liam H. WiUiams (1828-1830), Rev. 
William Lochead (1831-1833), Rev. 
Wilham James, D. D. (1834-1835), 
Rev. Ezra A. Huntington, D. D. 
(1837-1855), Rev. Ebenezer Halley, 

D. D. (1855-1875), Rev. Horace C. 
Stanton, installed Feb. 27, 1877. 
Robert Strain, clerk of session ; Thos. 
S. Murphy, pres. board of trustees ; 

E. Huntington Marvin, treasurer. 
Sunday services, 10^ a.m., and 7-5 
P.M. ; singing by choir and congrega- 
tion ; Miss Kate Halley, musical di- 
rector. Bible school at 2 p.m., Wil- 
liam D. Si^elman, supt. Lectui*e, 
Wednesday, 1^ p. m. Whole num- 
ber of members enrolled since organ- 
ization, 1,231. Number reported at 
close of last year, 402. 

Fourth. — I3roadway above Clinton 
ave. Rev. Henry Darling, D. D., 
pastor. The church was organized 
in 1828, and was a branch from the 
Second Church. The first edifice was 



PRE 



98 



erected where the present one stands 
in 1830. The tirst pastor was Rev. 
E. N. Kirk, who served till 1837, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. Ed- 
ward D. Allen, and he, in 1843, by 
Rev. S. \V. Fisher ; 1848-9, Rev. B. 
N. Martin ; 1850-4, Rev. H. Mander- 
ville; 1855-63, Rev. S. T. Seelye; 
1864, the present pastor. The present 
edifice was dedicated Sept. 18, 1866 ; 
will seat 1470. Present church mem- 
bership 732 ; Sunday school, 760. 
The averag-e contiibutions for beneti- 
cent and congreg-ational purjjoses, 
during- the past 16 years, amount to 
$25,417 annually. 

State Street, south side, above 
Swan. Rev. John McC. Holmes, 
pastor. The corner-stone of the edi- 
fice laid July 18, 1861 ; house dedi- 
cated Oct. 12, 18(52 ; is perpendicular 
Gothic, 111 by 69 feet ; seats 1,000 ; 
total cost, including lot, org-an, etc., 
$59,626. The Sabbath school, D. J. 
Pratt, supt., numbers 1,037, and is 
the largest in the city. Church mem- 
bership 694. Sunday services at 
lOi and 7i 

Sixth. — Second st. below Lark, 
sprang from a weekly prayer meet- 
ing begun in a private house, 276 
Lumber st., by the efforts of John S. 
Smith, Dec, 1855. A mission Sunday 
.school gathered by him the next year, 
at 166 Third st., soon required larger 
quarters, and in March, 1858, with 
Wm. H. Ross, he purchased Mount 
Zion Mv'^thodist Chapel, now Primary 
School No. 23. This property was 
transferred, in 1864, to a missionary 
society of the Fourth Presbyterian 
Church, and the Sixth Church was 
organized here, Dec. 8, 1869, with 65 
members, of whom 46 came by letter 
from the Fourth Church. Rev. A. 
H. Dean, who had gathered the con- 
gregation, was installed pastor May 
5, 1870. The present edifice was 
erected in 1871, and cost, including 
]ot, about §50,000, of which about 



$25,000 was provided by the mission- 
ary society of the Fourth Church ; a 
mortgage debt of $17,000 remained 
upon the building. Rev. A. H. Dean 
resigned in June, 1873 The present 
pastoi'. Rev. William Dui'ant, was in- 
stalled Dec. 9, 1873. By the generous 
aid of the other Presbyterian churches 
in the city, the debt was entirely re- 
moved March 24, 1880. In Oct. of 
the same year extensive repairs and 
improvements were made to the 
building. Pi-esent church officei'S : 
E. A. Ross, clerk of session ; James 
Vint, treas. of trustees ; Albert H. 
Sliter, supt. of Sunday school. Or- 
ganizations for Christian work : Au- 
gustinian Society, Rev. Wm. Durant, 
moderatoi"; W^ Oman's Foreign Mis- 
sionaiy Society, Mrs. G. P. Pi-escott, 
pres. ; Ladies' Association, Miss Lucy 
B. Stantial, pres.; Dale Mi? sion Band, 
Miss Carrie Nichols, leader. A cir- 
culating library, in charge of Miss 
A. M. Prescott, is open every Wed- 
nesday afternoon and evening. Whole 
number of chuch members enrolled 
422 ; present numbej", 250 : Sunday 
school, 430. Sunday services at 10-| 
A. M. and H p. M. ; Sunday school at 
21 V. M., followed by prayer meeting. 
Services during week : Prayer meet- 
ings, of young men, Mondays at 74 
p. M.; of ladies, Wednesdays at 7 
p. M.; of church, Wednesdays at 7| 
p. M.; teachers' meeting, Fridays at 
7| p. M. 

West End.— Cor. Third st. and N. 
Y. C. ave. Dedicated, March 25, 1877. 
Cost, including lot, $8,250. No debt. 
Will seat 550. Jime 3, 1878, a church 
was organized, consisting of 45 mem- 
bers. Rev. Robert Ennis was in- 
stalled jmstor, Nov. 21, 1878. Thos. 
R. Blackburn, A. G. Eraser, John 
Bronk and David Downs, elders ; 
John Bi'onk, clerk of session ; John 
BlackbuiTi, Thos. R. Blackburn, A. G. 
Eraser, James Spoor, John C. Munro, 
W. N. Hayes, M. D., trustees; Dr. 




THF HIGH SCHOOL. 



99 



PUB 



"W. N. Hayes, treas. Sunday service, 
10^ A. M. and 7i p. m. Sunday school, 
2 p. M. ; pastor, superintendent. 
Wliole number of members enrolled, 
115 ; present members, 106. 

United Presbyterian. — Lancas- 
ter St. near Eagle. The present 
edifice was first occupied as a place 
of public worship in January, 
1861. It is a neat and substantial 
building-, 81x58. Cost, including- lot, 
$20,000 (antebellum prices). - The con- 
g-reg-ation formerly worshipped in the 
building- cor. Chapel and Canal sts., 
first occupied January, 1802. The 
first pastor of the cong-regation was 
Rev. John McDonald, who officiated 
from January, 1801, to March, 1819. 
After his resignation, the congrega- 
tion transferred their ecclesiastical 
connection from the Presbytery of 
Montreal to that of Cambridge. Rev. 
James Martin, D. D., was the next 
jiastor, who served from May, 1824, 
until May, 1842, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. R. J. Hainmond, 
from November, 1843, until Septem- 
ber, 1844. The present pastor. Rev. 
S. F. Mor]'ow, D. D., was orciained 
and installed July, 1846. Present 
membership about 220. Sunday ser- 
vices, 10^ A. M., and 4 p. m. The Sab- 
bath-school, 2* p. M. ; Mr, Samuel 
Templeton, superintendent. 

Spragub Chapel. — State st. cor. 
Lexington ave. ; Gilbert M. Tucker, 
superintendent. 

Public Instruction. — The Board 
of Public Instruction is composed 
of twelve members, and was cre- 
ated by chapter 444, Laws of 1866. 
Four members go out of office each 
year, and their successors are chosen 
at the annual election — two Demo- 
crats and two Republicans. The 
bofj'd has entire control of the public 
schools ; fixes the grades of study, 
appoints teachers, builds, maintains, 
and regulates school-houses, etc. No 



salary is attached to the office. The 
rooms of the board are in the High 
School Building on Eagle st. cor. 
Columbia, where meetings are held 
on the first and third Monday eve- 
ning's in the month, except August. 

Schools. — The public schools ai-e 
26 in number, with sittings for 11,480 
pupils. The number of scholars en- 
rolled is 14,049 ; the average attend- 
ance 9,175. The schools are located 
as follows : 

No. 1.— 310 South Pearl st.; Juha 
M. Janes, principal ; 318 sittings ; 
average attendance, 278. 

No. 2.— 218 State st.j Lewis H. 
Rockwell ; 350 sittings j average at- 
tendance, 304. 

No. 3.-7 Van Tromp st.; Martha 
McFarland ; 200 sittings ; attendance, 
155. 

No. 4. — 55 Union ; Kate McAuley -, 
206 sittings ; attendance, 126. 

No. 5.— 172 N. Pearl st.; John A. 
Howe ; 296 sittings ; attendance, 226. 

No. 6. — 105 Second st.; Almond 
Holland ; 617 sittings ; attendance, 
588. 

jNTo. 7.-56 Canal st.; YfiUiam L. 
Martin ; 300 sittings ; attendance, 
208. 

No. 8. — 157 Madison ave.; John E. 
Sherwood; 338 sittings; attendance, 
294. 

No. 9. — South Ferry and Dallius ; 
Jennie Simpson ; 210 sittings ; at- 
tendance, 129. 

No. 10.— 182 Washington ave.; G. 
H. Benjamin; 348 sittings; attend- 
ance, 292. 

No. 11. — 409 Madison ave.; Josiah 
H. Gilbert ; 696 sittings ; attendance, 
571. • 

No. 12. — Washington avenue and 
Robin St. ; E. E. Packer ; 786 sit- 
tings ; attendance, 689. 

No. 13. — Broadway and Lawrence ; 
P. H. McQuade; 522 sittings; at- 
tendance, 410. 

No- 14. — 70 Trinity place ; Jas. L. 



QUA — QUI 



100 



Bothwell; 902 sitting's; attendance, 
792. 

No. 15. — Herkimer and Franklin ; 
Levi Cass; 1,008 sittings; attend- 
ance, 769. 

No. 16. — 203 Hudson ave.; Eleanor 
F. Dickson; 142 sittings; attend- 
ance, 67. 

No. 17. — Second ave. and Stephen ; 
Charles A. White; 448 sittings; at- 
tendance, 358 

No. 18. — Madison and "Westera 
aves. ; Josephine Clement ; 224 sit- 
tings ; attendance, 100. 

No. 19.— 54 Canal st. ; Mary A. 
Simpson ; 224 sittings ; attendance, 
195. 

No. 20.— Mohawk st., N. Albany ; 
E. H. Torrey ; 244 sittings ; attend- 
ance, 276. 

No. 21.-658 Clinton ave. ; A. F. 
Onderdonk ; 672 sittings ; attend- 
ance, 534. 

No. 22. — Second st., west of Lex- 
ington ave.; Jennie A. Utter; 504 
sittings ; attendance, 343. 

No. ^3. — 142 Second st. ; Lizzie 
McCarthy ; 184 sittings ; attendance, 
183. 

No. 24. — 41 7 Madison ave. ; Jennie 
Hepinstall ; 608 sittings ; attendance, 
583. 

No. 25 — Morton above Hawk ; 
Mary L. Hotaling ; 448 sittings ; at- 
tendance, 163. 

High School. — Eagle and Steuben ; 
Prof. John E. Bradley, principal ; 
617 sittings ; attendance, 542. 

Finances. — The total income of the 
board for the year ended Aug. 31, 
1880, was 1^272,968.36, of which .^145,- 
477.81 was raised by tax, $74,652.26 
was carj'ied over from the preceding 
year, and J548,171.93 was received 
from the State ; expenditures, J^196,- 
186.24. The expenses of the several 
schools range from 151.980.72 at No. 
16, to $24,143.63 at the High School. 

The average cost per pupil, based 
on total expenditui-e and average 



number belonging, is $19.60. The 
estimated value of lots and buildings 
under the control of the boai-d, is 
$799,750. 

The High School Building, of 
which a cut is given, was erected in 
1875-6, on the lot foi-merly occupied 
by the old reservoir, and has 85 feet 
front on Eagle street, 135 on Steuben 
and 120 on Columbia. Ifc is domes- 
tic Gothic in style, and admii-ably 
arranged for the purpose foi- which 
it was intended. Cost, $140,000. The 
High School was first opened as the 
Free Academy, at 119 State st., in 
Sept., 1868, and moved into its new 
quartei*s May 4, 1876. 

Quaker Meeting House, on Plain 

st. below Grand, is an extremely 
modest building standing well back 
fi'om the street. It was erected in 
1835 ; is 36x42, and will seat about 
400 persons. Cost, $5,000. 

Quinn's News Room and Stands. 

— The sti-anger in a city often judges 
it in no small degree from its news- 
stands. It is there he goes to look 
in a hand or guide book, or in the 
local papers for i-eliable infoi*mation 
about the place he has entered. If 
the»stand is neat, well ari-anged and 
well stocked with the very latest 
pubhcations, if the attendant is in- 
telligent, coui'teous and active, the 
first impi*ession is a favorable one, 
and first impi-essions are e^■erything. 
These conditions are all met at the 
three places managed by B. Quinn, 
who not so many years ago displayed 
air his wares on a medium sized cel- 
lar door ; now, he has, at 498 Broad- 
way (second door from Maiden lane, 
the street on which both depots empty 
their passengers), one of the best ap- 
pointed and best served news-rooms 
in the city ; and near the north-east 
and south-west cornei^s of State and 
Pearl sts., two news-stands always 



i 



101 



RAI — REF 



stocked with the most desirable wares 
known to the news vender's trade. 
It is absolutely essential that a news- 
man should be a live man prompt to 
note and cater to the foible of the 
day, and this is Mr. Quinn's leading- 
characteristic and what is reflected 
in every one of his employees. " The 
latest," in such a trade is always the 
most desirable, no matter whether it 
be the edition of a paper, the issue of 
a novehst, or the photograph of an 
actor. Mr. Quinn's room is specially 
noted for novelties in the theatrical 
line, such as pictures of professonals, 
dramatic papers, magazines, books, 
etc., but his assortment includes all 
articles known to the stationer's trade, 
and it is, in fact, difficult to leave the 
place without buying something-, so 
attractive is the contents and courte- 
ously is it shown. The store has 
recently been much enlarged and 
greatly improved. 

Railroad Depots. — But two in the 

city ; the Central & Hudson River 
and the Boston & Albany railroads 
occupying the Union depot, just north 
of Maiden lane and east of Broad- 
way, and the Northern and Western 
divisions of the Delaware & Hudson 
Canal Co.'s road having their depot 
at the foot of Maiden lane. The cars 
of the latter road run alongside the 
steamboat landing, and during navi- 
gation unload passengers there also. 

Reformed Churches. — The Re- 
formed Dutch was the reUgion of this 
colony. 

First Church. — Cor. N. Pearl and 
Orange sts.. Rev. Rufus "W. Clark, 
D. 1)., pastor ; is famiharly known as 
the Two Steepled church. The organ- 
ization worshiping here is one of the 
two oldest in America, the other be- 
ing the Collegiate Reformed church 
of New York. The first pastor was 
Rev. Johannes Megapolensis, wh© 



was sent over by the Patroon at his 
own expense in 1642. The church 
was for some time sustained by the 
public revenue, and in 1686 one hun- 
dred and fifty acres of land were 
granted it. Children of the colony 
were not allowed to be baptized else- 
where. For more than 140 years 
(till 1782) services were conducted in 
Dutch. The first edifice was near 
Fort Orange, on what is now Steam- 
boat square ; Church st., in that vi- 
cinity receiving its name for prox- 
imity thereto. This building was 
34x19, and cost $32. In 1656 a new 
edifice was erected at the intersection 
of what are now State st. and Broad- 
way. The dead were buried under 
this church, and as late as 1852-3 
coffins were exhumed. In 1715 a new 
building (see Antiquities) was erected 
over this one, and stood for 91 
years, when the site was sold to the 
city for $5,000, and the materials 
worked into the Second church on 
Beaver st. The present edifice was 




dedicated in 1799, but its interior has 
been modified three times: in 1820, 



REL 



102 



i 



1850 and 1860. It will seat 1,200. 
The org-an, with 3,000 pipes, is the 
largest in the city, and cost $12,000. 
The bell, key D fiat, weighs 8,656 
lbs. Rev^ Dr. Clark has had 18 pre- 
decessors. He was installed in 1862. 

Secoxd Church. — Rev. Dwight K. 
Bartlett, pastor. An elegant struc- 
ture is now building, cor. Madison 
ave. and South Swan st. The corner- 
stone of the old edifice on Beaver st., 
between Pearl and Green, was laid 
April 30, 1806. It was planned after 
St. Paul's in New York, and is sit- 
uated upon the old cemetery, where 
it is said the bones of dead men are 
mouldei-ing three coffins deep. 

In 1815, the Collegiate form of gov- 
ernment under which the First and 
Second churches had been united, 
w^as brought to a close, the property 
held in common being divided into 
parcels and left to the decision of the 
lot. The Collegiate ministers at the 
time — John DeWitt, D. D., and John 
M. Bradford, D. D. — received the as- 
signment of their respective churches 
by the vote of the consistory which 
presided over the two congregations. 
By this division, the Second church 
received its present name in substi- 
tution for its former one ■ — South 
church. 

The following is the order of minis- 
terial succession since the Second 
church assumed an independent sepa- 
rate existence : John DeWitt, D. D. 
(two years of whose pastorate was 
under the Collegiate form), 1813-1823 ; 
Isaac N. Ferris, D. D., 1824-1836 ; 
Isaac N. Wyckoff, D. D., 1836-1866 ; 
Joachim Elmendorf, D. D., 1865-1872 ; 
D^\^ght K. Bartlett, D. D., 1873. The 
present officers are : Elders, Stephen 
LaGrange, V. H. Youngman, W. L. 
M. Phelps, G. H. Ackeraian ; Dea- 
cons, Charles C. Shaw, J. A. Wilson, 
James A. Houck, G. W. Yerks ; 
Supt. of Sabbath school, James A. 
"Wilson. 



Third. — Cor. Green and Ferry sts. 
Rev. J. B. Campbell, pastor. " The 
conier-stone was laid, April 20, 1837, 
the gi'Ound having been given by 
Stephen Van Rensselaer. The church 
w^as organized Dec 19, 1834. Sept. 
28, 1841, fire took in the cupola, and 
destroyed everything but the walls. 
It was rebuilt and occupied the fol- 
lowing summer. 

FouETH. — Schuyler below S. Pearl ; 
Rev. J. F. Neef, pastor ; Adam 
Liebel, supt. (A German church). 

Holland. — 153 Jay st. ; Rev. H. 
K. Boer, pastor ; "W. H. De Rouville, 
supt. of Sabbath school. 

Religious Societies. — The follow- 
ing are some of the societies con- 
nected with the various churches in 
Albany : 

Baptist Social Union. — Meets on 
the first Thursday of December, 
March, June and September ; John 
F. Rathbone, pres. ; T. J. Williams, 
sec. ; Hiram Hotaling, treas. 

Methodist Sunday School Union. — 
Annual meeting third Monday in Jan- 
uary ; Henry Kelly, pres. ; J. C. 
Hubbell, Orlando Johnson, sees. 

Bible and Common Prayer-book 
SociETi\ — Bishop Doane, pres. 

County Sunday School Associa- 
tion. — Annual meeting in October. 
W. G. Carr, pres. 

Cathedral Sodality'. — Thomas J. 
Lanahan, prefect. 

Grace Church Guild. — Edward 
W. Sewall, pres. 

St. Joseph's Society. — Meets Sun- 
days at 9 A. M. Rev. T. M. A. Buike, 
directoi". 

St. Mary's Young Men's Sodal- 
ity. — Bernard F. Sweeney, prefect. 

St. Patrick's Young Men's Sodal- 
ity. — Owen J. Hart, j^refect. 

West Albany Railway Y. M. C. 
A. — Seth Clark, pres. 

Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union.— 26 William st., Mrs. S. R. 



103 



RIF — ROW 



Gray, pres. j Mrs. Mary Pniyn, 
sec. 

Young Men's Sodality of St. 
John's. Rev. W. J. Finneran, direc- 
tor. 

Young Men and Young "Women's 
Covenant Bands of the First Bap- 
tist Church. ^ 

Young People's Association of 
First Lutheran Church. — H. E. 
Pohlman, pres. 

Young People's Association of 
First Presbyterian Church. — Chas. 
L. Weaver, pi-es. 

Young People's Association of 
Fourth Presbyterian Church. — R. 
W. Thacher, pres. 

Young People's Association of the 
Second Reformed Church. — W. L. 
M. Phelps, pres. 

Young People's Association of Tab- 
ernacle Baptist Church. — Franklin 
Winne, pres. 

Nearly all the churches have similar 
associations for young" people. (See, 
also. Missionary Societies). 

Rifle Association, Third Division. 

Organized in 1876 ; chartei^ed under 
the laws of the State. A range for 
the use of the members and the Na- 
tional Guard of the division district 
was established at Grand View Park, 
Rensselaer county, in 1877. June 
24, 1880, the range was removed 
to Rensselaerwyck, on the Forbes 
estate, near Bath-on-the-Hudson. 
Monthly matches are shot on the 
range, undei* the direction of the As- 
sociation. The principal events of 
the year take place during the 
annual fall meetings,, when the 
division prize is shot for by teams 
I'epresenting all the org-anizations in 
the district. At present only second 
and third class targets are used upon 
the range. 

Riverside Park. — An enclosure on 
the island across the river, leased by 



the Albany Base Ball Club. Reached 
by way of the lower bridge, or by 
ferry from the foot of State st. 

Rogues' Gallery. — A collection of 
curiosities and relics pertaining- to- 
the history of crime in this \dcinity, 
including- a large number of photo- 
g-raphs of criminals and dangei-ous 
characters. It was formerly dis- 
played in a room adjoining- the De- 
tectives' bureau, in the City Building ; 
but after the City Hall tire the room 
was wanted for something else, and 
the collection is now stored in the 
Fifth Precinct station-house, but is 
not accessible to the public. 

Rowing. — The first rowing organ- 
ization in Albany was the Pioneer 
Club, which was founded in 1857, but 
did not own a racing craft until the 
following year, when they purchased 
from a Philadelphia club a four-oared 
boat called the "Ivanhoe." In 1858 
the Knickerbocker Club was formed, 
and the *' Hiawathas" and "Excel- 
siors " soon followed. The year 1859 
witnessed the first match i-ace in 
Albany waters, which arose from a 
challenge of the Knickerbockers to 
the " Pioneers " for the championship. 
The Knicks rowed a six-oared barge 
against the Pioneer's four, and to the 
suiprise of the 3,000 spectators who 
g-athered to see the contest, the Pion- 
eer Club was victorious. The Pion- 
eers after winning the cham^iionship 
rowed no more races, but existed for 
ten years as a pleasure club onlv. 

On the 11th and 12th of October, 
1860, a grand regatta for both ama- 
teur and ^professional oarsmen was 
arranged. The six-oared shell race 
was won by the crew of the *' Dan 
Bryant," defeating the Knickerbock- 
ei"s and Hiawathas. In the double 
scull race Piepenbrink and Young 
won, while in the professional single 
scull contest Josh Ward captured the 



ROW 



104 



fii-st prize, |75. The scullers' race for 
the championship of Albany was won 
by Geo. F. Baiier. 

The war found many Albany oars- 
men "at the front," and, in conse- 
quence, but little interest was mani- 
fested in aquatics until the year 18 64, 
when a championship belt for single 
scullers was purchased by subscrip- 
tion, the first holder being- W. R. 
Hills, who defeated Sawyer and 
afterward A. G. Graves, Jr. 

In 1865 the first exciting- race for 
the belt attracted great attention. 
The contestants were W. R. Hills, and 
C. Piepenbrink, the formei- having 
during Piepenbrink's absence in the 
army, held the undisputed title of 
champion. The race which took 
place on the 3rd of July, was for 3 
miles and resulted, Piepenbrink, 26 m. 
55 sec. ; Hills, 27 m. 20 sec. On the 
1st of August, 1865, the organization 
of the Mutual Boat Club gave a 
wondei'ful impetus to rowing, and 
their first club boat, the "Lindsley," 
was on the water nightly. On the 
28th of August, occurred a citizens' 
regatta on Saratoga Lake, with a 
three mile race open to amateur 
scullers, three prizes of $100, ^^75 
and ;?25, no law having- then been 
framed to forbid money x^rizes among 
amateurs. The entries were all from 
Albany, and the race resulted, C. 
Piepenbrink, 22 m. 30 see. ; "W. R. 
Hills, 22 m. 45 sec; R. H. Page, 23_m. 
In a second race two days after. Hills 
having gone home, Piepenbrink again 
won with A. G. Graves, Jr., second. 
On the 9th of October, Piepenbrink 
defeated Gardner at Albany in the 
most closely contested i-ace, which 
had, up to that time, been seen in 
local waters, distance 3 miles, one 
turn, time 27 m. 20 sec. ; Gardner 27 
min. 26 sec. On October 17, Piepen- 
brink beat Hills over the same course 
(time 26 m. 10 sec; Hills, 26, 38) and 
retained the championship belt. 



In 1866 the Mutuals challenged 
the Atalantas of New York to a series 
of races in six-oared gigs. In the 
first contest, which occurred at New 
York on the 30th of June, the Atalantas 
were victorious in 18 m. 45 sec. A 
i-eturn i-ace rowed at Albany, July 
12, finished with the §ame result. 

In 1867 the first aquatic event of 
the season was a race between the 
Mutual four and a Union crew com- 
posed of Gardner, Hitchcock, DeWitt 
and Hills. The match was finally 
decided June 27, when the Mutuals 
crossed the finish line many lengths 
in advance. 

At the Independence Day regatta, 
the scullers' race, after a desperate 
contest, resulted as follows : Ed. 
Smith of Cornwall, 24 min.; C. Piei3en- 
bi'ink of Albany, 24 min. 1 sec; H. 
Gardner of Albany, 24 min. 5 sec. 

Soon after, HiUs again challenged 
Piepenbrink to row for the champion- 
ship, and the race was pulled August 
12, Piepenbrink being the winner. 

In this year was oi-ganized the 
Hudson . Amateur Rowing Associa- 
tion, composed principally of clubs 
from New York city and fi'om New 
Jereey. The Mutuals joined it and 
sent a crew to contest in the six-oared 
gig race, which was the champion- 
ship race. Five crews were entered, 
and the Mutuals came in second to 
the Atalantas of New York. The race 
was one mile and a half and retui-n ; 
time, Atalantas, 22.05 ; Mutuals, 
22.10. 

On the 8th of October, at the Inter- 
State regatta, held on the Hudson, 
near Troy, 32 prizes were offered, 
and the Mutuals modestly walked 
away with over 20 ; and in the four- 
oared shell race defeated the Quin- 
sigamond crew of Worcester, who 
had never before been losers. 

In 1868 Gardner beat Hills in a 
three-mile sculling race. Time, 25 
min. 33 sec ; Hills, 26 min. 13 sec. 



105 



ROW 



At the Fall reg-atta of the Hudson 
Amateui' Rowing- Association, held 
at Hoboken, N. J., on the 10th of 
September, the Mutuals won the 
championship, beating* the Atalantas 
of New York 50 seconds, and cutting 
down the winning time of the pre- 
vious year nearly two minutes. 

In the year 1869 a scullers' race of 
three miles, with one turn, resulted 
as follows ; Lathrop, 25 min. 15 sec. ; 
Gardner, 25 min. 80 sec. ; Hills, 25 
min. 33 sec. The Miituals again at- 
tended the Association regatta at 
Hoboken, and rowed for the cham- 
pionship, on the 9th of September, in 
six-oared shells. The Albany crew 
lost all chance of winning by running 
foul of a shad pole, and the Atlantas 
scored a victory, in 20 min. 44-| sec. 

On the 22d of February, 1870, the 
Beaverwyck Rowing Club was organ- 
ized. At the Municipal regatta, held 
July 4, the Mutuals captured every 
prize. On the 31st of August the 
Mutuals rowed a matched race with 
the Nassau club of New York, the 
distance being three miles straight- 
away, and the crews being boated in 
six-oared shells. The Nassaus, who 
were the first crew to pull on a slid- 
ing seat, ran aground, although the 
Mutuals had at the time a decided 
lead, and the New Yorkers asked a 
new race in consequence. A second 
race was rowed at Pleasant Valley, 
N. J., three days after, when the 
Mutuals were again successful, win- 
ning by three leng1;hs, in 19 min. 3 
sec. September 5, over the same 
course, were rowed the Fall races of 
the Hudson Amateur Association. 
The Gulicks won the championship, 
with the Atalantas second, and the 
Mutuals, who had been swamped by 
the judges' tug, third. In the six- 
oared gig race the Beaverwyck club 
scored their first victory, defeating 
the Mutual crew by 31 seconds. 

In 1871 none but scullers' races 



were recorded, the most noteworthy 
resulting as follows : July 17, Girvin 
1, Lathrop 2, Gi'aves 3. July 27, Gir- 
vin, 24 min.; Moseley, 24 min. 3 sec. 
Aug. 22, Girvin, 24 min. 23 sec. ; 
Piepenbrink, 24 min. 53 sec. Aug". 
25, Wilson, 24 min. 55 sec. ; Piepen- 
brink, not timed. 

The year 1872 witnessed but little 
racing hereabouts. August 27, G. 
W. Lathrop defeated G. W. Robinson 
of Troy. September 9, a six-oared 
gig race between the Mutuals and 
Beaverwycks was rowed over the 
upper (jourse . The distance was three 
miles straightaway, and the contest, 
a stubbornly contested one, resulted 
in favor of the Mutuals by a quarter 
of a length ; time, 17 min. 31 sec. 
One week later the same crews con- 
tested over the same course in six- 
oared shells, the Beaverwycks being* 
successful in 17 min. 49 sec; the 
Mutuals were run into by a tug boat, 
although their opponents were lead- 
ing them at the time. 

In 1873, on the 8th of April, the 
handsome brick house of the Mutuals, 
located on the pier, was destroyed by 
ice and all their boats ruined. The 
sum of $3,000 was subscribed by the 
citizens, and the floating house they 
occupy at present was built. On the 
1st of September, J. Wilson of the 
Beaverwycks defeated Fenton of the 
Mutuals. In a double scull race be- 
tween the Beaverwycks and Mutuals, 
rowed on the 3d of September, Piep- 
enbrink and Moseley of the latter club 
won in 20 min. 45 sec; which was 
then the best double scull time on 
record for a three mile turaing race. 
The four-oared race between these 
clubs resulted in a row-over by the 
Beaverwycks, the Mutuals, through 
the sudden illness of their stroke, fail- 
ing- to appear. 

In the regatta of the Saratoga 
Rowing Association, held the 10th 
of September, the Albany represen- 



ROW 



106 



1 



tatives were unsuccessful in every 
race. 

The year 1874 was a noteworthy 
one. On the 22d of June, the Beaver- 
wycks defeated the double entered 
by the Olympics, a club which had 
been organized since 1872, but now 
rowed its maiden race. On the 4th 
of July, the Beaverwycks, at the Mu- 
nicipal regatta, carried oft' prizes in 
the single and double scull, and four 
and six-oared races, the Mutuals 
being swamped when leading in the 
four, but fairly outrowed in all the 
other contests. On the 17th .of Au- 
gust the Mutuals defeated the Olym- 
pics in a double scull race, and on 
the 24th in a four-oared match. At 
the Saratoga Regatta, held the 28th 
of August and following days, the 
Albany oarsmen did not make a flat- 
tering showing except in the four- 
oared shell race, when the Beaver- 
wycks surprised the country by win- 
ning, on their merits, in a field of 
thirteen fours, the Argonautas of 
Bergen Point being second; time, 
Beaverwycks 18 min. 34 sec; Ar- 
gonautas 18 min. 47^ sec. 

At the regatta of the National As- 
sociation, held in Troy, September 4, 
the Beaver\vycks were again victori- 
ous, winning the national champion- 
ship. 

At the Saratoga regatta in 1875 
the Atalantas of New York defeated 
both the Beaverwycks and the Mu- 
tuals in the four-oared race, and the 
same result followed at the National 
regatta, held at Troy a week later. 
In the other races the Albanians made 
a poor record. 

In 1876, at the National regatta, 
held in Philadelphia Aug. 24, the 
Beaverwyck four were defeated by 
the Atalantas of New York in the 
championship race ; time, Atalantas, 
9 min. 13^ sec. ; Beaverwycks, 9 min. 
28| sec. In the following week, 
however, the Beaverwycks, at the 



Centennial regatta, covered them- 
selves ■w'ith glory and gained a 
world-wide reputation by winning 
the four-oared race at the Interna- 
tional I'egatta, defeating in the final 
heat the London Rowing Club foiu', 
considered the best crew in England ; 
time, Beaverwycks, 9 min. 6 sec. ; 
London, 9 min. 6-§ sec. Upon their 
return to Albany the Beaverwycks 
were tendered a public reception. 
The club soon after disbanded. 

In 1877, on the 22d of June,occuiTed 
the first regatta of the Upper Hudson 
Regatta Association. The Mutual 
four were defeated by the Wolvon- 
hooks, their pair by the Filleys, and 
in the six-oared gig race the Olympics 
defeated them ; time of the latter 
race, Olympics, 8 min. 48^ sec. ; 
Mutuals, 8 min. 54 sec. The ju- 
nior scull race was won by Davey, 
of the Mutuals. The only Albany 
representatives at the Detroit regatta 
of the National Association were 
Moseley and Piepenbrink of the Mu- 
tuals, who were defeated. 

At the September regatta of the 
Upper Hudson Association the 
Oljonpics won the gig race, the pair 
and the four, while the Mutuals were 
credited with the double scull race. 

In 1878, on the 12th of June, at the 
Upper Hudson regatta, the Olymjiics 
again secured the four-oared prize, 
while the Mutuals won the double, 
the pair-oared and the six-oared gig 
race. At the 4th of July regatta 
the Olympic four were successful, 
and so was their gig. The Mutuals 
scored first in the double, and in the 
pair-oared race, Bulger and Graves 
of the Mutuals vanquished the 
Olymjoic pair, composed of the two 
Gonnan brothers. On the 18th of 
July, at Saugerties, the Olympics took 
the single scull and four-oared races, 
and the Mutuals the double. 

On the 20th of August, at Newark, 
in the National Regatta, the Mutuals 



107 



RUR 



Von a national celebrity, securing" the 
^>air-oared championship, and also 
the four-oared championship. Time 
of both races was very fast; in the 
pair 8 min. 56| sec, with the tide, 
and in the four 8 min. 4 sec. The 
double scull race the Mutuals lost 
after a hard strug-g-le. 

On the 25th of September the Mu- 
tuals, at the upper Hudson, won the 
four, the senior single, and the six; 
time in the gig race, Mutuals, 8 min. 
47^ sec; Olympics, 8 min. 51^ sec. 
The Olympics won the double and the 
pair, the latter being" a walk-over. 

On the 19th of October the Hai-lem 
Regatta offered the champion Mutual 
four an opportunity of meeting- the 
celebrated Atalanta crew, who did 
not appear at the National Reg"atta. 
The result was a brilliant victory for 
the Albanians ; time, Mutuals, 6 min. 
8^ sec; Atalantas, 6 min. 1^4 sec; 
distance, one mile straightaway. The 
Olympics entered in the double scull 
race, but lost it. 

In 1879, at the Harlem regatta in 
May, the Mutuals lost the pair-oared, 
double-scull and six-oared gig race 
(the latter by one second only), and 
the Olympics lost the pair and the 
four, being' defeated by the Atalantas 
in both races. 

On the 24th of June, at the Upper- 
Hudson regatta, the Mutuals won 
the double and the four ; the Olympics 
the pair and the six. 

On the 9th of July, at Saratoga 
Lake, during the National regatta, 
the Mutuals won the six-oared champ- 
ionship in six-oared shells. Time 8 
min. 50 sec, the Shawmuts of Bos- 
ton second. In the four-oared race 
wei'e eighteen entries, and they in- 
cluded all the leading crews in the 
country. The racing which ensued 
was the finest ever witnessed in the 
United States, and the final heat re- 
sulted, Hillsdales, 8 min. 32| sec; 
Mutual 8 min. 41^ sec. 



The Olympic club at a fall regatta 
of the Detroit River Navy won the 
single and the double, and during 
the year were continuously successful 
in a number of minor races, their I'ec- 
ord for the season, in races won, 
being a most brilliant one. 

The year 1880 has witnessed the 
withdrawal of the Olympic club from 
active racing, they following the ex- 
ample of the old Pioneers by becom- 
ing a strictly social organization. 
Most of their rowing men have joined 
a new club called the Albanys, which 
has already won several races. 

At the regatta of the Passaic River 
Association, May 31, the Albanys lost 
the double and the four, but won the 
pair-oared race, and at the National 
i-egatta, held in Philadelphia July 7, 
they obtanie 1 the pair-oared champ- 
ionship (the Gorman brothers form- 
ing their crew), but were beaten by 
the Hillsdales in the four. 

In the National regatta the Mutuals 
again won the championship in six- 
oared shells, but were beaten in the 
double. At Geneva, the Albanys beat 
the Hobart College -crew in a four- 
oared race. 

Thus it ^vill be seen that Alba,ny 
occupies a foremost place in the 
aquatic history of the country ; and 
when it is remembered that the local 
clubs have always been composed 
of unquestioned amateurs, their 
achievements ai-e all the moi'o cred- 
itable. 

Rural Cemeteryo — This beautiful 
resting-place of the dead is situated 
in the town of Watervliet, about four 
miles north of Albany, and is reached 
by the West Troy horse-cars (the 
Broadway line), but more directly by 
the Delaware & Hudson Canal Co.'s 
railroad, depot foot of Maiden lane ; 
fare, 10 cts. ; trains every hour. Vis- 
itors are admitted on foot at all hours 
between sunrise and sunset, except 



RUR 



108 



Sundays and holidays. Special tick- 
ets, obtained at the office near the 
g-ate or of a trustee, will admit vehi- 
cles or persons on horse-back. Lot 
owners are given tickets which admit 
a vehicle except on Sundays and holi- 
days, when owners are admitted 
on foot only. Smoking-, pic-nicing, 
dogs, and the plucking of flowers or 
breaking any tree or shrub, are 
strictly prohibited. 

Hlstoky. — This cemetery had its 
oi'igin in a sermon pi'eached by Rev. 
B. T. Welch, D. D., in the Pearl st. 
Baptist church, in Dec. 1840. This 
sermon he repeated by request, and 
as a result a public meeting was held 
in the Exchange building Dec. 81, 
when it was resolved that a cemetery 
be established and a committee of 
thirteen appointed to carry the plan 
into effect. An association was in- 
corporated April 20, 1841, consisting 
of Rev. Dr. B. T. Welch, Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, John A. Dix, John 
Q. Wilson, James Horner, Anthony 
M. Strong, Peter Gansevoort, Thomas 
W. Olcott, Ezra P. Prentice, John 
Wendell, Ellis Baker, Ira Harris, 
Archibald Mclntyre. Of these, the 
original trustees, only Mr. Strong 
survives. 

The grounds were consecrated Oct. 
7, 1844. A procession, including the 
firemen and three bands of music, 
was formed in N. Pearl st. and es- 
corted to the ground by the military. 
The services consisted of singing orig- 
inal hymns by a choir of several 
hundred voices led by R. Packard, 
religious exercises by the clergy, a 
poem by Alfred B. Street, and an ad- 
dress by Hon. D. D. Barnard. The 
first ]3rest. of the association was B. 
T. Welch ; first sec. and treas., A. M. 
Strong ; committee to locate and im- 
prove the grounds, B. T. Welch, 
Thomas W. Olcott. The present 
officers are : prest., Erastus Corning ; 
sect., Charles Van Benthuysen ; treas., 



Dudley Olcott; trustees, Erastus Com- 
ing, John F. Rathbone, Samuel H. 
Ransom, Charles Van Benthuysen, 
Isaac W. Vosburgh, Erastus D. 
Palmer, Abraham Van Vechten, 
James B. Jermain, Charles B. Lans- 
ing, Robert Lenox Banks, Robert L. 
Johnson, Rufus W. Peckham, Dud- I 
ley Olcott; supt., Jeffrey P. Thomas; • 
surveyor, Burton A. Thomas. 

The first interment was made in 
May, 1845. The grounds originally 
contained only 100 acres. They have 
been increased at various times (re- 
cently by a j)urchase of 48 acres on . 
the north), till the present area is 281-^ ! 
acres, ti'aversed by 22 miles of drive- 
way. The total number of lots is 
5,413. Total number of interments, 
about 25,000, and these are being 
added to at an average rate of 850 
yeaiiy. Single graves, J^S, for per- 
sons under ten years of age, and ^10 
for others, including interment. Lots 
range from $25 to $256, or $1 per 
foot. 

I>escri2)tion. 

The visitor who takes the Broad- 
way horse-cars, will find himself left 
at the entrance gate on the Troy road, 
from which a noble tree-lined avenue 
nearly half a mile long, leads to the 
cemetery. In summer, a conveyance 
runs at intervals, taking passengei's 
to the office for five cents, and through 
the grounds for 10 cents more. The | 
steam-cars stop close to the cemetery I 
proper. A favorite way for cariiages J 
is the southern enti'ance, approached ! 
by Linden avenue from the Van Rens- 
selaer boulevard. • ^ 

The Rural cemetery is well named. I 
It is an expanse of hill and dale, I 
forest and stream, bubbling fountains, | 
sylvan dells, rocky ravines, spark- 
ling rivulets, and peaceful sheets of 
water. With possibly one exception i 
(the cemetery at Cincinnati), no burial | 
place in the whole land presents so 



J 



109 



RUR 



many natural advantages as does the 
Rural. One or two days' wandering" 
among its quiet scenes, Avould still 
leave many a nook unvisited, many a 
path untrod. The grounds are laid 
out in an intricate labyiinth of walks 
and djives, but nature has divided 
the area into what are called the 
South, Middle and North ridges, i-un- 
ning east and west, and separated by 
two stry'ams of never-failing- w^ater. 

Tpie South Ridge is the choicest 
section, and visitors who have not 
time to see the whole should select it 
*in preference to the others. Taking 
the avenue Mount Way, which is at 
your left, as you leave the office, is 
seen at the .I'ig-ht the most ponderous 
monument upon the grounds : a mas- 
sive shaft ornamented with a medal- 
lion head, the memo7nal of Joel Rath- 
bone. On this lot, not many years 
ago, a costly display of fiowei's was 
mac^ at the interment of a member 
of the tVunily. It was thought their 
beauty might tempt thieves, and the 
wires upon which the designs were 
wi'ought, were quietly marked. Sure- 
ly enough, they were stolen. A fu- 
neral in a neighboring city was heard 
of, where similar designs were thrown 
upon the coffin and buried. They 
were exhumed, and found to be those 
that were missing. The florist who 
robbed the grave to serve a custo- 
mer with second-hand posies, was 
thoroughly exposed and left the 
country. 

Keeping the avenue, we note the 
monument of Mrs. Mary Gleason, 
the finest free-stone on the grounds. 
Bending northerly, the visitor sees a 
low monument to Thomas Hillhouse, 
who formerly owmed the South ridge. 
This was the first granite structure in 
the cemetery. 

The memorial of Jared L. Rath- 
bone is designed as the counterpart 
of the tomb of Scipio. Passing from 
Mount Way, north-easterly, into the 



ToTii', is seen, on Mount Olivet, a 
cottage monument of Italian marble, 
with a medallion head, by Palmei*, 
representing Lewis Benedict, the el- 
der. Neai' by is a granite sarco^^ha- 
gus to the memory of the pati'iot 
soldier. Gen. Lewis Benedict, killed 
at Pleasant Hill. On Mount Olivet, 
also, is the tomb of the Van Ben- 
thuysens. When the cemetery was 
first laid out, the choice of lots was 
sold at auction, and the first choice 
was bid off by Mr. Obadiah R. Van 
Benthuysen (father of Mr. Charles 
Van Benthuysen), the first man to 
successfully attach steam po^'er to 
the printing press of America. The 
last time he went out of the house 
alive was to avail himself of the 
privileg-e he had purchased, and he 
selected this spot. On the Pohlman 
lot, beneath a Latin cross, lies the 
Rev. Dr. Pohlman, and near him, 
under a soldier's rustic memorial, 
Lieut. Wm. H. Pohlman, wounded to 
death at Gettysburgh. Close to the 
line of St. Agnes Cemetery, in Forest 
ave., is the granite monument to 
Lyman Root, the largest single stone 
upon the gi'ound, weighing about 
twenty tons. It is set exactly accord- 
ing to the cai-dinal points of the com- 
pass ; the cunosity is that this was 
purely accidental. 

Turning southward, the lots are 
many of them circular. Still further 
southward, on Prospect hill, is an 
elaborate memorial to Jas. A. Wilson, 
one of the most costly on the grounds; 
a niche in front shelters a figure of 
Faith. Still further to the south is 
the Corning j^lat, the largest in the 
cemetery A monumental cross to 
Gertrude Tibbitts Corning; a large 
bronze cruciform sarcophagus to 
Erastus Corning, and other elegant 
memorials attract attention. This is 
a most commanding position, and the 
view of river, mountain and distant 
city is indeed charming. Near the 



RUR 



110 



Corning" plat is a Roman column 
erected to the memory of Gen. Philip 
Schuyler, the Revolutionary hei'o, 
Av ho sleeps beneath it. The lot was 
given by the ti-ustees of the cemetery, 
and the monument ei-ected by Mi*s. 
W. Stai-r Miller, a grand-daug-liter of 
the illustrious deceased. Near by 
also is the King* monument, well 
worth noticing-, and bi-iuging to miiid 
the greater memorial of this public- 
spiritetl citizen, the King fountain 
soon to be erected in Washington 
Park (which see). 

The lot of Robert Lenox Banks, 
west of the Corning plat, contains 
"The Angel at the Sepulchre," by 
Erastus D. Palmer. More strangers 
are drawn to the Rural to see this 
one work of art, than by all the other 
attractions combined. The face and 
form ai-'e of angelic beauty, although 
there is in both enough of the human 
to attract and hold our sympathy. 
Seated upon the rock which he has 
I'oUed back fi-om the sepulchre, his 
countenance like lightning, his rai- 
ment white as snow, it is, after all, 
less an ang-el than a gloritied human 
being-, gifted with etei'nal youth and 
God-like strength — a face radiant 
with fullilled hope and the assurance 
of knowledge impossible this side the 
A'eil. It is, indeed, a personification 
of the grea,t ti-uth of the resurrection, 
implied in the words, '* Why seek ye 
the living among the dead ? " While 
the cost of this memorial (said to be 
about i^^20,000) has been exceeded in 
some instances, nothing approaching 
it in sentiment or execution is to be 
found in any graveyard in the coun- 
try. 

At the west, a short distance below^ 
is a peai'-shaped bit of silver, known 
as Cypress Water, in which is a minia- 
ture island. On the way down the 
slope is the Brumaghim lot, on which, 
besides the principal headstone, is a 
jnarble tree-trunk entwined with ivy. 



upon which perches a dove. Near 
by, also, is a soldier's monument, 
erected to Maj. George S. Dawson. 
Around the lake are the beautiful 
monuments of P. V. Fort, Oscar L. 
Hascy, E. D. Bi-ainard, Dr. R. Jewett, 
Walter R, Bush, and the late Michael 
McGarvey. Fjom this point, also, 
maybe seen the handsome monument 
of W. H. Pitkin, and opposite, one of 
Thvmas V. Wolcott, and near by the 
handsome obelisk of A. F. Fisher. 
At the right, in Evergreen Wood, Gen. 
Rice, the hero of twenty battles, the 
last of which j)roved fatal, is buried. 
Proceeding on the Tour, past Rose- 
leaf and Sjiruce aves., Wooster's noble 
figui'e of Hope comes in sight, stand- 
ing upon an octagonal pedestal, 
wrought in emblematic vines and 
flowers. 

Highland water is reached by Lawn 
crossway, and is a pretty little sheet, 
once alive Avith gold flsh. Oi« the 
I'ight of Lawn ave. is the tomb of four 
generations of the Van Rensselaers. 
Through Greenwood ave. to Roseland 
way and we come to a much admired 
memorial of Robinson and Howe, sur- 
mounted by a statue of INIemoi-y, and 
back of this " Hariy " Meech, of the 
old Albany Museum, is buried. Near 
by is the massive monument of the 
late Judge Ira Hari'is ; also the Wal- 
lace monument, both well worth no- 
ting. A walk thi'ough the ravine and 
a visit to Consecration lake are next 
in order. It was hei-e, in this natural 
amphitheatre, that the services took 
place by which the cemetery was 
dedicated. 

Middle Ridge. — Leaving Conse- 
cration lake, and going west by Ra- 
vine sideway, facing Ravine bridge, 
on the right,' is the only polished shaft 
of native granite on the ground. It 
is seen at fine advantage, and com- 
memorates the On- family. Neai' by 
is the lot of another branch of the 
Van Rensselaers, and here Gen. Solo- 



Ill 



RUR 



mon Van Rensselaer is buried. He 
foug-ht under " Mad Anthony " at 
Miami, and received what was 
thought to be a mortal wound in the 
lung's, but lived to be riddled with 
balls at Queenstown, and finally died 
at 78. Passing west and curving to 
the north, on the left of Western ave., 
stand two bi-own stone monuments, 
one of whicli was erected by the citi- 
zens of Albany to commemorate the 
gallantry of Lewis JNT. Morris, brevet- 
major, U. S. A., who fell Sept. 21, 
1846, while leading- an assault at Mon- 
terey. Turning- westward, we come 
to Olcott's monument, representing a 
mother i-ising- toward her childi-en 
who have gone before. Opposite lies 
Edwin G. Delavan, the famous tem- 
perance reformer, who died in 1870. 
His name is perpetuated in Albany 
by the Delavan House, which he 
built. In the same section, is the lot 
of the gi-eat financier, Thomas W. 01- 
cott, who for 3i years was president 
of the cemetery association. For 
nearly sixty-three years Mr. 0. was 
in the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank, 
entering- as a junioi' clerk, and be- 
coming- its president. Further along, 
on Western ave., is the g-rave of the 
famous surgeon. Dr. Alden March. 
Down the ravine at the rig-ht sleeps 
Indian lake, the largest sheet of water 
on the grounds. At the left is Tawa- 
sentha lake, and on the other side 
rises the massive g]*anite monument 
to John Tayler Cooper. At the west- 
ern extremity of the lake, on Hem- 
lock ave., sleeps John C. Spencer, the 
illustrious lawyer. Still further, and 
on the left, the sarcophag-us of Quincy 
granite, supporting a large anchor in 
relief commemorates Capt Robert 
Townsend, who died in China in 1866, 
while in command of the U. S. Steam- 
er Wachusett. Facing the lake is the 
tomb of M. N. Mead, erected in 1880. 
A few rods west of this point brings 
one to the church gi'ounds, where are 



interred the dead which were taken 
from the old Albany burying grounds, 
and re-buried here. The old gi*ave- 
stones and their curious inscriptions, 
afford an interesting study to the an- 
tiquarian. Turning eastward, and 
retra versing Western ave. to section 
55, we find the grave of Gen. Peter 
Gansevoort, the hero of Fort Stan- 
wix ; also, those of his son and grand- 
son. Crossing the Tour, and still 
keeping on Western ave., we pass 
the grave of the late Chancellor of 
the University, John V. L. Pruyn, and 
come to the sarcophagus of Egbert 
Egberts, who was foremost in devel- 
oping the steam knitting industry at 
Cohoes. Here a number of the once 
prominent men of West Troy lie 
buried. Near the Tour, in section 
62, is tho grave of the statesman, 
William L. Marcy, marked by an 
unpretending g-ranite monument. 
Mr. Marcy 's father-in-law, Benjamin 
Knower, formerly owned the land 
now forming the central division, 
and the very spot where Marcy is 
buried was a favorite resort with 
him. His funeral was one of the most 
impressive ever seen in Albany. Mr. 
Knower was one of the most promi- 
nent business men in the city in 1825, 
and was for many years president of 
the Mechanics' and Farmers' Bank. 
In Cresent way (and we are now not 
far from the eastern boundary of 
the cemetery) is a stately free-stone, 
sacred to the memory of Chas. E. Dud- 
ley, and of his widow, Mrs. Blandina 
Dudley, whose gi-eater monument is 
the observatory which bears the 
name. Beyond the turn, and oppo- 
site the Dudley lot, is the testimonial 
to John Van Buren — " Prince John " 
— the son of the President, who died 
at sea, Oct. 13, 1866. Turning north- 
ward is seen the hillside tomb of the 
Burdens, one of the most elaborate 
sepulchres on the grounds. Its 
sculptured dogs attract much atten- 



SAN — SCH 



112 



^ 



tion. Its owner erected upon his es- 
tate on the other side of the I'iver, an 
observatory, in which, when^ in a 
contemplative mood, he could sit and 
with a glass .view his final resting- 
place. The monument of Ozias Hall, 
a combination of brown-stone and 
marble, is in sing-alar taste. A few 
steps eastward lead to the main Tour. 

North Ridge. — Moving- northward 
along- the Tour, the Gothic chapel of 
John F. Winslow and the "NVinslow 
family mil be easily identified. It is 
much the most costly of any structure 
on the g-round. It is built of granite 
and other materials. FollovAng the 
Tour, we come, on Landscape hill, to 
the first monument erected in the 
cemetery. It is to the memory of 
David Strain. Ascending to Arbor 
hill, we find the soldiers* burial 
ground, in which nearly 150 victims 
of the war lie buried. The scenes 
yearly enacted here on Decoration 
Day, under tho auspices of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, are most im- 
pressive. Near by the soldiers' lot 
are the Hailenbake (properly Halen- 
beck) lots and monument, where re- 
pose the dead who were once buried 
in the family burying-ground, south- 
west cor. Hamilton and South Pearl 
sts. This property was sold for 
taxes, and then re-sold and a portion 
of the proceeds devoted to the pur- 
chase of this lot and monument, the 
transfer Ix-ing completed in 1860. 

A little lake some ways to the west, 
is called Arbor water. In the north- 
west portion of the cemetery are the 
public lots, in each of which there is 
only "room for one." A portion of 
this ground is reserved for the in- 
mates of the Home for the Friend- 
less. 

On the way out, the receiving 
vault is noticed. It was erected in 
1858, and is used for the reception of 
bodies in winter, when the ground 
will not i-eadily permit of their in- 



terment. The cascades occupy what 
waa once the site of Orient lake, and 
are a great improvement to the 
sceneiy . Choice shrubl )ei-y and trail- 
ing vines have been planted among 
the rocks, and a trio of fountains 
sends up a beautiful spray. The 
lots are cared for by the season, at 
from $2 to $10, and upwards, accord- 
ing to size. The trustees also receive 
contributions, by bequest or other- 
wise, as a perpetual fund, the interest 
of which goes towai-ds keeping k)ts 
of the contributors in good condition. 
The number of lots thus pennanently 
provided for is 215. 

" Sand Plain Lots."— In 1858 a very 
elaborate map was published of the 
propei'ty lying ten miles west of the 
City Hall, and yet technically, by the 
oi-iginal charter, within the city 
limits. These city lots, 860 in number, 
altbaugh utterly worthless, looked 
well on paper, and were sold and re- 
sold by parties living at a distance, 
at astounding prices. Quite fi^equent- 
ly the purchasers would come to look 
at their acquisitions, expecting to 
find them in the midst of the city. 
Their disappointment on realizing 
the truth, was often hard to bear. 
The swindle was repeatedly exposed 
in tho fiewspapei's, but the sand plain 
lots are still in market. 

Schools. — The public schools are 
noticed under Public Instruction 
(which see). Besides these, there 
are the parochial schools (Catholic), 
in which the number of j)upils en- 
rolled is 3,749; in private schools, 
735 ; academies, 857. The total school 
population (between 5 and 21 years), 
is estimated at 85,411 ; the number 
between 5 and 6 years being 4,225 ; 
between 16 and 21 years, 11,178 ; 
between 6 and 16 years, 20,008. The 
whole number enrolled, inchiding the 
public schools (14,049), is 18,890, 



113 



SEC — SHA 



leaving" the approximate number be- 
tween 6 and 16 years, not in any 
school, at 1,118. Among* the pnvate 
schools not otherwise mentioned, is 
the Commette French and Classical 
Institute, 131 N. Pearl ; the Convent 
of the Sacred Heart, at Kenwood ; 
C. A. Meyer's (German), at 1(31 Hud- 
son ave., etc. (See Albanit Academy, 
Female Academy, Medical College, 
St. Agnes School.) 

Second Adventists have no house 
of worship, but hold services in Bea- 
ver Block. 

Secret Societies. — The principal of 
l^hese, Free Masons, Odd Fellows, and 
Grand Army, are spoken of under 
their respective heads. There are 
also several lodges of tho Knights of 
Pythias, Ancient Order of United 
Workmen , Temperance organizations, 
etc., in the city. 

Shakers. — Eight miles from the foot 
of State St., and at the terminus of the 
Shaker road, which branches from 
Broadway opposite tho Van Rensse- 
laer mansion, is the original Shaker 
settlement in America whei'C Mother 
Ann Lee, the founder of tho sect, 
lies buried. She emigrated from 
Manchester, England, to the United 
States, in 1774, and settled on this 
spot, wlicro she died in 1784. Tho 
drive from Albany, whether by the 
Shaker i'(;ad or by tho way of West 
Albany,- is a favorite one, and man;/ 
take it. Tb.e settlement numbers 500 
sincere individuals who, in nearly 
everything, differ with the teachings 
of other churches ; although even 
their amusements and recreations are 
almost wholly of a religious nature. 
Their principles include celibacy as 
best for those wno are able and willing 
to live it, community of projierty, 
non-resistance, peace of households 
and of nations, and entire separa- 
8 



tion of their church from political or 
State connections. They are thiifty 
famiei'S, gardeners, and mechanics ; 
known as the best of neighbors, and 
of very hospitable dispositions. They 
own several thousand acres of tine 
land, and while much of it is culti- 
vated in an unequaled manner, yet 
the tourist finds, just before entering 
the vilk g !, the most beautiful woods 
and heavily timbered plot in the 
county of Albany. They are tho 
originators of the far-famed " Shaker 
Garden Seeds,"and "Shaker Brooms," 
in which they still take pride. Their 
live stock has been a notewoi'fchy 
feature in years past, and their fruits 
and flocks have attracted much atten- 
tion. They are currently believed to 
be very wealthy ; but their riches 
consist almost entirely in real estate 
at home and in other counties and 
States. 

On Sundays, during the warm 
weather, their church is open to the 
public, and many citizens and stran- 
gers avail themselves of the beautiful 
dri\'es thither, to witness the peculiar 
foi'ms of their worship : processional 
marching, dancing, etc., accompanied 
with singing by the whole body of 
worshippers. An address upon their 
peculiar tenets is always given, the 
whole making their church a very 
intei'esting i^esort during the season. 
Thay publish a paper monthly — Tlie 
Manifesto — which contains essays and 
contributions, mostly from their o^vn 
people, illustrating their religious 
views ; and each number contains a 
piece of their unique, original music. 
Their jiost-office in the village is 
«« Shakers, N. Y." 

While open at all times to enter- 
tain and interest candid enquirei'S 
after their manner of life ; and while 
making welcome those who desire to 
visit their homes and domains, the 
Shakers ^dsh it to be distinctly un- 
derstood that they are not a public 



SIG — STA 



114 



institution, but are pi'i\'ileg'ed to the 
rig-hts of their quiet, personal homes 
and estates ; and any infi-ingement 
upon these by those who fail to con- 
sider that they have neither hotels 
nor servants, is more than fi-owned 
upon. Any hospitality, beyond the 
freedom to visit their grounds, gar- 
dens, enclosures, etc., must be by 
special invitation. 

The Shakers are divided into four 
villages, called the Church, North, 
West and South families. They i*ely 
almost wliolly upon the outside world 
for converts to their system of life, 
excej)ting that they have commonly 
adoj^ted a few oi'phan children, who, 
at mature age, may of choice become 
members or not. The Shakers, at 
present, are declining in numbers, 
which they attribute to the general 
coldness of religious feeling, claim- 
ing, that from genuine revivals, they 
" gather in " their share. 

Signal Service. — Tlie United States 
Army Signal Service has its office at 
44 State street, room 9, and is in 
charge of J. 0. Bai'nes, who takes 
observations at 7 A. m., 3 and 11 p. m., 
and foi'wai-ds the report to Washing- 
ton. Local observations are taken at 
7, 2 and 9. He also prints and issues 
the Farmers' bulletin, which is mailed 
to about 325 postmasters in this 
vicinity. Repoi'ts ai-e received from 
about 25 stations, and these are sent 
in du]-)licate to the newspaper offices, 
and posted up in various public places 
about the city. The term signal 
service is a misnomer. It should be 
called the weather service. 

Spires. — Following is said to be the 
height of the tallest church spires in 
this city : St. Patrick's, 170 feet ; 
Congi-egational, 195 ; St. Paul's Evan- 
gelical Lutheran, 176 ; Trinity Me- 
thodist, 173 ; Fourth Presbyterian, 
186 J State Street Presbyterian, 16G-3 ; 



Our Lady of Angels, 120 ; St. Peter's, 
180 ; Cathedral, 210 -, Holy Cross, 145. 

Stadt Huis, The, was on the corner 
of Broadway and Hudson sts., now 
occupied by the Commercial building. 
Seven men, condemned to die, were 
once incarcerated there. They bar- 
I'icaded the door, declared that they . 
had laid a train of powder to blow I 
themselves up, and all around. A 
cix)wd had collected, and there was 
great excitement. Some one thought 
of the fire engine, which was brought, 
and the place thoroughly drenched, | 
powder and all. Then a merchant f 
named McDole, took a club, and a 
hole being made through the ceiling, 
he descended, and laid around him 
till they were vanqiiished. Then they 
were di"essed.in white, and marched 
ux") State st. to Elk, where they were 
hanged. (See Hudson Avenue, Old 
Capitol.) 

Stages. — Run to Berne, New Scot- 
land, and intei'mediate places, every 
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, at 
9 A. M., from Avenue House, 74 
Washington ave.; to Clarkesville, 
Westerlo, Rensselaerville, and intei'- 
mediate places, daily, from 71 Wash- 
ington ave., at 8:30 A. M., and to 
Guilderland Centre every aftei*noon 
at 4 o'clock, from M-ai-phy's Hotel, 
91 Washington ave.; to Loudon\'ille 
daily, from Broadway, cor. State st.; 
to Nassau and Lebanon Springs daily, 
at 2:45 p. m., from Mansion House, 
387 Broadway. 

St. Agnes Cemetery. — Situated in 
the town of Watervliet, four miles 
north of Albany, and most con- 
veniently reached by the cars of the 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Com- 
pany's railroad, depot, foot of Maiden 
lane ; fare 10 cents. Adjoins the 
Rural Cemetery on the south. Con- 
tains about 50 acres, and is very 



115 



STA 



handsomely laid out, althoug-h its 
surface does not present the variety 
of s:;ene furnished by the Rural. 
The cemetery was consecrated on the 
19th of May, 18lJ7, in the presence of 
a vast assemblage of people, Right 
Rev. Bishop Conroy and the Cathohc 
clergy of the city officiating. (A de- 
tailed description of this cemeteiy is 
preparing for the Albany Hand-Book 
for 1882J 



lature creating a cOi*i30ration by the 
name and style of "The Coming 
Foundation for Chi'istian Woi'k in the 
Diocese of Albany," with ample pow- 
ers for "the establishment, mamte- 
nance, and management, in the city 
of Albany, of a school or schools and 
other educational, I'eligious and char- 
itable woi'ks and institutions, with a 
church or chapel and other convenient 
buildings in connection therewith; 




St. Agnes School. — The school of 
St. Agnes was founded by the Right 
Rev. Wm. C. Doane, Bishop of Al- 
bany, in 1870. It was modeled upon 
St. Mary's Hall at Burlington, N. J., 
a school founded 35 years ago by his 
father, Bishop of New Jersey. The 
late Erastus Coming, in view of the 
success which attended the com- 
mencement of the new school, secured 
ground for a suitable building on Elk 
St., one of the most commanding a,nd 
beautiful sites in the city. In March, 
1871, an act was passed by the Legis- 



the same to be maintained and con- 
ducted in accordance with the doc- 
trines, discipline and worship of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
said diocese of Albany." By the re- 
quirements of the charter the Bishop 
of the said diocese, for the time being, 
is made one of the trustees and the 
president of the board. 

The corporation was organized, 
funds raised, plans for the new build- 
ing completed, and May 8, 1871, 
ground broken in the presence of the 
members of the school, and its friends 



STA 



116 



'4 



and helpers. The corner-stone was 
laid with appropi-iate services June 
19 th, and contained a copper box, in 
which wei-e a copy of the Book of 
Common Prayer and the Holy Bible, 
of the act of incorporation and other 
documents connected with the school, 
and on its top was an eng-raved plate 
with the inscription : 

In angulari lapide 

S. AGNETIS SCUOL^, 

AlbaniensM. 

X In nomine Patrb ct Tihi c( Spiritus Snncti, Amen. X 

Fundamenta ejus id mootibus saacti-i, 

Filue eorum composilae, circumornatas ut similitudo TempU, 

Id Kill Calettdu Quintiles, A. D. 1873 

The building" was formally opened 
on Halloween, 1872. At the tenth an- 
niversary in June, 1880, the I'ecords 
showed a list of 250 pupils in attend- 
ance during the year, and 22 teach- 
ei-s and lecturers, while 165 graduates 
have g'one out from the school. It 
now occupies an honored position as 
first among its equals, older or 
younger, of American church schools 
for girls. *' Nonnobis, Doniine. j}fo7i 
nobis; sed Nomini tuo da gloriam.'* 

Stanwix Hall stands on the site of 
the house where was born Geu.Ganse- 
voort, the hero of Fort Stanwix, and 
was erected, in 1833, by his son. It 
was at first used for stoi-es and offices, 
with a ball-room in the upper story, 
believed to be the finest in the State. 
For 10 years it was "a doubtful ex- 
penment of desolate granite, splendid 
as a building, melancholy as an in- 
vestment." In 1844, when the route 
of the Mohawk and Hudson railroad 
was changed to its present course, 
and the Boston road was completed, 
the Stanwix was changed into a hotel 
and has been one ever since. 

State Hall, Eagle st., between Steu- 
ben and Pine, is built of white cut 
stone from the Sing Sing quarries, is 
138 by 88 feet, and is 65 feet high. 



The ceilings of the basement and of 
the two principal stories are gi'oined 
ai'ches, and all the i-ooms, excepting 
in the attic story, are fire i)roof. The 
basement and attic ai-e each 19 feet, 
and the two principal stories each 22 
feet high. It was finished in 1842, at 
a cost of $350,000. It contains the 
offices of the Secretary of State, Comp- 
trollei'. Treasurer, Auditor of Canal 
Department, Canal Ajjpi-aisers, Canal , 
Commissionei'S, State Engineer and 
Surveyor, Division Engineers, Clerk 
of Court of A jipeals, Superintendent of 
Bank Dejiartment, Attorney-General, 
and State Sealer of Weights and 
Measures. Open to visitors during 
business hours. (See cut, p. 117.) 

State Library.— The New York 
State Libi'ary was founded by act of 
the Legislature, passed April 21, 
1818. The Governor, Lieut. -Gov- 
ernor, Chancellor and Chief Justice 
of the Supreme Coui-t for the time 
being, were constituted a board of 
trustees, who were directed to cause 
to be fitted up some proper room in 
the Capitol "for the pui'pt^se of keep- 
ing therein a publick lil>rary for the 
use of the government and the people 
of the State." The trustees at this 
period had mainly in view the collec- 
tion of an extensive library of law 
books, and a great proportion of 
the appropriations were expended 
for this department. The Legisla- 
ture, however, needed for consulta- 
tion woi'ks on political economy, and 
books on such other subjects that 
touched upon their legislative labor, 
and thus the fiehi for collection was 
gradually enlarged. For thirty yeai'S . 
the library continued under the con- 
trol of the officers above mentioned as 
trustees (to whom in 1824 were added 
the Secretary of State, Attorney- 
General and Comptroller), and its 
magnitude and importance then made 
it necessary that a more permanent 



117 



STA 







board of trustees should be intrusted 
with its manag-ement. Accordingly, 
on the 4th of May, 1844, the Leg-isla- 
ture enacted that the Reg-ents of the 
University should be the trustees of 
this library. Upon assuming" this 
trust they caused an inventory of the 
library to be taken, and its whole 
arrangement was reconstructed. One 
I'esult of the inventory was the dis- 
covery that 311 volumes were miss- 
ing-, — some of which, however, were 
recovered by advertising-. It was 
then determined to be important to 
secure for the State every historical 
work illustrating- American history, 
and especially the history of New 
York. The g-rowth of the library 
has been a steady one, depending- on 
a modei-ate annual appropriation, 
which has been increased some years 
for the special purchase of larg-e col- 



lections. Among- such notably was 
the Warden collection in 1843, made 
by Mr. David B. Warden in Europe, 
numbering- over 2,000 volumes relat- 
ing- to American history. In 1853 the 
Legislature authorized the purchase 
of the correspondence and other 
papei-s of George Clinton, the first 
Governor of the State. These manu- 
scripts have been bound in twenty- 
three folio volumes, and a calendar 
since added. The x'>apers found on 
the person of Major Andre, by his 
captors at Tarrytown, were among 
the Clinton manuscripts, and have 
been framed and put under glass. 
Tlie papers of Sir William Johnson, 
covering a period of the history of 
Central New York from 1738 to 1774, 
were also purchased and arranged 
and bound in twenty-two folio 
volumes t 



STA 



118 



In 1854 the library was removed 
to the present building-, west of the 
old Capitol, constructed by the direc- 
tion of the Legislature of 1851. It 
was intended to be fire-proof, and 
was so considered before the great 
fires of Chicago and Boston. It was 
intended to accommodate 100,000 
volumes — it has, packed and padded 
on the shelves, ali-eady over 113,000 
volumes, besides scores of volumes 
of atlases and thousands of duplicate 
books for exchange. The dui^licate 
volumes are chiefly the reports of the 
several departments of the State 
government and institutions, and 
books presented to the library from 
time to time by various jiersons. 
The Hbi'aiy of to-day represents the 
best thoug-ht of the human mind 
and the record of human action 
for the last six thousand years. 
While every department of letters is 
represented on the shelves, yet the 
lil)rary is by far the richest in works 
relating to American history. Hun- 
di'eds of books ha-ve been printed in 
this country, in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, of the editions 
of which not twenty copies remain un- 
destroyed. Quiet, unremitted watch- 
fulness and care foi* the past thirty 
years have succeeded in gathering in 
most of these publications, so that few 
libraries on this continent ai*e richer 
in early Americana. The library does 
not seek literary curiosities as such ; 
but when a book is offered which is 
needed to complete the set of laws, or 
illustrate the histoiy of the State, it is 
obtained, as when, in the spring of 
1880, ij?l,600 was paid at auction for 
the first book of the Laws of the State, 
of which but two or three perfect 
copies were known to be in existence. 
The library contains, in addition to 
these I'are or almost unique volumes, 
many illustrated volumes of travels, 
of natural history, and of ancient and 
modern art. Among these are Kings- 



borough's Mexican Antiquities, the 
text of which is mainly in the Spanish 
and Italian languages ; the great work 
on Egypt, in 12 folio volumes, exe- 
cuted under orders of Napoleon I j 
Audubon's Bii-ds of America, in four 
volumes, elephant folio, which now 
bring at auction ?1,000 ; and 20 vol- 
umes illuB 'rating the humming birds 
of Central and South America. The 
leading journals of France and Eng- 
land are represented in almost com- 
plete files of the Monitettr and London 
Times. Sixty thousand pamphlets 
have been preserved, to illustrate 
every phase of human industry, ec- 
centricity, passion, patriotism, stu- 
pidity, or genius. The collection of 
American genealogies is perhaps un- 
surpassed by any other in the country. 
About 3,000 volumes of specifications 
and drawing's of English patents are 
stored on the shelves, besides those 
of the United States, France, Canada, 
and Victoria. Hai'dly a library-day 
in the year passes that one or moi'e 
readers do not ask to consult some 
of these patents volumes. The law 
library has but one equal in the extent 
and value of its collections in this 
country, and that is the Library of 
Congress at Washington. Eveiy book 
and pamphlet in the library is cata- 
logued under the author's name, in 
aljihabetical order, and in addition to 
this catalogue is a subject-index, in 
which, under subjects presented in 
alphabetical order, are gi\-en the 
treatises, in book or pamphlet form, 
upon that subject. 

In addition to the books, other arti- 
cles of value and interest have drifted 
in as to a safe place of deposit for the 
inspection of visitors. Among these 
are a sword and pistol and the sur- 
veying instruments of Washington ; 
the swords presented to Gen. Worth 
by the United States, by New York 
State, and by the city of Hudson, for |L 
brilliant services in the Mexican Avar : 



119 



STA — TEL 



busts of some of tlie eminent states- 
men of New York ; portraits in oil 
of many of the Governoi'S and Regents 
of the University, and a numismatic 
collection of considerable value. It is 
a reference library, and only mem- 
bei'S of the Legislature, heads of de- 
partments of the State' government, 
and the trustees of the hbrary have 
the privilege of taking books to their 
residences. There is hardly a tield of 
human industry that is not repre- 
sented in apphcants for information to 
assist them in their sevei'al spheres 
of labor in office, workshop, or out- 
door occupations. 

The library is open daily from 9 
A. M. to 5 P. M., except Sundays and 
hoUdays, and from the 5th to the 20th 
of August ; during sessions of the 
Legislature till 6 p. m., except Satur- 
days, when it closes at 5 p. m. 

State Officers. (See Appendix.) 

State Street owes its great width 
to the fact that in the early history of 
the city, most of the public buildings 
were in the middle of that street. It 
is a noble avenue, and when cleared 
of its Market (which see), will form 
a fitting approach to the Capitol. 

Steamboat Landing, foot of Madi- 
son ave., was formerly called the 
Watering Place, as there teams and 
cattle had access to the river. The 
South Market which stood there was 
taken down in 1842, and the lot leased 
to Isaac Newton. It is now the land- 
ing place of the People's Line. 

Steamboats. — During the season of 
navigation, steamers leave foot of 
Hamilton st. daily, for Cedar Hill, 
Castleton, Coeymans, New Baltimore, 
Stuyvesant, Coxsackie, Hudson, Cats- 
kill, Rondout, Poughkeepsie, New- 
burgh, and intermediate landings. 
There is also a line of favorite steam- 



ers running to New Baltimore tmce 
daily (see Excursions). The Albany 
and Troy steamers, which run hourly 
from foot of Maiden lane, are highly 
popular and deservedly so. During 
the Saratoga season, there is a day 
line to New York (see, also, People's 
Lixe). 

St. Michael's Feast.— *' The feast- 
day of St. Michael, the archangel," 
was (Sept. 29) designated in the Don- 
gan charter, when the aldermen were 
elected and the chamberlain was ap- 
pointed. The present charter pro- 
vides that the chamberlain and the 
deputy chamberlain, who shall also 
be the receiver of taxes, shall be 
biennially appointed by the common 
council on the nomination of the 
mayor, at a meeting of the common 
council to be held on the eve of the 
feast of St. Michael the archangel. 

Street Cleaning is done by five con- 
tractors, one in each police precinct, 
and the captains of police are authori- 
zed to see that the work is properly 
performed. If it is not, they have the 
right to employ men and teams to re- 
move the dirt, and the expense is re- 
ported and charged against the con- 
tractors. 

Sturgeonville. — A derisive name 
applied to Albany, from the fact that 
many years ago sturgeon was bought 
and sold here in large quantities. 
Twenty-five years ago the trade here 
amounted to {?20,000 annually, but it 
has declined so that now a good 
specimen of the acipenser hremrostris 
is quite a rarity. It is a curious fact, 
that in spite of this, sturgeon is 
known as Albany beef, all over the 
United States. 

Telegraph. — There are three tele- 
graph lines doing business in this 
city, and as a consequence rates are 



TEL 



120 



low, anrl likely to be lower. In mes- 
sag-es the" body " words of the mes- 
sage only are charged for, the date, 
address, and signature of messages 
being transmitted free. Figures must 
always be written out in words. Mes- 
sages are delivered in the city limits 
without extra charge ; and thi-ough 
the telephone messengers can be sum- 
moned, Mho will also receive mes- 
sages without extra charge. 

Western Union. — Central ofRce, 
cor. of State and Bi'oad way; branches. 
West Aroan;^ ; Delavan House; Broad- 
way cor. N. Ferry ; Union depot ; 
Lumber district, in summer ; People's 
Line office ; D. & H. C. R. R. general 
offices ; depot of D. & H. C. R. R., 
foot of Maiden lane ; in the winter, at 
the Capito), and the Kenmore Hotel. 

Atlantic and Pacific. — Central 
office, 462 Broadv/ay. Branches at 
State Hail and West Albany. Con- 
nects with Direct United States ocean 
telegi'aph. 

American Union. — Central office 
444 Broadway. Branches during the 
Mdnter, at Stanwix Hall and the Capi- 
tol. Connects with the French At- 
lantic telegraph, and is lessee of the 
Dominion line of Canada. 

Telephone. — The telephone in this 
city is an outgrowth of the American 
District Telegi-aph Co., which was 
chartered in Nov., 1875, and began 
operations in Feb., 1876. Each sub- 
scriber was furnished with a signal 
box. By the pulling down of a crank 
the number, peculiar to that box, was 
recorded in the company's office on a 
self-acting register, and a uniformed 
messenger answered the call. Police 
officers and firemen were similarly 
summoned. This system is still in 
vogue, though limited in extent, since 
the advent of telephonic communica- 
tion. 

In March, 1878, the American Dis- 
trict Telegraph made a contract with 



the Bell Telephone Co. of Boston, for 
the use of the lattcr's instruments ; 
and on May 22, 1878, established a 
telephone exchange in Albany. Ifc 
was the third one in the United States, 
or in the world ; the first being in 
New Haven, Ct., under the manage- 
ment of Mr. Coy, the originator of 
the system; the second in Lowell. 
Mass. Prior to these a system of 
centering telephone wires in one office 
had been in operation at Boston, but 
communications were sent to opera- 
tors at the central office, who relayed 
them to their destination ; whereas, 
at New Haven, the subscribers were 
put in actual communication \vdth 
each other. 

The Albany Exchange began with 
about 100 subscribers, and the Ameri- 
can District Company enjoyed a mo- 
nopoly of the business until July, 
1879, duinng which time a separate 
company bj^ened an office in Troy, 
and direct communication was possi- 
ble from Albany to Loudonville, Me- 
nands, West Troy, Troy, Lansing- 
burg, Waterford and Cohoes. 

The telephone stations in Albany 
up to June, '79, numbei'ed about 450, 
and the entire number in communi- 
cation about 700. In the summer of 
'79, the Commercial Telephone Co. 
began operations, and very shortly 
succeeded in obtaining and holding 
the largest and most valuable pa- 
tronage. 

The Commercial Co., of Albany, 
have a list of about 800 subscribers ; 
the American District Co., 300; the 
Commercial, of Troy, some 450. In 
Albany, the office of the chief of po- 
lice is in telephonic communication 
with the diffei-ent stations ; the chifef 
engineer of the fire department en- 
joys similar facilities %vith steamer 
and truck houses. The total number 
of telephones in Albany, Troy and 
vicinity, cannot be far from 1,700. 

Prices of telephone subsci-iptions 



121 



TEM — TRA 



range from §2 to $4.50 per month, ac- 
cording* to amount of business, dis- 
tance of subscribers from central 
offices, and combined or single occu- 
pation of a circuit. Extra charges 
ai-e made for communicating with 
Troy or Cohoes. It is unfortunate 
that there is no recognized j)!'*^"* 
whereby the general public can avail 
themselves of occasional communica- 
tions, wdthout incurring expense of a 
regular subscription. 

Central ofiices are located : Com- 
mercial telephone in Amei'ican Ex- 
press Buihling, with branches at 68 
Washington ave., and cor. of S. Pearl 
and Hamilton sts. ; American District, 
468 Broadway, over Van Heusen, 
Charles & Co.'s crockery store. A 
consolidation of the two companies is 
likely to take place. 

Temperature. — The temperature 
in All)any is very high in summer, 
and very low in winter, ranging- from 
93 above to IS below zero. The mean 
temperature for the past live years 
has been 47.3, which is lower than 
that of New Yoi-k by about four de- 
grees. The rainfall (which includes 
melted snow) for the past yeai', was 
BS^ inches. Less snow falls here 
than in the surrounding country. 
According to a paper read by Dr. T. 
Romeyn Beck, before the Albany In- 
stitute, Feb. 7, 1833, and embodying 
the observations of 17 years, the 
mean temperature had been 49.4. 

Theatres. — There are no theatres 
in Albany ; they are all halls or Oi)era 
houses. (See Lela^-d Opera House, 
Martijt Opera House, Tweddle 
Hall.) 

Topography. — Albany, the capi- 
tal of the btate of New York, and its 
fourth largest city, is situated at the 
head of sloop navigation on the west 
bank of the Hudson river, 145 miles 



from New York, and 374 from Wash- 
ington, D. C, in latitude 42.39 and 
longitude 78.32. Along the river 
front the land is low, but a little 
distance back it rises about 200 
feet, and then stretches away to the 
westward in a sandy plain. The hill 
is divided by four g-ullies running 
east and west, which haVe-been much 
modified by grading, and within a 
mile of the liver disappear altogether. 
Still thei-e are points where the banks 
can only be climbed by steps, and, 
therefore, are inaccessible foi* teams. 
By the Dongan charter, the limits of 
the city were fixed at one mile on the 
river front, and extending' north-west 
the same width 16 miles. In 1870, 
this generous allotment was cui'tailed, 
and the western boundary of the city 
is now only about 4^ miles from the 
river. Accessions have, hovvever, 
been made north and south of the 
original gi'ant, and the river front is 
now about four miles. The soil is 
underlaid with slate rock at a depth 
corresponding vnth. the bed of the 
river ; then comes gravel, and next 
as the gi'ound rises, 150 to 250 feet of 
blue clay ; then yellow sand. The 
soil on the slopes is this blue clay, 
which becomes mixed with sand at 
the top of the plateau, and west it is 
about all sand. 

Townsend Park, at the intersection 
of Washington and Central aves., be- 
tween Lark and Knox sts. When first 
inclosed with a fence, in 1833, it was 
proposed to call it Washing-ton Park 
and erect there a statue of the Father 
of his Country ; but he escaped the 
honor. 

Trade, The Board of, was organ- 
ized in 1847, and incorporated in 1864. 
It inhabits spacious and convenient 
rooms at 40 State st., in what was once 
Association Hall. It has 225 mem- 
bers who pay yearly dues of |10. 



TRA — UNI 



122 



This entitles them to the use of the 
room to buy and sell in. The leading- 
commercial papers are on file, and 
occasionally public meeting's are held 
there. The present officers are Ralph 
"W. Thacher, xii'es. ; William Story, 
Edwy L. Taylor, vice-prests. ; Wil- 
liam Lacy, sec. ; Thos. McCredie, jr., 
treas. ; William C. Johnson, Henry 
W. Waterman, Charles B. l"^llinghast, 
Harvey A. Dwight, Wm. O. Elmore, 
Charles E, Gay, managers. 

Trade Unions. — Among- those in the 
city are the following- : 

Bricklayers and Masons' Union. 

Cigar Makers' Union, organized 
Sept. 17, 1879; membership, 178. 
Thos. Brierty, pres. ; Porter McMur- 
ray, Adam Zeller, vice-prests. ; Moses 
Steam, Fi-ank Loring, sees. ; Frank 
Smith, treas. 

Coopers' Union No. 7. 

Typographical Union No. 4, rooms 
at 44 N. Pearl st. For officers, see 
chronicle of local events, Oct. 9. 

Troy, six miles north of Albany, is 
a city of 57,000 inhabitants ; chartered 
as a village in 1791 ; as a city in 1816. 
Is reached by rail, steamboat, or 
horse cars, and will well repay a 
visit. Thii'ty or more factories, em- 
ploying over 6,000 hands, manufac- 
ture shirts and collars. The iron and 
stove interests are very large. 

Tweddle Hall, cor. State and N. 
Pearl streets, opened June 28, 1860; 
stands partly on the site of the home 
of Philip Livingston, a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. It is 
said that he x)lanted the elm tree 
which once stood on the corner near 
by. (See Elm Tree Corner.) Is 
well furnished and appointed, and is 
let to traveling combinations and for 
political and other meetings. Will 
seat 1,196 persons, William Apple- 
ton, jr., manag-er. The lower floors 



are occupied by stores and offices. 
(See Amusements, Record of.) 

Union University. — (For the medi- 
cal department, see Medical Col- 
lege ; law department, see Law 
School ; see, also, Dudley Obser- 
VATORY.) The union of these in- 
stitutions with Union College was 
consummated in April, 1873. While 
neither gained nor lost anything in 
property oi' powers, all were united 
under a board of governors, thus 
securing unity of action and opinion. 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott Potter, D. D., - 
LL. D., pres. 

Union College, located at Schen- 
ectady, 14 miles fi-om Albany, was 
founded Feb. 25, 1795, and was the 
first college chartei'ed by the Regents 
of the University. It has been an 
imjioi'tant factor in the intellectual 
growth of the State and Nation. Its 
presidents and professors have been 
men of foremost ability as teach ere, 
and have j^ublished many woi-ks of 
world-wide reputation. The follow- 
ing is the list of presidents : John 
Blair Smith, D. D. ; Jonathan Ed- 
wards, D. D. ; Jonathan Maxcy, D. D; 
Eliphalet Nott, D. D. ; Laurens P. 
Hickok, D. D. ; Charles A. Aiken, 
D. D. ; Eliphalet Nott Potter, D. D. 
Of the 6,500 g-raduates, about 4,650 
have been from the State of New 
York. The colleg-e is well endowed 
for special purposes, but needs a pro- 
fessional endowment fund. There 
are numerous scholarshijis, prize 
scholai'ships and prizes. The present 
able and efficient faculty insist on a 
high standai-d of scholarship. There 
are three libi-aries, large collections 
in Natural History department, com- 
plete sets of philosophical apparatus, | 
and the engineering department and ' 
chemical laboratory are well sup- 
plied with models and apparatus. 
Military instruction is given by an 
officer of the United States anny. 




1 3 3 a X s 



A M d 3 d 



Td ONVlidOO 





f 



123 



UNI — WAS 



Tliere are two literary societies (The 
Philomatliean, founded 1793 ; The 
Adelphic, 1797) and a theological 
society. These societies have had 
much to do wiih the reputation of the 
alumni for forensic abihty. Degrees 
are conferi-ed upon graduates from 
the classical, scifentitic, civil engi- 
neering, chemical and post-graduate 
courses. Prof. Cady Staley is Dean 
of the faculty. 

Universalist Church, Chestnut st. 
above Dove. There is no settled 
. pastor. O. E. Wilson is supt. of the 
Sunday school. 

Underwriters, Albany Board of, 

incorporiited March 20, 1873. Ob- 
ject, to inculcate just and equitable 
principles in the business of insur- 
ance ; to establish and maintain uni- 
formity among its members in poli- 
cies or contracts of insurance, and to 
acquire, x^iresei-ve and disseminate 
yakiable information relative to the 
business in which they are engaged. 
The Insurance Patrol (see Fire De- 
partment) is maintained by this 
board. Annual meeting third Tues- 
day in April. Regular meetings, 
second Tuesday in the month. R. V. 
DeWitt, pres. ; Edward E. Clapp, 
vice-pres. ; George N. Cuyler, sec. ; 
S. W. Whitney, treas. Rooms at the 
Protectives' house, Hudson ave. 

Vital Statistics, The Bureau of, or 

registrar's bureau, is in charge of 
the mayor's second clerk, William D. 
Dickerman. By city ordinance, 
clergymei^, physicians, midwives and 
undertakers, are required to make 
])r()mpt returns of births, marriages 
and deaths to the registrar. The law 
is well observed so far as it relates to 
deaths, as no dead body can be moved 
or buried without a permit from him ; 
but in regai-d to marriages and 
bii^hs, the i-eturns come in slowly, 



and sometimes not at all, although 
the penalty is a fine of IplO. The 
registrar makes his annual I'epoi't on 
the first Tuesday in June . According 
to the report for 1879-80, the total 
registration included 383 marriages, 
1,090 births and 1,177 deaths. As- 
suming that the census returns are 
correct, and that the population is 
91,243, the death rate for the ^ear 
was one to 77.52 inhabitants, or not 
quite 13 deaths to every 1,000 in- 
habitants. Nearly one-sixth (199) 
were victims of consumption. 

Washington Park. — If there is 
any one thing of which Albany has a 
right to be proud, it is her beautifal 
park. The Capitol, grand as it is, 
belongs to the State, but the park is 
entirely a city institution. The ac- 
companying plan explains more fully 
than words can do, the way in which 
it is laid out. FolloNving are the 
references to the points of special 
interest : 

1. Swing's. 

2. Croquet Lawn. 

3. Armsby Momorial 

4. Rustic Shelter. 

5. Meadow. 

6. Refectory 

7. Fountain Shelter. 

8. Terrace. 

9. Deer Paildock. 

10. Deer Paddoclc Outlook. | 

11. Lake House 

12. Site of proposed King Fountain. 

13. Lake 

14 Foot Bridere. 
15. Overlook Hill 

The area of the park is 76 4-10 
acres. It contains three miles of the 
best possible drive-way, and ;"! miles 
of walks. The lake is 1,(300 feet 
long ; average width, 130 feet ; area, 
five acres. 

The park is reached by the State 
st. line of horse-cars, which g'o within 
a short distance of it (at Knox st.), 
but more directly by the Hamilton 
st. line, which rim along Madison 
ave. directly on the border. In the 



\^AS 



124 



reason for flowei*s, no one should miss 
jseeing- the beautiful display of 40,000 
oedded plants, most of which are 
placed near Willett st., between 
Hudson and Lancaster. A band 
plays in the cupola of the lake-house 
nearly every week in the summer, 
and is listened to by thousands who 
walk or drive about the beautiful 
grounds. In the skating- season, the 
lake is, of course, the g-i-eat place of 
resort ; but at all seasons of the year, 
when the weather will permit, the 
park is frequented by hundreds 
daily. 

The special features of the park, 
aside from the artistic manner in 
which it is laid out, and the careful 
manner in which it is tended, are its 
noble trees, which were there when 
the land was taken for x^ark jiurposes; 
and the scenery afforded by the dis- 
tant Catskill mountains and the Hel- 
derbergs. 

With the exception of the Aemsby 
Memorial (which see), there has, as 
yet, been no attempt to adorn the 
g-rounds with works of ai't ; but this 
is a mere question of time. Already 
a bequest has been made by the late 
Henry L. King-, leaving- 1^20,000 for 
the erection of a fountain, the site of 
which is indicated upon the map, and 
which vnW probably be erected the 
coming- year. 

The act creating- the park commis- 
sion, under whose charge it was con- 
structed and is maiiitained, was 
passed May 5, 1869, and set apart 
what was then known as the burial 
ground property and the old Wash- 
ington parade ground ; also the Peni- 
tentiary grounds and the Alms-house 
farm. By subsequent acts the powers 
of the board were extended over the 
approaches to the park, and thus was 
instituted a system of boulevards. 

The first meeting of the commis- 
sion was held May 8th, following ; the 
board consisting of John Bridgford, 



Arthur Bott, Geo. Dawson, Dudley 
Olcott, William Cassidy, John Fair, 
Rufus W. Peckham, Jr., Samuel H. 
Ransom and John H. Van Antwerp, 
The latter was made pres.; Mr. Ol- 
cott, treas., and Wm. D. Morange, 
sec. The trustees, as the commis- 
sioners were called, were divided 
into three classes, three to serve three 
yeai's, three to serve six years, three 
to serve nine years ; their succes- 
sors to be appointed by the mayor, 
and serve nine years. 

The j)lans originally adopted by 
the board were prepared by Messrs. 
Bogart & Cuyler. The grounds em- 
bi-aced by these were included in 
that portion of the j)^'6i?ent park 
bounded by Willett st. on the east, 
Madison and Hudson aves. on the 
south, State st. on the noi'th, Robin 
st. on the w^est, for a distance of about 
632 feet, thence running west a dis- 
tance of about 132 feet, and thence 
south to Madison ave. The develop- 
ment of the plans was from 1869 to 
1872, under the supervision of Mr. 
R. H. Bingham, as chief engineer, 
and William S. Egerton, as assistant. 
In 1872 Mr. Egerton assumed charge 
of all designs and superintendence. 

Early in July, 1870, work was be- 
gun, and the Washington parade 
ground was nearly completed, hav- 
ing been fenced, graded, drained, and 
the walks and drive-ways laid out 
and graveled. 

In 1871, that portion known as the 
burial grounds was entered upon, 
and the walks and drive-ways suffi- 
ciently advanced to be thrown open 
to the public. 

In 1873, the development of the 
plans was confined to that portion of 
the lake section lying between Snipe 
St., or Lexington ave., on the east, 
and Robin st. on the west, and to the 
further completion of the drives, 
walks and lawn surfaces in other 
portions. 



125 



WAT 



In 1874, the work of constraction 
was coiitined to tliat portion of the 
park bounded by Madison ave., the 
properties of Messrs. Hussey,01cott, 
and King on the south, the present 
Barnes and Brown properties on the 
north, Perry st. on the west and 
Robin st. on the east, embracing- an 
area of some 15 acres. 

In 1875, the bridge spanning the 
lake and the lake-house were erected, 
and gas was introduced around the 
lake. In this year, also, the grounds 
a lja(;ent to the penitentiary were en- 
tered, and about one mile of drive- 
way was constructed. 

During the past year what is knoviai 
as the Knox st. property, comprising 
9 4-10 acres, was taken and improved, 
and with the King fountain for its 
centre is sure to be a chai*ming por- 
tion of the grounds. 

Western Ave., under the control of 
the commissioners, extends from near 
the north-west corner of the park to 
the toll-gate ; is 8,200 feet in length, 
40 feet wide, and paved with granite 
block, curbed and sewered. The 
sidewalks are six feet wide, bordered 
with grass and shaded by trees (or 
will be when they are grown), 40 feet 
apart. The location of the gas, water 
and sewage service is between the 
sidewalk and the house-lot hne, thus 
doing away with all disturbance of 
the road-bed. In sleighing time this 
avenue is alive with gay turn-outs 
and fast horses. Although the im- 
provement was conducted by the 
commissioners, the cost was assessed 
upon the coiitiguous property and is 
not a city charge. The work was 
begun Nov. 16, 1876, and completed 
and accepted Oct. 18, 1877. 

The Northern Boulevard extends 
from Western ave., east of the toll- 
gate, to the intersection of Central 
and Clinton aves., a distance of 
5,525 feet. From Western ave. to 
Washington ave. it is 150 feet wide ; 



from Washington ave. to Main ave., 
100 feet wide ; the remainder 66 feet 
wide. It is paved with a combina- 
tion of the Telford and Macadam 
systems, and is greatly Mked by 
pleasure drivers. This woi-k was 
begun in Jan., 1876, and that part 
between Westeni and Centi'al a\'es. 
completed in 1878. It is the inten- 
tion, eventually, to extend this boule- 
vard to the Dudley Observatory 
gi-ounds, and thence by bridging the 
tracks, to connect with the atti'active 
drives, north of Tivoli Hollow, on 
Rensselaer ave., and the Loudonville 
and Shaker roads. 

The total cost of the park, includ- 
ing the Northern Boulevai'd and all 
lands bought by the commissioners ; 
for maintenance, etc., up to Jan. 1, 
1880, was Jg906,B23.28. This does not 
include the expenditures of the present 
year, in which is to be reckoned the cost 
of the recent addition, §272,587.35. 
The cost of its improvement will be 
less than $15,000. (For Park Com- 
missioners, etc., see Appendix.) 

Water- works. — The water supply 
of Albany is controlled by a board of 
commissioners, created by chap. 235 
of the Laws of 1850. They serve 
without pay ; vacancies are filled by 
a two-third vote of the common coun- 
cil, which has fhe power of removal ; 
office, 61 State st. 

The Old System. — Pre\nous to the 
creation of the commission, the city 
was supplied by a private stock com- 
pany, organized Feb. 2, 1802. The 
water was dl•a^vn from the Maezlandf 
kill, north-west of the city, and dis- 
tributed through iron pipes and 
wooden logs. In 1850, the common 
council caused examinations to be 
made of the Hudson, the Mohawk, 
the Patroon's creek, the Normans kill, 
and the lakes on the Helderbergs, 
and finally, with Wm. J. McAlpine as 
engineer, a dam was built, about six 



WAT 



126 



miles west of here, where three 
streams met and formed the Patroon's 
creek, and thus was created Rensse- 
laer lake, covering-, when full, about 
40 aci'es, and holding- from 100,000,- 
000 to 200,000,000 g-allons. From here 
the water was conducted through a 
brick conduit, eg-g-shaped, four feet 
high and nearly four miles long, to 
Bleeckei" reservoir (west of Ontario 
St.), holding 80,000,000 gallons. A 
little way this side of West Albany, 
two other reservoirs were constructed 
by dams thrown across the Patroon's 
creek, and called the Upper and 
Lower Tivoli lakes, the upper being 
for stoi'age and subsiding, and the 
lower for distribution. These were 
supplied from the water that entered 
the creek east of Rensselaer lake. A 
24-inch main, about 7,000 feet long, 
was laid from the lower lake to the 
intersection of Van Woert and North 
Pearl sts., at which x^oint the water 
enters the distributing mains, Rensse- 
laer lake supplying through Bleecker 
reservoir all that part of the city west 
of Pearl st. ; Tivoli lake, all east of 
and including Pearl st. Meantime, 
as the city grew westward, it was 
found that no inconsiderable portion 
lay above Bleecker reservoir, and was 
therefore without supply. In addi- 
tion to this, the creek failed to meet 
the consumption, and several water 
famines were the consequence. 

The Present System. — After much 
public discussion and several surveys, 
the commissioners fixed upon the 
Hudson as the source of additional 
supply ; their recommendations were 
adopted by the common council and 
their plans carried into effect. The 
water is taken from the river outside 
the pier o]iposite Quackenbush st., 
where the channel cuiTcnt strikes. 
In the centre of the pier is a well- 
chamber, six feet in <liameter and 
80 feet deep. Into this the water, 
screened by copper wire 100 meshes 



to the square inch, pours through a 
culvert below low-water mark. A 
tunnel five feet in diameter and nearly 
900 feet long, extends from this well- 
chamber under the basin to the 
pumi)ing works cor. Quackenbush 
and Montgomery sts. Plere are two 
engines capable of sending up to 
Bleecker reservoir — 245 feet above 
tide — ten million gallons every twenty- 
four houi's. The force-main through 
which it goes is 30 inches in diameter, 
7,723 feet long, and is laid undei 
Quackenbush st. and Clinton ave. 
The works were completed and 
pumping began Sept. 14, 1875. 

Still the more elevated portions of 
the city i-eceived no benefit. Accord- 
ingly, another reservoir \\ith a capa- 
city of six or seven million gallons, 
was built on Prospect (or Powder- 
house) hill, a sand-knoll noi-th of 
Central ave. and east of Colby st., 55 
feet above Bleecker reservoir, and 
300 feet above tide. A second engine 
was put into OT»eration February 6, 
1878, and through a two-foot main, 
j'unning to a well-chamber, like that 
on the piei*, pumps the water fi'om 
the Bleecker reservoir to Prospect 
hill. It was now necessary to divide 
the city into three services, instead of 
two : the upper service, which fi-om 
Prospect hill supplies all west of Lark 
st. ; the middle service, which 
from the Bleecker reservoir, sup- 
plies Lark st. and all east to Peai'l 
st. ; and the lower service, which 
from the Tivoli lakes, sux>plies Pearl 
st. and all east thereof. Thus is 
insured an abundant and uninter- 
rupted supply as unfailing as the 
Hudson itself. Should the TivoU 
reservoirs run short, water can be 
sent dowTi the creek from the Rensse- 
laer lake, or direct from the Bleecker 
reservoir, into which the pumps can 
send their ten million gallons daily. 
Meantime, it is designed to hold a 
reserve always in the Rensselaer lake 



127 



WES — YOU 



in case any accident should occur to 

both eng-inos at once, and to impound 
each yccxr in February and March 
enoug-h watei- to supply the city when 
the river is turbid vnth the spring- 
freshets. When, at other times, im- 
puiities api:)ear in the Rensselaer 
lake, the supply from that soui-ce will 
be shut off entirely and only the river 
Vv^ater used. 

The j,)rejudice ag-ainst water from 
the river was at tirst veiy gfi*eat, and 
is not yet entirely overcome, but the 
commissioners point to the death rate 
as showing" conclusively that the 
health of the city has not chang-ed for 
the woi'se since the river water has 
come into use. They claim that no 
city in the United States has a better 
or more abundant, or more wholesome 
su]^ply. The quantify used is be- 
lieved to amount daily to 100 g-allons 
for every man, woman and child in 
Albany. 

The Old Water-works, which were 
boug-ht by the present commission, 
included a resei'voii* on the spot now 
occupied by the hig-h school. The 
main throug-h which the water was 
broug-ht from the Maezlandtkill is 
still used, and from it consumers in 
North Albany, and many upon Broad- 
way north of Clinton ave. and Pearl 
st. from Clinton ave. to Columbia st., 
ai-e suppUed. This water is very 
hard. 

Water Rents are collected in the 
same way as taxes, and are assessed 
upon all real estate fronting- on streets 
throug-h which the mains are laid, and 
which, in default of payment, may 
be sold the same as for non-payment 
of taxes. Vacant lots are assessed 5 cts. 
l^er foot ; private dwelling-s from 20 to 
50 feet front, one story, $5 to $9 ; two 
story, J^S to :?12 ; three story, $11 to 
§15; four story, 1^14 to $18; five 
story, |17 to {^21 ; stores, shops, pri- 
vate stables, etc., two-thirds the 
above rates. There is no extra 



charg-e for the first bath-room or 
water-closet. 

Finances. — The original works cost 
J?850,000 1 the additional supply, in- 
cluding pumping work^ at the river 
and at Prospect Hill, Prospect Hill 
I'eservoir, the mains for the new ser- 
vice, etc , .?700,0U'0 ; total, $1,550,000. 
Of this, the commissioners, besides 
meeting foi* thirty years all the ex- 
pense of maintenance, additional pip- 
ing, etc., will have paid up to Feb. 1, 
18.-51, $450,000, leaving a debt of 
$1,100,000, for which there is to show 
one of the best systems of water sup- 
ply in the United States; and this, 
too, with rates considerably lower 
than those of other cities. 

West Albany. — Just outside the 
city limits on the Central railroad, 
and where the large repairing shops 
of the road and the cattle mai-ket are 
situated Reached also by State st. 
horse-cars. (See Cattle Market.) 

West End Association. — Its object 
is to promote the welfai-e of the west- 
ern part of the city, and see that it 
gets its share of the benefit derived 
from money expended for public im- 
provements. Mathew Hale, pres. ; 
John W. McNamara, Truman D. 
Cameron, John Heidi'ick, vice-prests. ; 
William Morgan, sec; Andrew R. 
Hunter, treas. 

Young Men's Association, rooms, 
cor. N. Pearl and Steuben sts. ; oldest 
institution of its character in the 
United States. Founded, \^dth a mem- 
bership of about 750, Dec. 10, 1833. 
Amos Dean, first president, elected 
Dec. 13, and re-elected at first annual 
meeting, Feb. 3, 1834. Incorporated, 
March 12, 1835, for the purpose of 
"establishing and maintaining a 
library, reading-room, literary and 
scientific lectures, and other means 
of promoting moral and intellectual 



YOU 



128 



improvement." For 22 years it sus- 
tained a debating- society. It occu- 
pied rooms in Knickei-bocker hall, on 
Broadway, where Nos. 451 and 453 
are now, until 1840 ; in Exchang-e 
building, M'here the new Government 
building- is now g"oing- up, until 1852 ; 
in the Commercial bank building-, 
until 1870; in Martin hall building- 
until Sept., 1877, when it came to its 
j)resent rooms, having- leased the 
Bleecker building-s on N. Pearl, Steu- 
ben and Chapel sts., for 10 years, 
with right to release for 10 years 
longer. It has some valuable x^ictures, 
a good variety of current magazines 
and newspaj^ers, and a well selected 
circulating and I'efei-cnce library of 
about 15,000 volumes. Its largest 
benefactions have been $1,000 in 
books from Dr. George Cooke, and 
5?10,000 in a bequest from Hon. 
Erastus Corning. All real estate and 
vested funds are under management 
of a boai'd of trustees of which Henry 
R. Pierson is pres., and Maurice E. 
Viele, sec. and treas. The ordinary 
affaii's ai'e managed by a board of 
managers, 18 in number. Life mem- 
bers, of which there are 170 living, 
pay §50 at one time. Annual mem- 
bers, male and female, pay ^2. Ti-an- 
sient persons and non-i-esidents may 
buy a ticket for 6 months, paying §1. 
It will be seen that 4 cts. per week 
pays for the privileges here afforded, 
so that no one li^'ing in or near the 
city can lack facilities for access to 
the best and freshest literature at the 
cheapest possible cost. This associ- 
ation deserves, as it has, the strongest 
claims upon the sympathy, and sup- 
]~>ort of the best men and women of 
Albany. A new catalogue of 306 
pages has just been published. Annu- 
al election occurs second Thursday in 
March. William P. Rudd, pres.j Ed- 



ward A. Gi'iffin, treas. ; Willis G. 
Nash, se(i. ; Rev. Dr. Irving Magee, 
Leonard Kip and John De Witt Peltz, 
cui'ators of the library ; Prof. Jona- 
than Tenney, librarian. Member- 
ship, about 2,000. 

Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation. — An organization at one time 
quite active in this city, but now has 
only a nominal existence ; being held 
together by the fact that it has some 
property left it by Dr. Andrews, the 
income of which is expended for 
bread-tickets for the pooi'. The i-ea- 
son for this want of activity is that the 
work which the association would 
otherwise feel called upon to perform 
is done by the Young Men's Christian 
Union, and by the City Tract and 
Missionai-y Society. The officers of 
the association are John Templeton, 
pres. ; M. E. Gates, H. Kelly, vice- 
prests. ; E. D. L. Palmer, tres. ; G. M. 
Tucker, J. D. Brooks, sees. 

The Railboad Y. M. C. A., having 
for its mission the improvement of 
I'aih'oad employees, has an active 
branch in this city, of which Geo. S. 
Weaver is chairman of executive com- 
mittee ; John L. Van Vaikenburg, 
sec. and treas. ; Theo. A. Harding, 
gen. sec. A reading-room, opened 
May 4, 1880, is maintained in the 
yard of the Central I'oad, where meet- 
ings ai-e held, entertainments given, 
etc. 

Young Men's Christian Union. — 

C. G. Davidson, pres. ; M. A. Van- 
derwart, vice-pres. ; R. E. Steele, 
treas. ; E. L. Fronk, sec. Holds 
weekly prayer meetings in the various 
churches ; also meetings at the hos- 
pitals and the jail, and in the sum- 
mer, out-of-doors. 



APPENDIX 



CHRONICLE OF LOCAL EVENTS FOR 1880. 



The following- is a chronological 
table of matters of interest happen- 
ing- in Albany and vicinity, from Jan. 
1 to Dec. 1, 1880: 

January 1. — Gov. Alonzo B. Cor- 
nell inaug-urated. 

5. — The widow of John Tracey 
died suddenly at the Schuyler man- 
sion — There was much excitement 
about the setting- up of teleg-raph 
poles in Maiden lane and other 
streets; several arrests were made, 
but the matter was finally settled 
amicably. 

6. — Legislature organized ; the 
assembly choosing George H. Sharpe, 
speaker, and Edward M. Johnson, 
clerk. The senate chose John W. 
Vrooman, clerk — Albany Institute 
elected officers. 

7. — Board of supervisors ad- 
jouraed. 

8. — Republican 1880 club organiz- 
ed with Hamilton Harris, pres. ; there 
were already a Grant club and an 
Anti-Third Term club in this city. 

9. — Public installation of the officers 
of Capital City Chapter, a masonic 
body — Revival meetings were nightly 
held in Hudson Ave. Methodist 
church— Regents of the University 
elected Dr. David Murray, sec, in 
place of Dr. Woolworth, resigned. 

14. — Boatmen's Relief association, 
composed of 1,742 members, elected 
Thomas V. Wolcott, pres. ; assess- 
ments levied the past year were 18 ; 
the benefits, ^1,500 each. 
9 



15. — Julius Myers, while intoxi- 
cated, choked to death eating raw 
pork — Joel Munsell, Albany's esteem- 
ed antiquary and historian, died, 
aged 72. 

18. — Capt. Louis Ensign, an old 
rivei' man, died, aged 70. 

20. — Le Grand Bancroft, a well- 
known lawyer, died, aged 61 — A 
poultry show was opened in the old 
post-office on North Pearl st. 

21. — Annual meeting of the State 
Agricultural Society ; address by 
Horatio Seymour — The Kelly Demo- 
crats held a conference at the Delavan. 

22. — Adj. -Gen. Townsend gave a 
reception to the State Military Asso- 
ciation, at his residence on Elk st. — 
Silas B, Dutcher, the newly ax)iiointed 
Superintendent of Public Works, 
qualified — Opening of a fair in Martin 
Opera House for the benefit of the 
Jewish Home ; in five nights it netted 
about $9,000. 

27. — Charles Stewart Parnell, the 
Irish agitator, was welcomed at Twed- 
dle Hall, Mr. Frank H. Woods mak- 
ing an eloquent speech, to which Mr. 
Parnell replied, and Mr. John Dillon 
also addressed the meeting ; $1,500 
was subscribed. 

February 2.— Ball of the Mutual 
Boat Club at Tweddle Hall. 

3. — .James C. Byrne, city marshal, 
died suddenly, and his wdfe followed 
him 48 hours afterward — R. W. 
Thacher was elected pres. of the 
Board of Trade — It was announced 



MARCH 



130 



that for the year ending- Dec. 1, 1879, 
the number of arrests made by the 
police was 4,910. 

6. — The Game of Fifteen beg-an to 
agitate the community, and be dis- 
cussed in the newspapers — Republi- 
can primaries were held, the result of 
which was hig-hly unsatisfactory to 
the anti-Smyth wing- of the party. 

10. — Gov. Cornell gave a i-ecep- 
tion, which was largely attended — 
The City Hall was discovered on fire 
at 4 A. M.; at 9 the flames were mider 
subjection, but the building was a 
mass of i-uins. The fii-e was believed 
to be incendiary, and a ]-eward Avas 
offered for the conviction of the crimi- 
nals, but nothing ever came of it. 
(See City Hall.) 

11. — Indignant Republicans held 
a mass meeting in Tweddle Hall to 
protest against the action of the gen- 
eral committee. George Dawson vn'^s 
chairman, and Hamilton Harris pre- 
sented resolutions. 

12. — Public installation of officers 
of Dawson Post 63, G. A. R., in 
Tsveddle Hall. 

16. — George "W. Sherman, a well- 
known insurance agent, died of con- 
sumption, aged 3G — Citizens held a 
meeting relatiA'e to rebuilding- the 
City Hall — The Albany board of 
lumber dealers held their annual 
election. (See Lumber District.) 

18. — Charles E. Smith, editor of 
the Evening Journal, resigned, and 
soon after took a]iosition on the Phil- 
adelphia Press. Mr. Dawson assumed 
the editorship of the Journal, and 
that paper became the active organ 
of the anti-Smyth republicans, the 
Smyth N\dng being represented by the 
Express. Not long after, Mr. Smith 
petitioned for the appointment of a 
receiver for the paper with which he 
had been connected, and of which he 
was pai't owner. Justice Westbrook 
denied the motion, March 5th. 

22. — Rev. Dr. Charles P. Bush of 



New York, preached in the Congre- 
gational chui-ch on the su'^jcctof mis- 
sions, and died the same * lay of heart 
disease, at the house of Bradford R. 
Wood. 

24. — A block on Broad.way, near 
the Steamboat square, taking in the 
lot bounded by Broadway, Pruyn st., 
Eagle alley and Hamilton st , was 
burned. Loss, $71,000 ; insurance, 
^353,000. It was the largest fire in 
this city since the printing house of 
Weed, Parsons & Co. was burned, 
April 7, 1S71. 

26. — An addition of 48 2-10 acres 
was made, on the north, to the Rui'al 
Cemetery ; cost, {?'9,640. 

27. — James Ostrander, engineer 
on the Susquehanna road, was killed 
by the WTecking of his locomotive 
near Richmondville — Body of Thos. 
Leonard, missing since Sept. 30, was 
found in the river. Foul play was 
suspected — A strike at Cohoes ; 
5,00) employees idle. 

March 1. — The Central I'ailroad 
company advanced the i)ay of their 
employees to what it was previous to 
the reduction, Julv, 1877. 

2,~T]'ial of John C. Hughes, for 
killing William J. Hadley, began be- 
fore Justice Westbrook, in the old 
Capitol; for Iho prosecution, Attor- 
ney-General Ward, District Attorney 
Houghtaling, and Assistant Beutler; 
for the detense, J. W. McNaniara, 
assisted by Eugene Burlingame and 
John B. O'Malley. The defense was 
emotional insanity. The trial re- 
sulted, March 25, in a verdict of mur- 
der in the second degree, and a life 
sentence to Clinton prison. 
• 3. — An attempt to break jail, one 
of the several that came near being 
successful — The Medical College 
graduated 46 students — A free dis- 
pensary opened at 101 Green st., by 
Dr. H. I. Fellows — D. B. Carver, a 
lawyer, died. 

6. — The new pest-house on the 



131 



APRIL 



Alms-house farai, acciepted by the 
board of health, cost, |3,500 — The 
Mutual Boat Club elected George D. 
y Weidmau president. 

7. — Capt. Henry Keeler died, ag-ed 
79. ^ 

11- — Arrival of the first boat of the 
People's line — At the Y. M. A. elec- 
tion William P. Rudd was elected 
pres — Robert Lenox Banks accepted 
an independent nomination for mayor, 
but subsequently withdrew from the 
canvass. 

14. — Death of Dr. Edward R. Hun, 
ag-ed 38 — Officers of the Y. M. A. in- 
stalled ; it had 2,520 members. 

15. — The Working-men held a con- 
vention and nominated a ticket for 
city officers, but its head subse- 
quently withdrew. 

19- — A. G. Quackenbush suc- 
ceeded E. C. Purcell as proprietor 
of Stanwix Hall. 

22. — Resignation of Jno. F. Smyth, 
Superintendent of the Insurance De- 
partment, 

23. — Thomas W. Olcott, one of the 
most public spirited men in Albany, 
and one of the best financiers in the 
Union, died, aged 85 — Addison V. 
Spicer died. 

24. — WilHam Bender's store, cor. 
Madison ave. and Lark st., took fire 
and a serious conflagration was 
threatened — Greenbackers held a 
State convention in Martin Hall. 

25. — Ex-Ald. James H. Simmons 
died suddenly, aged 40. 

^ 28. — The Easter flowers and mu- 
sic were unusually fine. 

30. — Charles Hagar, a laborer at 
the capitol, fell and was instantlv 
killed. ^ 

31 Republican convention met 

and split in two. The Smyth (Ex- 
press) wing nominated for mayor, 
George A. Birch ; for recorder, Wm. 
C. McHarg ; police justice, Henry T. 
Sanford; justice of justices' court, 
Fred. C. Ham ; poHce commissioners, 



Richard B. Rock, Wm. M. Bender ; 
members of board of public instruc- 
tion, Sam'l Templeton, Herman Ben- 
dell. The anti-Smyth (Journal) wing 
nominated for mayor, Geo. A. Birch ; 
recorder, David J. Norton ; justice of 
justices' court, Fred. C. Ham ; police 
justice, WiUiam B. Harris; police 
commissioners, S. M. Van Santford, 
Jacob P. Cook ; members of board of 
pubHc instruction, Sam'l Templeton, 
George C. Riggs. 

April 1. — Dr. Chas A. Robertson, 
the distinguished ocuhst, died, aged 
50 — Howard Treadwell's sad death 
m Boston — A fair for the benefit of 
the French Church was held this 
week, netting $4,000. 

3. — Fire in Annesley & Vint's Art 
gallery; loss, $1,500. 

4. — Death of Peter M. Morange, 
aged 84. 

7. — Democratic convention nomi- 
nated for mayor, Michael N. Nolan ; 
recorder, Anthony Gould ; police jus- 
tice, Wm. K. Clute ; justice of jus- 
tices' court, Francis H.Woods ; police 
commissioners, L. C. G. Kshinka, 
James Mclntyre ; members of the 
board of pubHc instruction, H. W. 
Lipman, Douw H. Fonda. 

10. — Rev. J. E. C. Sawyer was 
this week appointed presiding elder 
of the Albany district — Frank Davis, 
aged 30, killed at Wood Mowing Ma- 
chine Works. 

11.— Calvary Baptist Church raised 

0,000 towards building a new edi- 
fice. 

12 — C. E. Wendell's music store 
opened, adjoining the Kenmore. 

13.— The second trial of Jesse Bill- 
mgs for the murder of his wife 
(June 4, 1878), began at Ballston. 
The first trial had resulted in a dis- 
agreement of the jury who stood 11 
for acquittal, 1 for conviction. This 
second trial lasted till May 15, when 
the prisoner was acquitted— Charter 
election, at which a number of women 



MAY 



132 



voted for the first time for school com- 
missioner — The Democrats elected 
their ticket, and 15 out of 17 aidei*- 
men. 

16. — The body of Henry Gresser, 
brakeman, missing- since the 7th, was 
found in Spuyten Duyvel creek. 

19. — Fii-st game of ball on the 
Albany grounds — Nine prisonei's es- 
caped from the Albany jail, all but 
.one of whom were re-captui-ed in the 
course of a few weeks. 

20. — The Albany Musical Associa- 
tion proposed to give the Hymn of 
Praise on the 27th, but not being 
suthciently encouraged, gave up the 
attempt. 

21. — The classis of Albany held a 
session in the First Reformed church. 
22. — Annual reception given the 
.pastor of Emmanuel Baptist church. 
25. — Father Ludden, for many 
years at the Cathedral, j^reached his 
farewell sermon and removed to 
Troy. 

2*6. — Odd Fellows' anniversary at 
Tweddle hall. 

30. — It was announced that the 
park commissioners having decided 
to acquire the Knox st. property, its 
cost including expenses of appi-aisal, 
etc., would be 1:272,587.25. 

May 1. — Death of ex- Aid. Charles 
Senrick, aged 50. 

2. — The State National bank, ei'ect- 
ed in LSO:^, was damaged by tire, and 
subsequently remodeled. 

4. — Organization of the common 
council with Albert Gallup for pres. ; 
Martin Delehanty, clerk — The Ar- 
gus, Express, and Press and Knickei*- 
bocker, were made city papei'S — It 
was learned that a dead body, found 
near the old water-works, April 23, 
was that of T. S. Culham, Oakville, 
Ont. — Annual meeting Firemen's Re- 
lief Association ; W. K. Clute, chosen 
pres. ; total membership, 329 ; paid 
on account of death of si^c members, 
$1,415. 



6. — Reception and ball of 25th 
regiment with presentation -of tiags, 
etc. 

9. — Dr. J. V. Lansing, drowned 
at Lake Chazy. 

10. — Death of John H. Bowne. 
11. — Elections of Republican and 

Democratic general committees. 

12. — Supervisors adjourn till fall 
— Body of Charles McAuley who dis- 
appeared in December, discovered in 
the i-iver. 

13. — Nicholas Ludlow, aged 70, 
hanged himself at West Albany — Vil- 
lage of Stuy vesant burned, loss §300,- 
COO. 

14. — Death of I. N. Keeler, aged 
50 — The foui'th and last of a series of 
public txhool exhibitions held in the 
High school. They took the place of 
the one gi-and exhibition heretofore 
held at the close of the term — Death 
of W. H. Delehanty, a well-known 
song and dance man, native of Albany 
— State arsenal damaged several 
thousand dollars by tire — Death, at 
Albion, of Chief Judge Church — Fire 
at West Albanv, destroyed Eastman 
Bro's. barn ; loss, ;?22,000. 

15. — Steamer Golden Gate burned 
at Troy. 

17. — Bamum's show exhibited on 
Lark st. grounds; very dusty. 

18. — Two Republican general con>- 
mittees organized ; the Express wing 
choosing Andrew S. Di-aper, pres. : 
the Journal wing, Thurlow Weed 
Barnes. 

19. — The City Hall Commission held 
an infoi'inal meeting, and subse- 
quently oi'ganized with the mayor as 
chairman. 

20. — Thomas Hayes, ex-school 
commissioner died, aged 63 — Michael 
Mackin went to a wake and was 
drowned. 

21. — John D. Bi-ooks was elected 
colonel, Charles R. Knowles lieuten- 
ant colonel, and John E. Burton 
major of the Tenth regiment — William 



133 



JUNE — JULY 



McNeil of Madison ave. stabbed his 
wife and killed her; he was tried 
on June 7, pleaded guilty of murder 
in the second degi-ee, and w^as sen- 
tenced to Clinton prison for Ufe. 

23.— The Church of the Sacred 
Heart, at West Albany, was dedi- 
cated. . 

24.— Graduatnig exercises ol Al- 
bany Law School. 

27. — The Legislature adjourns — 
Sixty parcels of property on the Knox 
St. ground sold by order of the 
Park Commissioners, at auction, by 
J. S. Dickerman, for $7,500. These 
houses were most of them removed, 
and for weeks afterwards the streets 
were filled with buildings on rol- 
lers. . 

28.— John W. Arrowsmith, a city 
missionary, died suddenly in the 
lecture room of the Third Reformed 
church, aged 69. 

29.— Dr. Edmund B. O'Callaghan, 
historian and antiquary, died in New 

York. 

30. — Decoration day exercises were 
held in Tweddle hall. Rev. W. S. 
Smart delivering the oration— Dr. 
Staats Winne died. 

June 1.— A kitchen garden enter- 
tainment given in Tweddle hall for 
benefit of the cooking and training 
school soon after estabUshed— Demo- 
cratic general committee was organ- 
ized by electing R. W. Peckham, 
pres. ; the day for holding primaries 
was changed to the second Thursday 
in May. 

2. — Thomas Eearey, head of the 
well-known shoe manufacturing firm, 
died, aged 70. • , 

4._WiUiam McDade, a retired 
merchant, shot himself through the 
heart. 

5._Albany Academy cadets went 
to Glen's Falls on their annual ex- 
cui'sion. 

6.— Rev. M. C. Lockwood, the new 
pastor of the First Baptist church, 



preached his first sermon— The Jack- 
son coi-ps went to Ehzabeth on an 
excursion. 

7. — Thomas "Willard elected fire 
commissioner for five years in place 
of J. C. Cuyler. 

8. — One hundred guns fired by the 
RepubUcans in honor of the nomina- 
tion of Garfield and Arthur, at Chicago 
—The dry goods store of B. Stronge, 
successor to John M. Crapo, closed 
by the sheriif. 

9.— Death of Aid. Horan. 

14. — Anniversary exercises at the 
Female Academy. 

16. — Annual review and drill of 
the Albany Academy cadets. 

17. — Commencement exercises of 
the Albany Academy— Inspection^ of 
Tenth regiment— Annual convention 
of the State Press Association at 

Troy. 

18.— Inspection of the cavalry and 
Twenty-fifth regiment. 

20.— HeaAnest storm of the season. 

24. — Exercises at the High School, 
admitting 280 scholars who had 
passed the necessary examinations, to 
that institution. 

25. — Commencement exercises of 
the High School. 

27. — The corner-stone of the Ger- 
man CathoUc Church, Our Lady Help 
of Christians, laid on Second ave., in 
the presence of 8,000 people. Any 
one who paid a dollar could have his 
name deposited under the stone. 

28. — Work of remodeling Tweddle 
Hall begun. 

30. — Death of Samuel B. Wool- 
worth, former sec. of the Board of 
Regents — Dr. Levi Moore died in the 
Utica asylum. 

July 1. — Fort Orange club-house 
on Washington ave., opened to mem- 

1 ) PI'S 

3.*— The new steamer Albany, of 
the Day-boat line, arrived. 

4. — Death of Father Thos. Doran, 
pastor of St. Ann's church — Patrick 



AUGUST — SEPTEMBER 



134 



Rog-ers, father of the surrogate, 
drowned at West Troy. 

5. — A tame celebration of Inde- 
pendence day. The lire-works were a 
greater lizzie than iiKSual. 

8. — A recruiting- office open for the 
training ship Minnesota. 

10. — Hiram G. Bi'iggs, a farmer of 
C(^eymans, shot and mortally wounded 
Ei'skine Woods, whom he suspected 
of unlawful intimacy with Mrs. B. 

13. — Inter-academic Union held 
sessions in the High School 15uilding. 
The University Convocation is also 
"being held. 

19. — The second base-ball club of 
the season went to pieces, and the 
craze seems to be over. 

20. — Museum building took lire in 
the upper part, and damage amount- 
ing to $2,000 or $3,000 resulted. 

23. — The London circus, -vvith a 
baby elephant, exhibited on the Lark 
St. grounds. 

25. — John Yusten, arrested and 
placed in the 4th j^recinct station- 
house, died there, causing much ex- 
citement, the belief being g-eneral 
that he was unjustly used by the 
police — William Carroll, aged 19, 
fatally burned. 

27. — Charles Dunn, bricklayer at 
the Capitol, fell, and was killed. 

28. — A fire in the tressel-work of 
the Capitol caused some excitement, 
but little damage. 

29. — Sixty men at work on the 
govei'nment building, sti'uck because 
they wei-e not allowed to quit work 
an hour earlier Saturdays, without 
i-educed pay. 

August 2. — Another attempt made 
to break jail. 

4. — Gen Garfield, Rejiublican can- 
didate for presidency, passed through, 
and was received by a large assem- 
blage. 

5. — Thomas Strawbridge, water 
carrier at the Capitol, fell 90 feet, and 
Was killed. 



6. — William H. Laden, stabbed 
and dangerously wounded his mis- 
tress, Etta Marsden, on Franldin st. 

9. — Elijah Brainai'd, a well-known 
boat-builder, died, aged 60. 

13. — Paul Simpson, engineer, and 
John Reilly, fireman, killed by the 
wrecking of their locomotive at 
Cooperstown. 

16. — Washington Continentals go 
into camp for a week at Glen Mitchell, 
Saratoga — Boys in Blue, a Repu1)li- 
can campaign organization, choose 
officers, and elect John D. Brooks, 
colonel. 

17. — John F. Smyth serenaded. 
20. — William Smith severely stabs 

Anna Mary Arnold in Franklin st. 

25. — Albany Bicycle club organ- 
ized. 

29. — Cardinal McCloskey officiated 
at the Cathedral. 

30. — The Troy Whig purchased 
by H. D. Cunningham and B. F. 
Judson, and the name changed to 
Morning Telegi'am. 

September 1. — Barbecue held on 
the fair gTOunds by the Nolan Cam- 
paign Association ; sjDeeches by 
Speaker Randall, ex-Gov. Walker and 
Hon S. S. Cox. 

6. — There were said to be 50 cases 
Oi small-pox in Troy. 

7. — Breeders' Association began 
their meeting at Island pai'k. It 
lasted three days, and was a success 
every way except financially. 

8. — Caleb P. Knapj), of Green- 
bush, shot and killed himself 

9. — Ex-Alderman Richard Bortle 
died of paralysis, aged 69 — A I'u- 
mored ghost in Rensselaer st. attract- 
ed several thousand peojile to look at 
a house supposed to be haunted. 
There was nothing- in it. 

10. — The St. John on her way up 
last night, collided with a steamer in 
Newburgh hiiy, creating some excite- 
ment, but doing little damage — Dr. 
Daniel Wassei-bach died — Albert 



135 



OCTOBER 



Howard, brakeiiian, ag-ed 30, killed 
by the cars at Richmond, Mass. 

11. — Garry Benson closed his swim- 
ming- school and bathing- house, after 
a successful season — Georg-e Rosevelt, 
painter, fell from a building- and was 
killed — United Irishmen last even- 
ing- elected officers ; John Bi-annigan, 
pres. — Two Republican couiaty con- 
ventions ; the Journal wing- nomi- 
nated for cong-ressman, John. M. 
Bailey ; district-attorney, Georg-e H. 
Stevens ; county clerk, Dr. Thomas 
Helme ; coroners, Dr. Geo. W. Papen, 
Francis Fonda; justice of sessions, 
W. V. L. LaPaug-h. The Express 
wing-, which met at Coeymans, nomi- 
nated, for cong-ressman, Charles H. 
Adams ; district-attorney, George H. 
Stevens ; county clerk, Den-ick V. 
Raynsford ; coroners, Samuel Eccles, 
Thomas H. Kerr ; justice of sessions, 
William J. Reid. 

13. — State fiiir opened, and con- 
tinued till 18th, three days being- 
stoi'my ; show of cattle and horses 
larg-e. 

14. — Gen. Weaver, of Iowa, Green- 
back candidate for president, sjjoke 
in the Capitol park. 

15. — Races at Island park, which 
continued all the week — Rev. Wal- 
ter D. Nicholas installed pastor of the 
Fii'st Presbyteriaix church. 

17. — Death of ex- Alderman John 
Stuart, ag-ed 65. 

18. — The two wing-s of the Demo- 
cratic party ag-reed to harmonize — 
The N. Y. Greek club met at the resi- 
dence of E. P. Prentice. 

20. — Germans celebrated the Har- 
vest festival by a parade and pic-nic 
at the fair g-rounds — S. H. H. Par- 
sons, after 25 years' service, resig-ned 
the presidency of the Burg-esses 
Corps, and subsequently J. C. Cuyler 
was chosen to fill the vacancy. 

21. — Court of Appeals re-con- 
vened — Sham battle at Hudson, 
members of the Tenth and Twenty- 



fifth reg-iments participating- — Cor- 
ner-stone of Grace Methodist church 
laid, cor. Ten Broeck st. and Living-- 
ston ave. 

22. — The Governor's Foot Guards 
of Hartford, under escort of the Til»- 
bets Corps of Troy, visited the Capi- 
tol and other places of interest. 

23. — Gov. Cornell seriously ill 
from malai'ia, contracted from a sevv^er 
opened near the executive mansion. 

26. — Rev. Father Terry officiated 
for the first time as pastor of St. 
Ann's Church. He was transferred 
from a church in Utica, the people of 
which were greatly attached to him ; 
the change created much excitement. 

27. — Republican mass-meeting in 
Tweddle Hall, addressed by R. S. 
Matthews, of Maryland — Yacht race 
by the Albany club, which, for lack 
of wind, j)roved a failure — The cor- 
ner-stone of the Calvary Baptist 
Church laid. 

28. — The State Democratic con- 
vention, at Saratoga, nominated 
Charles A. Rapallo for Chief Judge 
of the Court of Appeals — Charles 
A. Hills was nominated and confirmed 
chamberlain, and William J. Maher, 
dei^uty chamberlain and receiver of 
taxes. 

29. — The Greenback convention 
nominated Alexander Gregory for 
congress ; Aaron N. Snyder, of New 
Scotland, for county clerk ; J. R. 
Stevens, of Cohoes, for district attor- 
ney ; W. J. Bates, for justice of ses- 
sions, and Garry Benson and Denis 
McLane of Green Island, for coroners. 
Gregory withdrew before the canvass 
was over. 

October 1. — Price of milk raised to 
eight cents a quart. 

2. — The Democrats nominated for 
congress, Michael N. Nolan ; for 
county clerk, John Larkin ; for dis- 
trict attorney, D. Cady Herrick ; for 
justice of sessions, James R. Main ; 
and for coroners, Peter Lasch and 



OCTOBER 



136 



Richard Scully. Two conventions 
were held ; the Moak wing" nomina- 
ting- Lasch and endorsing the others. 

3. — The epizootic made its appear- 
ance in a mild form. 

4. — The Republicans agreed to 
withdraw the names of both Bailey 
and Adams for cong-ressman, and 
nominate Dr. S. Oakley Vanderpoel 

— Investigation of charges of im- 
morahty against Rev. Dr. Philip 
Krohn begun at West Troy — Thos. 
Maher resigned as assistant overseer 
of the pool*, and Edward Brennan 
appointed in his place. 

5. — Last concert in the park — 
Fall term of Medical CoUeg-e began. 

6. — Lansing- Reid, clerk in John G. 
Myers's, found dro^vned in the river, 
after a week's disappearance — The 
men at Rathbone & Sard's, wiio had 
been on a strike for twenty-four 
hoiirs, resumed woi-k. 

7. — Organization of the " Business 
Men's Association of the City of 
Albany," a Republican club. It met 
with much criticism from the. Argus 

— Rev. Dr. Krohn, of Troy, acquitted 
of the charge of immorality — Re- 
ception at the Home for Aged Men. 

8. — Temple Commandery go to 
New York to assist in laying- the cor- 
ner-stone for the Eg-yptian obelisk — 
Parade of the Fire department — 
Banquet of the Burgesses Corps to 
celebrate their anniversary — Dr. 
Heime, a candidate for county clerk, 
withdraws in favor of D. V. S. Rayns- 
ford — Green V)ackers nominated D. 
M, S. Fero for assembly, second dis- 
trict ; W. H. Frazier, first district ; 
Dr. H. I. Fellows,, third district; P. 
S. Fitzpatrick, fourth district. 

9. — T^'pog^•aphical Union election, 
Thomas Palmatier, pres.; Henry J. 
Hoyland, vice-pres.; rec. sec, E. E. 
Rich ; fin. sec, Patrick J. Doyle ; cor. 
sec, Joseph McGraw; treas,, John 
J. Tiernan ; del., Francis Freckleton 
— Republicans in fii*st assembly dis- 



trict nominated L. Carter Tuttle j in 
foui'th district, Geo. Campbell. 

11. — Moonlight parade of Tenth 
regiment, 380 turned out. 

13. — Two days' session of the Ec- 
lectic Medical Association of the State 
begun — Annual convention of County 
Sunday^ School Teachers' Association ; 
175 schools in county ; total member- 
shi^i, 32,953 — Republican parade — 
Parade of Twenty-fifth regiment, 222 
in line. 

14. — James Hussey, aged 10, dan- 
gerously injured while catching- a 
ride on a freight train. 

15. — Chauncey M. Depew and 
Charles E. Smith address the Repub- 
licans. 

16. — Clarence A. Burt, bell-boy in 
American Hotel, mysteriously shot. 
He charged John T. Lyons, a g-uest, 
with the deed. Lyons tied, was cap- 
tured in New York, brought here, 
and locked up — Thomas Mercer, a 
miller of Kenwood, killed himself 
with laudanum. 

17. — Death of William M. Wool- 
lett, architect — Entertainments of 
the Y. M. A announced. 

18. — The old g-uard of the Bur- 
gesses corps re-elected their officers. 

20. — Day -boat line closed the most 
prosperous season since 1876 — An- 
drew S. Draper nominated for Assem- 
bly by Smyth Republicans, Chaiies 
R. Knowles having been nominated 
by the other wing — Samuel F. Cary 
addressed the Democrats. 

21. — German Democratic meeting 
in Tweddle Hall ; Roscoe Conkling at 
Martin Hall ; R. F. TreveUick in Ht- 
tle Martin Hall. 

24. — Rev. Deaton Darrell, pastor 
of the African Methodist church, 
found dead in bed; aged 64 — Chas. 
Mui-phy, boarding at 263 Green st., 
fell down stairs, and died from the 
effects of the injuries. 

25. — Death of Capt. John Smith, 
the bill poster, aged 45. 



137 NOVEMBER — AMUSEMENTS 



26. — B. A. Van Dusen and John 
Wafd, implicated in the death of 
John Yusten, discharged on payment 
of a tine of $75 each — Racmg- at 
Island park. -, t , x 

27. — Large Republican torch-light 
pi'ocession. 

29. — Geo. S. Boutwell addressed 
the Republicans — The indictment 
against Hiram G. Briggs, for kilUng 
Erskine Wood, quashed. 

30. — Twitchell's portrait of Gov. 
Tilden placed on exhibition at An- 
nesley & Vint's — Close of the fiscal 
year of the fire department. There 
were 63 bell alarms, and 139 ver- 
bal alarms, an increase of 61 over 
the previous year; insured losses, 
$137,299.09; uninsured, $15,866.64; 
total, $153,165.73. 

November 2. — Election. (See 
Official Canvass.) 

4. — Maggie Ahem, aged 7, dan- 
gerously burned at a bon-fire — Pa- 
rade of Republicans in honor of their 
victory. 

8. — A man named Donohue killed 
at the Broadway railroad crossing — 
Geo. Crawford, aged lo, killed by an 
explosion while experimenting with 
chemicals. 

9. — Last parade of Capital City 
Club; serenade to Judge Folger— 
Rev. Rufus Clark, D. D., gave a re- 
ception. 

10. — The Albany City Curling 
Club elected Thos. McCredie, pres.; 
John Weidman, vice-pres.; WiUiam 
Kirk, sec. and treas. — Josephine 



Waters killed herself with moi'phine 
— Last parade of the Unconditionals — 
Sale of seats for the Y. M. A. course ; 
over $1,500 t^ken. 

12. — George Astin, a railroad em- 
ployee, crushed to death at West 
Albany. 

13. — The Tennis club elected 
WilHam Gould, Jr., pres.; H. C. Lit- 
tlefield, vice-pres.; J. H. Brooks, 
treas. —The City Hall commission 
adopted the plans of H. H. Richard- 
son for a new structure. 

16. — Annual meeting State Bar 
Association. 

17. — Last parade of Boys in 
Blue ~ Hiram G. Briggs, against 
whom the indictment for murder was 
quashed, was re-indicted by the 
grand jury. 

19. _ WilUam Bookheim, a South 
Pearl st. butcher, suddenly left to^\^l. 

21. — Funeral of David Davidson, 

22. — Pennie's cooperage. Graves 
& Brown's rag-shop, and other build- 
ings on Arch st., destroyed by fire — 
The State canvassers met to can- 
vass the vote: rep. electoral ticket, 
555,544 ; dem., 534,511 ; greenback, 
12,373; prohibition, 1,517; anti-ma- 
sonic, 75 — Orlando W. Davis, fore- 
man, dropped dead at new Capitol. 

23. — '< Ciu'ly " Drum, a notorious 
woman, murdered in Ti-oy. 

25. — Thanksgiving — Na\dgatioa 
closed on the canal and river. 

27. — Good skating at Park lake. 

30. — Meeting of the Electoral Col- 
lege of the State. 



Amusement Record of 1880.— 

Following is a list of th'e principal 
musical and dramatic entertainments 
given in this city in 1880 : 

Leland Opera House. — Jan. 1, 2, 
3, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Albaugh in 
"Almost a Life ; " 5, one week, Kate 
Girard in " Prejudice ; " 12, one week, 
New York Criterion Company in 



"Freaks;'* 19, one v\^eek. Octoroon 
combination; 26, one week, Mahn's 
Comic Opera Company in "Fati- 
nitza " and '* Chimed of Normandy." 
Feb. 2, one week, Mary Anderson; 
9, one week, Ada Cavendish ; 16, one 
week, " Fun on the Bristol ; " 23, one 
week, J. K. Emmett in "Fritz in 
Ireland." March 4, 5, 6, Lottaj 8, 



AMUSEMENTS 



138 



one week, Abbey's Park Theatre 
Company in *' Fairfax ; " 15, Char- 
lotte Thompson in "Nell Gwynne " 
and "Cousin Helen ;" 22, one week, 
John A. Stevens in '* The Unknown ; " 
29, one week, Fanny Davenport. 
April 5, 6, 7, Gran's French Opera 
Company with Paola Maria, Capoul, 
Ang-ele ; 8, 9, 10, Abbey's " Humpty 
Duniptv " and Spanish Students ; 12,- 
13, 14, the Florences in " The Mig-hty 
Dollar" and "A Million;" 19, one 
week, Maggie Mitchell ; 26, Rice's 
Surpi'ise Party. May 6, 7, 8, " Prin- 
cess Toto ; " 14, 15, Rice's Evangehne 
Company; 21, "Red Rock Wave" 
opera; 25, 26, Sothern as "Dun- 
dreary" and "The Crushed Trage- 
dian ; " 27, C'arncross Minstrels. June 
2, annual benefit to Manager Albaugh 
— Adele Belgai-de, Frank Lawlor, 
Carrie Turner and others appearing ; 
7, 8, Daly's Arabian Night Company ; 
10, 11, 12, Karrigan and Hart ; 18, 19, 
" Royal Middy ; " 21, Treasurer Du- 
Bois's benefit, "The Troubadours." 
July 1, Haverley's Minsti'els. Aug. 
80, Anna Pixley in " M'Hss." Sept. 
6, Agnes Leonard in "Woman's 
Faith;" 13, Add Ryman and others 
in "A Flock of Geese;" 20, Sol. 
Smith Russell in " Edge wood Folks ; " 
27, 28, 29, George Edgar as " Lear," 
"Richelieu" and "Othello." Oct. 1, 
2, Standard Theatre Company in "A 
IMountain Mystery ; " 4, Ada Caven- 
dish in "Tlie Soul of an Actress;" 

11, Herrmann the Magician ; 18, Cor- 
rinne Merry-makers in "The Magic 
Slipper ; " 25, James A. Heme's 
" Hearts of Oak." Nov. 2, Meade & 
Maginley's "Deacon Cranket;" 11, 

12, 13, Goodwin's "Hobbies;" 15, 
16, 17, H. C. Jarrett's operatic spec- 
tacle of "Cinderella;" 18, 19, 20, 
Comly-Barton Lawn Tennis Com- 
pany ; 21-27, "Our Goblins;" 29, 
Howard's "Uncle Tom." 

Martin Opera House. — Jan. 2, 3, 
Oliver Doud Byron in "Across the 



Continent," and " Hero ; " 6, Denman 
Thompson in " Joshua Whitcomb ; " 
12, two weeks, Barnmn's Curiosities ; 
24, California Minstrels. Feb. 3, 4, 
5, " Contrabandista ; " 9, Gilmore's 
Band; 11, Ahce Oates Opera Co. in 
"The Little Duke;" 21, 22, John T. 
Raymond in "Wolfert's Roost," and 
" Colonel Sellers ; " 24, Pat Rooney's 
Combination. March 1, 2, Haverly's 
40 Minstrels ; 10, Strakosch Italian 
0]:)era, Litta as prnna donna, in 
"Faust;" 15, 16, Millard's Photo- 
graph Party ; 17, Nick. Roberts's 
"Humpty Dumpty;" 19, "Contra- 
bandista " benefit ; 25, 26, 27, Minnie 
Palmer's " Boai'ding School." April 
7, Gei'man concert ; 12, 13, Tony 
Pastor; 15, 17, Buffalo Bill ; May 3, 4, 
Robt. McWade in " Rip Van Winkle ; " 

5, San Francisco Minstrels; 6, 7, 
Widow Bedott Combination ; 14, 15, 
Anthony & Ellis' Uncle Tom Combi- 
nation ;* 24, Hyde & Behman's " Mul- 
doon Picnic." June 24, "Red Rock 
Wave." Aug-. 11, Tony Pastor; 27, 
Snelbaker & Benton's Varieties ; 28, 
Barlow, Primrose & West's Minstrels. 
Sept. 1, Haverly's Geoi-gia Minstrels ; 
10, 11, Warner Comedy Co. in "The 
Boss Speculation;" 13, 14, 15, 16, 
Alice Oates in "Long Branch;" 17, 
Madame Rentz's Minstrels-; 18, Mrs. 
Pat Rooney's Combination; 20, 21, 
Slavin's Comedy Co. in " Hezekiah 
Perkins ; " 23, 24, 25, Bartley Camp- 
bell's " Galley Slave." Oct. 5, 6, Sana 
Lucas (colored) in " Restored ; " 7, 8, 
9, Stereopticon Exhibition by Rev. C. 
Tanquerey ; 29, 30, Eunice Goodrich 
in "Zizi, or the Cripple's Love." Nov. 

6, Leslie Gossin in " Disinherited ; " 
8 to 13, Hall & Thompson's Slave 
Troupe ; 15 to 20,Tom Thumb Troupe ; 
22, Ruby Seal Dramatic Co. ; 23, 
Donaldi Rummel Concert; 25 to 27, 
Joseph Keane in "Rip Van Winkle," 
etc. 

TwEDDLE Hall. — Jan. 6, Yale Col- 
lege Glee Club j 29, 30, 31, An Arabian 



139 



CITY OFFICERS 



Nig-ht Combination. Feb. 7, Emma 
Thursby Concert ; 13,14, "An Arabian 
Night." March 25, Joseffy Concert ; 
liS, 27, Dr. Clyde Combination. April 
2, 3, Ideal Opera Co. in "The Sor- 
cerer ; " 5, Scottish concert ; 20, Clara 
Spence's Readings ; 23, Wethersby- 
Goodwdn party. May 7, 14, Enter- 
tainments for benefit of Child's Hos- 
pital ; 10, 11, Kate Field's Monologue ; 
13, Carrie Turner in " Led Astray." 
June 2, " Cantata of Esther;'" 3, " Pi- 
rates of Penzance." The hall was 
closed during the summer for repairs, 
and with a new stage, new scenery, 
etc., re-opened Sept. 17, 18, with 
D'Oyly Carte's Opera Co. in the " Pi- 
rates of Penzance ; " 28, Readings by 
Miss Beatrice Strafford. Sept. 30, 
Oct. 1, 2, Rice's Bijou Comic Opera. 
Oct. 4 to 13, Prof. Cromwell's Art 
Exhibitions ; 14, Joe Jefferson in " The 
Rivals ; " 22, Carrie Turaer, and other 
amateurs, in "London Assurance;" 
30, Pat Rooney. Nov. 6, Strakosch 
& Hess English Opera Co. in " Car- 
men," Marie Roze as prima donna ; 
8 to 10, Corrinne Opera Co. ; 18, 19, 
20, Charlotte Thompson in " Planter's 
Wife ; " 23, Troy Vocal Society ; 24, 
Palestine Arabs ; 25, 26, Ideal Opera 
Co. in " Fatinitza," and " Chimes of 
Normandy." 

City Budget. — Following is the 
report of the finance committee of the 
Common Council, iipon the amounts 
necessary to be raised for contingent 
expenses for the year ending Oct. 31, 
1881: 

Street contingents $22 , 000 00 

Printing and advertis- 
ing 15,0^^0 00 

Justices' court 6 , 000 00 

Salaries 34,659 11 

Elections 6,000 00 

City Hall and Building, 12,000 00 

Fourth of July 2 , 000 00 

Legal expenses 2,000 00 

Removal of night soiL . • 1 , 682 45 



Removal of garbage. .. . |600 00 

Surveyor's ofhce 3,900 00 

Removing street dirt... 15^450 00 

Fire department 85,000 00 

Police court 3,000 00 

Board of Health 2, 500 00 

Pest house 430 06 

Contingents 16 , 000 00 

City lamps 65,000 00 

Public schools 150,450 00 

Interest on public dabt, 116,000 00 
Maintenance of Wash- 
ington Park 13,000 00 

Sinking fund 10,000 00 

Washington Park sink- 
ing fund 16,170 00 

Improvement of streets, 4,627 40 

City poor 30,000 00 

St. Peter's hospital 4,500 00 

Albany hospital 4 , 500 00 

Homoeopathic hospital. . 3,000 00 

Child's hospital 2 , 500 00 

Delaware ave 6,695 88 

Quail St. arch 750 00 

Colvin ave. arch 560 00 

Yates St. plank walk ... 49 55 
Judgments against the 
city, mostly for dam- 
ages arising from the 

Van Woert st. sewer, 55,000 00 

Beaver creek arch 22,350 00 



Total $733,374 45 



This report was adopted Nov. 30, 
1880. 

City Officers.— Following is a list 
of the city officers. Terms expire^ 
unless otherwise noted, on the first 
Tuesday in May, 1882. (See City 
Government) : 

Mayor.— M. N. Nolan, dem., re- 
elected by a majority of 4,693 over 
Geo. A. Birch, rep., who received 
7,582 votes. 

Recorper. — Anthony Gould ; term 
expires, f>rst Tuesday in May, 1884. 

BoARP OP Aldermen. — Albert 
Gallup, pres. ; Martin Delehanty, 



CITY OFFICERS 



140 



clerk ; first ward, Peter Snyder, rep. ; 
second, Philip J. McCormick, dem. ; 
third, William A. Donahoe, dem. ; 
fourth, John T. Gorman, dem. ; tifth, 
John Carey, dem. ; sixth, Michael A. 
Murphy, dem. ; seventh, James Car- 
lisle, dem. ; eig-hth, Michael Horan,* 
dem. ; ninth, Michael H. Murray, 
dem. ; tenth, James Fahy, dem. ; 
eleventh, William McEwen, rep. ; 
twelfth, Robert Bryce, jr., dem. ; 
thirteenth. Samuel C. Harris, dem. ; 
fourteenth, Theodore D. Smith, jr., 
dem. ; fifteenth, Joseph McCann, 
dem. ; sixteenth, Albert Gallup, 
dem. ; seventeenth, Henry C. Burch, 
dem. 

Committees. — Academies and 
Schools, Smith, Murphy, Snyder; 
Accounts, Biyce, Horan, Carlisle ; 
Alnis-house, McCann, Donahoe, Fahy, 
Gorman, Carlisle ; Applications to the 
Legislature, Murray, McCormick, 
Smith ; Board of Health, President, 
McCann, Carey, Harris, Snyder; 
Oonti-act and Apportionment, Presi- 
dent, McCann, Carlisle, Gorman ; 
Docks and Ferries. Burch, Murphy, 
Donahoe ; Finance, Bryce, Smith, Mc- 
Ewan ; Fire Department, Murphy, 
Bryce, Snyder ; Lamps and Gas, 
Donahoe, McCann, Carlisle, Fahy, 
Burch ; Land, Gorman, Horan, Mur- 
I'ay ; Law, Smith, Bryce, McEwan ; 
Levels, Harris, Burch, McEwan ; 
Markets, McCann, Gorman, Donahoe ; 
Navigation, Tirade and Commerce, 
Murphy, McCormick, Snyder ; Police, 
Fahy, Carlisle, Carey ; Printing, Gor- 
man, McCann, Carey ; Privileges and 
Elections, Carey, Horan, Mui-ray ; 
Public Buildings and Parks, Presi- 
dent, Bryce, Donahoe, Gorman, Mc- 
Ewan ; Public Celebrations and En- 
tainments, Harris, Smith, Horan, 
Bi'yce, Snyder ; Public Charities, 
President, Murray, Muiiihy, Burch, 
McCormick; Railroads, Burch, Carey, 

* Died June 9. 



Harris ; Relation of City and County, 
Bryce, Smith, Gorman ; Streets, N. S., 
MuiTay, Horan, McEwan ; Streets, 
S. S., McCormick, Mui-phy, Snyder , 
Streets, W. S., Fahy, Harris, Burch ; 
Water, Carlisle, McCormick, Mc- 
Ewan ; Wells and Pumps, Horan, 
Harris, McCormick. 

Chamberlain. — Charles A. Hills, 
tenn expires Sept. 28, 1882 ; deputy 
chamberlain and receiver of taxes, 
William J. Maher, term expires Sept. 
28, 1882 ; deputy receiver of taxes, 
E. J. Giraty. 

City Marshal. — Michael E. Hig- 
gins ; deputy, Matthias Bissikummer. 

Corporation Counsel.— Simon W. 
Rosen dale. 

City Engineer and Surveyor. — 
Reuben H. Bingham ; deputy, John 
J. O'Hara. 

Superintendent of Alms-house. — 
John McKenna. 

City Physician. — Dan'l V. O'Leary. 

District Physicians. — R. D. Clark, 
1st district ; J. C. Healey, 2d district ; 
John Thompson, 8d district ; J. C. 
Hannan, 4th district ; Otto Ritzmann, 
5th district ; Thomas Elkins, 6th dis- 
trict. 

Overseer of Poor. — Terence C. 
Rafferty; assistant, Edward Bren- 
nan. 

Street Commissioner. — William H. 
Keelei' ; street supts., Lawrence Wet- 
zel, Thomas Toi-ley. 

Clerk of Board of Contract and 
Apportionment. — Thos. J. Lanahan. 

Mayor's Clerks. — 1st, Desmond S. 
Lamb ; 2d, William D. lUckerman ; 
3d, James V. Viggers. 

Inspector Board of Health. — 
Lawrence Carey ; assistant, James 
Rooney. 

Superintendent of Lamps. — B. 
Franklin Rice. 

Superintendent City Building. — 
William J. Burke. 

Inspector Weights and Measures. 
— James Jordan. 



1 



141 COUNTY OFFICERS 

Excise CoMMisSlONEltS*— Francis S. Hoyt, Douw H. Fonda, Samuel Tem- 

Pruyn, Daniel J. O'Brien, Jas. Quiiui; pie ton, Herman Bendell, John H. 

clerk, Thomas Ho^an. Lynch, Linzee T. Morrill, William 

City Assessors. — Wm. J, Weaver, Morgan, A. S, Draper. 
Wm. J. Flynn, Robert K. Oliver. 

Dock Master. ^ Robert T. Sher- Oongressman.-Fi>om the Sixteenth 

"^T^RrsTKi^c, oo. THE SiNKlNG FuKD - district, John M. Bailey (rep ;, of Al- 

rri, IJ ^^,^^^.5 , • 1 ^any. Elected to till vacancy caused 

V^'ch^r S j^^4^^^«*^^'^^^^ ^'''' by the death of Tei.nce j' Quinn, 

wto cSsT^^^^^ Ward, ^l^ .^'Zu" '''^ ''t'^'T} '^^^' 

-r, , ^ , J rk'D • which will expu^ March 4, 1881. 

ct't.'S^t^Thoti' liSby'; sixlh fr^^jn^if ' f,^' ^^^- p-')' 

Patrick R W-ikh ♦ seventh J Wen- P^^^ent mayor of the city, takes his 

A un-^: ^^ai?*\' J«^?f^^' '^- ^™ seat at the assembling of the XLVII 

dell Gi-itting:; eighth, Bernard Mc- (^iQ^e-i-ess 

Phillips; ninth, John McGuire; tenth, ^ 
Philip Kirchner? eleventh, John B. 

Conklin; twelfth, John Hug-hes ; thir- County Officers. ^ — Folio-wing;' i^^ 
teenth, Patrick Cunning-ham ; four- the names of the county omcer^ with 
teenth, ; fifteenth, the dates when their terms; .w+Sl ex- 
John McGourk ; sixteenth, William pire. (See County GovKRy:>SENT)\ 
Fitzpatrick ; seventeenth, John H. Board of Supervisors^-— Tfenns, 
McGraw. expire in May, 1881. B-bvard A. 

Maher, pres. ; Thomas H. Craven, 

Cmnmisslons. t^'t ' f u"" ^; ^^»^^> F^-n^l clerk j 

Michael Hayden, dooi-k@^per. 

Fire.— M. N. Nolan, Mayor, ex Albany members t First ward„ 

o^cio pres.; Philip O'Brien, one year ; Henry Hoffman; second, Thomas: 

A. N. Brady, two years ; H. B. Ros- Powers ; third, Joliin Bowe ; tburth,. 

enthal, three yeai*s ; Thomas Austin, E. A. Maher ; fifthi,. Timothy J. SuHi^ 

four years ; Thomas Willard, sec, van ; sixth, IgT^ttius Wiley ; seventh, 

Mve years. James Young- ; eighth, Richard Rhati- 

Park.— John H. Van Antwerp, R. gan ; ninth, Stephen P. Eastman; 

W. Peckham, Jas. D. Wasson, Daniel tenth, Herbert R. Starkweather ; 

Manning, Robert L. Johnson, R. eleventh, WiHiam J. Gaylor ; t^v«■Jfth, 

Lenox Banks, George Dawson, J. J. William H. McCall ; thirteenth, John 

Farnsworth, Dudley Olcott. W. S. B. Sling-erland ; fourteenth, Wheeler 

Eg-erton, sec, engineer and surveyor. B. Melius ; fifteenth, Michael E. Hig- 

PoLiCE.— M. N. Nolan, Mayor, ex gins; sixteenth, William H. Mui-ray ; 

officio pres. ; James Mclntyre, Leo- sev^iteenth, . 

pold C. G. Kshinka, Richard B. Rock, Cokoes membei's : First ward, Wil- 

Jacob P. Cook. liam O'Brien ; second, John H. Pynes ; 

Water.— Visscher Ten Eyck, H. thii-d, Peter Grandjean ; fourth, John 

H. Mai-tin, Erastus Corning, Michael Groves ; fifth, Greorge E. Simmons. 

Delehanty, John M. Kimball ; Geo. Town membere : Berne, Frederick 

W. Carpenter, supt. W. Conger ; Bethlehem, William L. 

Public Instruction. — Charles P. Flagler; Coeymans, John A. Hunt; 

Easton, pres.; Peter J. Flinn, H. W. Guilderland, John C. Grant; Knox, I. 

Lipman, John A. McCall, jr., Geo. B. W. Cheesbro j New Scotland, D. V. 



COURTS 



142 



S. Rayiisford ; Rensselaerville, Albert 
T. Moore ; Westerlo, Anson C. Requa ; 
Watervliet, John R,eilly. 

Standing- Committees : Application 
to the Legislature, O'Brien, Sullivan, 
Melius ; Assessment Rolls, Conger, 
Starkweather, Slingei'land; Assessoi-s, 
Moore, Hunt, Cheyebro ; Constables' 
and Deputy Sheritis' Accounts, Reilly, 
Higgins, Flagler ; Coroner's and 
Physicians' Accounts, Starkweather, 
Bowe, Young ; County Clei'k and 
Town Audits, Simmons, Eastman, 
Grandjean ; ' District- Attorney and 
Justices' Accounts, "Wiley, Rhatigan, 
Chesebi-o ; Election Accounts, East- 
man, Rhatigan, Raynsford j Equaliza- 
tion of Taxes, President, Sullivan, 
Reilly, Murray, Conger, Requa, 
Pynes, Flagler ; Erroneous Taxation, 
Murray, Hoffman, Groves ; Excise, 
Hoffman, Wiley, Grant ; Finance, Sul- 
livan, Powers, Conger, Melius, Sling- 
erland ; Laws, Hunt, Requa, Rayns- 
ford ; Insane, Higgins, O'Brien, Mc- 
Call, Murray, Powers, "Wiley, Young, 
Slingcrland ; Loan Office, Rhatigan, 
Moore, Groves ; Military, Powers, 
Bowe, Grant; Miscellaneous, Requa, 
Eastman, Grandjean ; Pooi", O'Brien, 
Reilly, Grant ; Printing, Bowe, Mc- 
Call," Flagler ; Public Buildings, Mc- 
Call, Higgins, "Wiley, Melius, Gaylor ; 
Roads and Bridges, Hunt, Mooie, 
Powers, Hoffman, Pynes ; Sherifis 
and Jails, Simmons, Powers, Gaylor. 

Sheriff. — James A. Houck. Term 
expires Jan. 1, 1883. Under sheriff, 
John H. Sands ; Benj. Reamer, jailor ; 
deputies, James Kilbourne, George 
F. Craft, Albany ; Allan S. Andrews, 
West Ti'oy ; Silas Owens, Cohoes ; 
Peter D. Johnson, Bethlehem ; Thos. 
J. Wood, Bei'ne ; R. S. Hotaling, 
Coeymans ; John Stafford, Guildei*- 
land ; Gilbert Gage, Knox ; John G. 
Ward, Westerlo; W. J. Schultes, 
Rensselaerville ; John A. Van Wie, 
Watervliet ; Isaac Houck, New Scot- 
land. 



District Attorney. — D. Cady Her- 
rick. Ofhce, Douw's building. Term 
expires Jan. 1, 1884. Assist., John 
A. Delehanty. 

County Clerk. — John Larkin. 
Terai exjjires Jan. 1, 1884. Deputy, 
E. A. Maher, 

Cou^TY Treasurer. — Henry Kelly. 
Term expires Jan. 1, 1882. Deputy, 
Jacob Wendell. 

County Judge. — Thomas J. Van 
Alstyne. Office, Dou^^''s building. 
Term expires Jan. 1, 1884. 

Surrogate. — Peter A. Rogers. 
Office, 115 State st. Term expires 
Jan. 1, 1884. Deputy,Wm. D. Strevell. 

County Physician. — Dr. James L. 
Babcock, cor. Lancaster and Eagle. 
Term expires in May, 1881'. ■ 

Coroners. — John G. Schneider, 
term expires Jan. 1, 1882 ; Richard 
M. Johnson, term expires Jan. 1, 1883; 
Richard Scully, Peter Lasch, terms 
expire Jan. 1, 1884. 

Coroners' Physicians. — William 
H. Murray, H R. Starkweather, P. 
J. Keegan, G. H. Billings ; terms ex- 
pire in June, 1881. 

Keeper of Penitentiary. — John 
McEwan, term expires in May, 1882. 
Salary, {^2,500. 

Justices of Sessions. — James R. 
Main, William J. Reid. 

School Commissioners. — Alex. R. 
Baker, Bethlehem, 1st district ; Rufus 
T. Crippen, Rensselaer, 2d district ; 
Charles E. Sturgess, Knox, 8d dis- 
trict ; Charles W. Cole, supt., Albany; 
Murray Hubbard, supt., Cohoes. 

United States Loan Commission- 
ers. — Hale Kingsley, P. H. Shaw ; 
terms expire Jan. 1, 1882. 

Courts, The. — Following are the 
courts which sit in this city : 

United States Circuit Court. — A 
term is held on the second Tuesday 
in October; also an adjourned terai 
for civil business on the third Tues- 
day in January. 



143 



OFFICIAL CANVASS 



United States District Court. — 
Albany is one of the 46 counties of 
the northern district of New Yoj'k. 
A session is held on the third Tuesday 
in January. 

Court op Appeals. — Charles J. 
Folger, Chief Judge ; Charles A. 
Rapallo, Charles Andrews, Theodore 
Miller, Robert Earl, George F. Dan- 
forth, Francis M. Finch, Associate 
Judges ; E. 0. Perrin, Clerk. 

Supreme Court. — Genei'al Terms 
held on the fourth Tuesday of Jan- 
uary and third Tuesday of Novem- 
ber. 

Supreme Court, Circuit, Oyer and 
Terminer and Special Terms, held at 
the old Capitol, on the foui'th Monday 
of January, fii'st Monday of May, 
first Monday of October, first Monday 
of December. Special Terms for mo- 
tions only, held at the old Capitol on 
the last Tuesday of every month. 
Special Terms for motions and argu- 
ment of demurrers, at the old Capitol, 
last Tuesday of every month. Jus- 
tices — A. Melvin Osborne, ot Catskiil ; 
Charles R. Ingalls, of Troy ; Wm. L. 
Learned, of Albany ; T. R.Westbrook, 
of Kingston. 

Albany County Court and Court 
OF Sessions, meets at the old Capitol on 
the tirst Monday of March, third Mon- 
day of June, second Monday of Sep- 
tember, and second Monday of No- 
vember. A grand and petit jury re- 
quired to attend at each of said terms. 
Thomas J. Van Alstyne, County 
Judge ; James R. Main, William J. 
Reid, Justices of Sessions ; D. Cady 
Heri'ick, District- Attorney ; John Lar- 
kin, Clerk. 

Justices' Court op the City of Al- 
bany, meets in City Building every 
day at 9 o'clock (Sundays and holi- 
days excepted). John J. Gallup, 
John Gutman, Francis H. Woods, 
Justices. 

Special Sessions of the City op 
Albany, meets at City Building every 



Tuesday. Anthony Gould, Recorder ; 
John A Delehanty, Assistant District- 
Attorney. 

Police Court, meets daily in City 
Building. William K. Clute, John C. 
Nott, Police Justices. 

Legislature. — In the Legislature 
Albany is i-epresented as follows: 

Senate — Waters W. Braman, of 
West Troy, rep. 

Assembly — First dist.. Miner Gal- 
lup, dem.; second, Andrew S. Draper, 
rep. ; third, Aaron B. Pratt, dem. ; 
fourth, Geo. Campbell, rep. 

Lumber Receipts — The tide-water 
receipts of lumber foj' 1879 were 573,- 
610,000 feet. In 1880 the tide-water 
receipts were 682,270,217 feet ; valu- 
ation, §9,464,111. The receipts of 
lumber at Albany in 1880 were 362,- 
830,334 feet; valuation, 1^6,893,776. 
The receipts of shingles, timber, etc., 
swell this valuation to $6,949,030. 

Musical Association, Albany. — 

Board of directors : Robert F Mac- 
farland, jires. ; J. B. Stonehouse, vice- 
pres. ; A.Tromblee, sec. ; A. E. Gray, 
treas.; A. S. Girvin, lib.; T. C. Cooper, 
D. Whittle ; John G. Parkhurst, con- 
ductor ; E. Parkhurst, pianist. Mem- 
bei'ship, 150. Rehearsals every 
Thursday evening at 7:45, in the 
Female Academy. Strangere visit- 
ing the city who are interested in 
music are cordially invited to attend. 

Official Canvass. — At the presi- 
dential election, Dec. 6, 1880, the 
dem. electoral ticket received in this 
city 12,544 votes ; in this county, 
19,624. The rep. electoral ticket, in 
the city, 9,121 ; in the county, 16,564. 
Greenback, in the city, 147 ; in the 
county, 354. For congressman, M. 
N. Nolan (dem.) received, in the 
city, 12,281; in the county, 19,176. 
S. 0. Vandei'poel (rep.), in the city, 



STATE GOVERNMENT 



144 



9,425; in the county, 1G,974. Fol- 
lo\nng- is the vote by wards foi* the 
electoral ticket and for congressman : 



I 

I- 

o ii o cs 

O M K > 

Iflt -Rrard, E. 0...... 288 280 318 254 

1st Tvard.W, D 369 209 383 205 

2d ward, E. D 381 153 368 165 

2d ward, W, D 6V.6 l74 597 180 

3d ward, N. D 783 17 787 13 

3d ward, 8. D S52 1G2 561 157 

4th ward, N, D 531 163 511 182 

4tli Wiud, S. D 610 237 602 243 

5th ward,N. D...... 250 240 233 252 

5th ward, ^>. D 385 281 377 288 

Cth ward, E. D 281 217 272 223 

6th ward, W. U 324 373 306 384 

7tli ward, jS. D 201 393 189 408 

7th ward, 8. D 194 192 187 198 

8th ward, E. D 397 2l5 383 227 

8th ward, W. D 321 117 310 127 

9th ward, N. D 363 183 3.37 193 

9tli ward, S. D 481 95 472 104 

10th Avard, N. D 270 393 276 .384 

10th ward, S. D 279 239 272 245 

lOthward, W, D 260 164 263 163 

llthwnrd, N. D 333 429 322 442 

11th warfl, S. D 291 480 274 491 

12tli ward, E. D 294 110 295 108 

12th ward, W. D 489 176 479 180 

12th ward, M. D 295 38 287 50 

13th ward, E. 1) 208 260 187 279 

13th ward, W. 1) 384 331 369 342 

14th ward, E. D 178 348 141 370 

14tli waid, VV.D 199 469 150 503 

15th ward, E. D 317 129 307 140 

ISthward, W. D 412 254 396 263 

16th ward, N. D 135 217 116 229 

16th ward, S. D 408 402 411 400 

aOthward, M. D 93 235 86 241 

17tli ward, E. D 241 389 214 419 

J7th ward, \V. D 241 357 223 373 

Total City 12,544 9,121 12,281 ,9,425 

Other Officers. — For other offi- 
cers, the vote in the county was as 
follows : 

Chief Judg-e of the Court of Ap- 
peals: Charles A. Rapallo (dem.), 
19,277; Charles J. Folger (rep.), 
16,743. 

Justice of Sessions : James R. 
Main (dem.), 18,759-; Wm. J. Reid 
(rep.), 9,193 ; Wm. V. L. Lapaugh 
(rep.), 7,997. 

Coimty Clei'k : John Larkin (dem.), 
19,427; D. V. S. Raynsfoid (rep.), 
16,645. 



District Attorney; D. Cady Her- 
rick (dem.). 19,610 ; Geo. H. Stevens 
(rep.), 16,554. 

Cofoner : Richard Scully (dem.), 
18,954; Peter Lasch (dem.), 18,570; 
Samuel P. Eccles (rep.), 8,606 ; Thos. 
H, Kerr (rep.), 9,99i) : Francis Fonda 
(rep.), 7,616; W. R. Papen (rep.), 
7,300 ; Qany Benson (gr.), 1,255. 

Members of Assembly : 1st distinct, 
Miner Gallup (dem.), 5,636 ; L. Car- 
ter Tut tie (rep.), 2,961 ; 2d disti-ict, 
Daniel Casey (dem.), 3,447 ; Andrew 
S. Draper (rep. ), 3,914 ; Charles R. 
Knowles (rep.), 2,001 ; 3d district, 
Aaron B. Pratt (dem.), 9,089 j John 
Battersby (rep.), 3,467; 4th distiict, 
James Duffy (dem.), 4,174 ; Georg-e 
Campbell (rep.), 4,625. 

State Government. — Albany being- 
the capital of the State of New York, 
most of the State officers have their 
residence and offices here. 

Governor. — Alonzo B. Cornell 
(rep.), of New York city ; term Jan. 
1, 1880, to Jan. 1, 1883 ; elected bv a 
plurality of 42,777 ; salary, $10,000 ; 
residence on Eagle st. south of Elm ; 
office in Executive chamber. 

Lieut. -Governor. — Geo. G. Hos- 
kins (rep.), of Attica; term expires 
Jan. 1, 1883 ; salary, ;g5,000. 

Secretary of State. — Joseph B. 
Carr (rep.), of Troy ; term from Jan. 
1, 1880, to Jan. 1, 1882; salary, 
$5,000 ; office in State Hall, first floor ; 
deputy, Anson S. Wood. 

Comptroller. — James W. "Wads- 
worth (Rep.), of Geneseo ; term from 
Jan. 1, 1880, to Jan. 1, 1882; salary, 
$^6,000 ; office in State Hall, first floor ; 
deputy, Henry Gallien. 

Treasurer. — Nathan D. "Wendell 
(rep.), Albany; term from Jan. 1, 
1880, to Jan. 1, 1882; salary, $5,000 ; 
office in State Hall, first floor ; deputy, 
W^m. H. Smith. 

Attorney-Gen'l. — Hamilton Ward 
,(rep.), of Belmont J term from Jan. 1, 



145 



STATE GOVERNMENT 



1880, to Jan. 1, 1882 ; salaiy, |5,000 ; 
office in State Hall, second floor; 
deputy, Wm. B. Rugg-les. 

Engineer and Surveyor. — Horatio 
Seymour, Jr. (dem.), of Utica; term 
from Jan. 1, 1880, to Jan. 1, 1882; 
salary, i?5,000 ; office in State Hall, 
second floor ; deputy, Edward D. 
Smalley. 

Superintendent op State Prisons. 
— Louis D. Pilshuiy of Albany, ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Senate. 
Salary, $6,000. Term expires Feb. 
16, 1882. 

Superintendent op Public "Works- 
— Silas B. Dutcher of Brooklyn, ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Senate. 
Salary, $6,000. Term expires Jan. 
1, 1883. 

Auditor op Canal Department. 
— John A. Place of Os\veg"0 ; appointed 
by the Governor and Senate ; term 
expires May 20, 1883 ; salary, $5,000 ; 
office in State hall, first floor. Dep- 
uty, Edmund Savage. 

Canal Board. — Consists of the Lieu- 
ten ant-Go venior. Secretary of State, 
Comptroller, Treasurer, Attoniey- 
General, State Engineer and Sur- 
veyor, Superintendent of Public 
Works. Meets at the Canal depart- 
ment, in the State hall, and has full 
management of the canals. It fixes 
the rate of tolls, appoints weigh- 
mastere, engineers and superintend- 
ents of repairs ; hears appeals from 
Canal Appraisers, remits penalties, 
and regulates police of the canals, 
etc. The Auditor of the Canal de- 
partment is the clerk of the Canal 
board. 

Canal Appraisers. — "Wm. J. Mor- 
gan, Buflalo ; "Wm. L. Bostwick, 
Ithaca ; Charles M. Dennison, "Utica ; 
terms expire in 1883. Appointed 
by the Governor and Senate. Duties 
are the appraisal of damages to in- 
dividuals, gi-o\\dng out of the con- 
struction of the canals. Salary, 
10 



$5,000, and $500 for ti-aveling ex- 
penses, at three cents per mile. 

State Assessors. — Commodore P. 
Vedder, Ellicottville ; James H. 
"Weatherwax, Little Falls; John S. 
Fowler, Auburn. 

Adjutant-General. — Frederick 
Townsend, Albany ; tenn expires 
Dec. 3, 1882. 

Superintendent op Bank Depart- 
ment. — A. B. Hepburn ; appointed 
by the Governor and Senate ; terai 
expires April 13, 18S8 ; salary, 
$5,000; office in State hall, second 
floor. Deputy, .lames S. Thurston. 

Superintendent of Insurance. — 
Charles G, Fairraan, Elmira; ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Senate ; 
term expires April 27, 1883 ; salary, 
$7,000 ; office State hall, basement. 
Deputy, J. A. McCall, Jr. 

Superintendent op Public In- 
struction. — Neil Gilmour of Ballston 
Spa ; elected by the Legislature ; 
term expires April 7, 1883 ; salary, 
$5,000; office in the old Capitol. 
Deputy, A. A. Keyes. 

State Board' of Charities. — "Wm. 
P. Letch worth, pres. ; John C. De- 
vereux, vice-pres. ; Chas. S. Hoyt, Al- 
bany, sec; Jas. 0. Fanning, Albany, 
assist, sec. Holds public meetings 
on th^5 second Tuesday of January, 
March, May, September and Novem- 
ber, at four o'clock, p.m. A meeting 
of the executive committee, held on 
the second Tuesday in each month, 
at four o'clock, p.m., at the office of 
the board. No. 1 Lafayette st. 

Regents op the University. — The 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Sec- 
retary of State, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, ex officiis, George 
W. Clinton, Lorenzo Buitows, Robert 
S. Hale, E. "W. Leavenwoi'th, J. Car- 
son Brevoort, George W. Curtis, 
Francis Kernan, John L. Lewis, 
Martin I. Townsend, Anson J. Upson, 
William L. Bostwick, Chauncey M. 
Depew, Charles E. Fitch, Orris H- 



VALUATION 



146 



Warren, Leslie W. Russell, Whitelaw 
Reid, Charles E. Smith. Officers of 

the Board: , chancellor; 

Henry R. Pierson, vice-chancellor; 
David Murray, sec. ; Daniel J. Pratt, 
assist, sec. 

Offickrs of State Library and 
THE Museum of Natural History. — 
Hemy A. Homes, gen. librarian ; 
Stephen B. Griswold, law librarian ; 
George R. Howell, assist, librarian. 
James Hall, director State Museum. 

State Survey Commissioners. — 
Horatio Seymour, pres. ; Daniel J. 
Pratt, clerk; James T. Gardner, 
director. 

Adirondack Survey. — Verplanck 
Colvin, supt. 

Tax Rate, The, for the city of 
Albany, as lixed by the board of su- 
I)ervisors, Dec. 8, 1^0, is $3 60, ex- 
cept that portion of the city added in 
1870, where it is $2.56, and that part 
west of Allen st., where it is §2.60. 

United States Officers.— The fol- 
lowing- are the United States officers 
at Albany : 

Commissioners. — "W". Frothing-ham, 
69 State st.; J. Hampden Wood, 
Tweddle Hall. 



Custom House. (See separate head . ) 

Deputy Marshal — Jas. H. Kelly, 
office Lodg"e, cor. State st. 

Internal Revenue. (See separate 
head. ) 

Masters and Examiners, in U. S. 
Circuit Court. — William Lansing, 55 
State St.; J. Hampden Wood, Twed- 
dle Hall. 

Masters and Examiners, in U. S. 
District Court. — William Lansing", 55 
State St.; J. Hampden Wood, Twed- 
dle Hall ; Worthington Fi-othingham, 
69 State st. 

Board of Pension Examining Sur- 
geons, office 1 Washington ave. Chas. 
H. Porter, Wm. H. Bailey, Herman 
Bendell. 

Register in Bankruptcy — A. B. 
Voorhees, 73 State. 

Post Office. (See separate head.) 

Valuation. — The valuation of the 
city is : 

Real estate $34,135,625 

Personal property 3,r>12,350 

Total 1337,647,975 



The assessed valuation of property 
belonging to the city government in 
1878, was 1971,000. 



The alphabetical arranfrement of the Hantl-Book renders an Index unnecessary. 
The articles on most subjects will be found without dilUculty, only where the 
word "Albany" or "State" comes first, the compiler has, "in most instances, 
placed the article in the order indioated by the second word, as "Albany Medical 
College," found under " Medical College," etc. 



H. S. BULL. 



M. V. B. BULL. 



H. S. BULL Sc OO. 

GENERAL INSURANCE AGE..„., 

35 AND 37 State St., Albany, N. Y. 



TWE:?fTY MiLtiioxs k:epresextei>. 



FIRE AND MARINE. 



NORWICH UNION, ENGLAND, 
Organized 1797. 

AMERICAN, NEW YORK, 
Organized 1857, 

NEWARK FIRE, NEW JERSEY. 
Organized 1810. 

UNION, PHILADELPHIA, PA., 
Organized 1804. 



EQUITABLE, PROVIDENCE, R. I. 
Organized 1859. 

ST. PAUL, ST. PAUL, MINN. 
Organized 1865. 

NEWARK CITY, NEW JERSEY, 
Organized 1857. 

JEFFERSON, NEW YORK, N. Y. 
Organized 1824. 



LIFE. 



Phcenix Mutual, Hartford, Conn,, 

Organized 1S51. 
Fidelity and Casualty Co., N. Y. 



jMetropolitan Plate Glass Co., N. Y. 
Hartford Steam Boiler Co., Conn. 



1851. TIYEHTY-HIHE YEARS OF SUCCESSFUL EXPERIEXCK. 1880. 

PHOENIX MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 

Of Hartford, Conn., has since its Organization in 1851, 

ISSUEB OVER, - - - 100,000 FOEICIES. 

RECEIVED in Premiums over • $29,000,000.00 

*• in Interest on Assets nearly .... 6,500,000.00 

PAID in Death Losses and Matured Endowments over - 9,000,000.00 

" in Dividends to its Policy Holders, and for Surrendered 

and Ceased Policies nearly 9,500,000.00 

IT NOW HAS ASSETS OVER - - $10,500,000.00 
" " SURPLUS OVER - - 1,000,000.00 
Paid to Policy-Holders in 1879, in Death Claims, Matured Endow- 
ments, Dividends and Surrendered Policies over - - 1,400,000.00 
The Interest alone received for 1879, exceeds the amount paid for 

Death Claims, l6S,728.6S 

BRANCH OFFICE, 35 and 87 STATE ST., AL.BANY, BT.Y. 

M. V. B. BULL, - - - - Manager. 

General. Special and Local Agents wanted In New York, New Hampshire and Vermont 



Albany F emale A cademy. 

The oldest Institution of its grade in this city, has been placed upon a new and enlarged 
basis, and henceforward will occupy a position among our best Doardins^ and Day Schools. Its 
course of study extends from the most elementary instruction through a Post-Graduate curriculum, 
and the utmost ihoroiifjhness is required in every department, promotion being accorded only 
upon the ground of merit. Not only is the standard of scholarship high, but also that of taste and 
manners, while Christian principle is considered the indispensable requisite of a well-developed 
character. The studio is one of the chief attractions of the Academy, and is at present un- 
equalled in this city. A systematic and progressive course of Art study is laid down in the 
catalogue, a suitable portion of which forms part of the regular curriculum. The best facilities for 
the acquisition of Modem Languages and Music are also secured to the pupils. In no case are 
any but conscientious and superior teachers employed. Boarding pupils receive from the Principal, 
Matron and Teachers the care given in a refined Christian home. French is spoken by all pupils 
in this depai tmcnt. Catalogues may be obtained at the Academy, or by aoolying to the Principal. 

Hon. W. L. LEARNED, LL.D., President. 
DUDLEY OLCOTT, Esq., HARMON PUMPELLY, Esq., 

Rev. R. W. CLARK, D. D., Rev. W. S. SMART, D. D., 

JOHN TEMPLETON, Esq., SAMUEL B. WARD, M. D., 

ARCHIBALD McCLURE, Esq., ARTHUR BOTT, Esq., 

Rev. HENRY DARLING, D. D., Rev. IRVING MAGEE, D. D., 
JACOB S. MOSHER, M. D. 

LUCY A. PLYMPTON, Principal. 

ANNA ANDERSON, Mrs. E. M.- MILLARD, 

MINNIE McLEAN, B. A., MARTHA H. VANE, 

ADA J. AVER, B. A., Prof. WM. P. MORGAN, 

AUGUSTA M. LYMAN, VIOLA GREENALCH, 

ARMAND De potter, M. A., Mrs. J. W. HARCOURT, 

Mme. AIMEE S. De POTTER, HERR C. A. MEYER. 

PROF. DE POTTER'S I 

EUROPEIN EDUCSTIONSL AND VlCSTION TOURS. . 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR 1831 (2d year). 

I. The ANNUAL SELECT PARTY for an EXTE.VDED TOUR tO SCOTLAND, ENGLAND, BeLGIUM, 

Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Franxe, will leave Nc7v Vork on or about yn7te i8th, to 
return early in Sepionber. This party will be personally conducted by Prof, and Mrs. de Potter. 

2. — The same touk as above, but without Italy, and making a longer stay in Switzerland, 
or France. 

3. — The Rhine and Paris tour: traveling with the "annual party" as far as Heidelberg 
and there leave for Paris, where the tourist can stay a week, or longer, by special arrangement. 

4. — Short Tour: traveling with the "annual party" as far as Brussels and there leave for 
Paris, to stay there four days or more. 

5. — For those wishing to make a prolonged stay and avail themselves of the musical, art and 
linguistic advantages, arrangements have been made with educational institutions, pen- 
sions, &c., in Paris aiid other cities, which present such advantages as never were offered in 
America before. 

N. B. — The above arrangements, which include only first-class traveling, the best hotels, pensions 
and institutions, furnish not only means of gomg to Europe comfortably, but also economically. 

FOR PROGRAMME WITH FULL PARTICULARS, Address 

IPi^OIF'- J^-JRl^J^lsilD IDE I^OTTEIi, 

ALBANY FEMALE ACADEMY, Albany, K. Y. 



THE ALBANY ACADEMY, 

(Establislied in 1813.) 



TRUSTEES. 
JAMES P. BOYD. M. D., Senior Trust re. 
OHLANDO MEADS, Rt. Rev. W. C. DOANE, D. D., MKRRILL EDWARDS GATES, 

HI'uVRY H. MARTIN. PAUL F. COOPER, MAUUICE E. VIELE, Treasurer. 

THOMAS HUN, M. D., WILLI.AM L. LEARNED, LL. D., ABRAHAM LANSING, 

JOHN R RATUBONE, EDWARD P. WATERBURY, ERAtiTUS CORNING. 

THE MAYOR OF ALBANY, ) rx-Omcin 

THE RECORDER OF ALBANY, 5 ^^ ^M^cio. 



The Primary Department, in charge of ladies of experience, receives boys 
at the youngest .school age, and combines many features of the Kindergarten with 
an introduction to the use of books. Its work is continued in 

The pRiiPAR.vroRY Dkpartment, for boys from 8 or lo to I2 or 14 years 
of age, -which does most careful work in teaching boys to read, write and speak 
the English Language correctly, and in Arithmetic and Geography. With this 
work is combined a course of Oral Lessons by "the Object- Method," in Botany, 
Zoology and the useful arts. These lessons cultivate the boy's powers of obser- 
vation and expression, and greatly add to the interest of school-life. 



THE ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT 

SOME FBATUHES OF THE SCHOOL. 



1. Attention to health — Gymnastics and Military Drill. 

2. Fullest preparation for the best colleges — more than is required in all 
branches. 

3. The study of Latin and Greek is made an educating process, not a parrot- 
like repetition of rules and exceptions. 

4. The History of Greece, Kome, the United Slates and England, is studied 
with a view to its lessons for our own times. 

5. Careful and constant practice in composing and letter-writing. 

6. A full year's work in English Literature — studying the best authors in their 
best works, not merely learning dates. 

7. A careful introduction to the Natural Sciences; Physics, Chemistry, As- 
tronomy, Botany and Physiology. 

8. French and German are taught ' ' for use. " French text-books are used in 
the study of Physics. 

9. Mathematics, to Conic Sections and Analytical Geometry. 

10. Book-keeping for the future business-man. 

11. Five-minute talks with the school on Topics of the Time — "The Question- 
Box." 

12. The management of the school aims to inculcate Truthfulness, Christian 
Principle, and habits of self-reliant work. 

13. Full apparatus — large collections of photographs, illustrative of Geography, 
History and Art. 

jA y-I /-| yc^ c C 

MERRILL EDWARDS GATES. PH.D., Pmcipal, 

230 STATE STREET, ALBAHY, Ti. Y. 



I83Q. ISSO. 

^llietny IVjE^icHl Coltege. 

Medical Department of Union Uniyersity. 



Regular Winter Sessions commence on the First Tuesday in 
October each year, and continue twenty weeks. 

Spring Lectures (non-graduating Course) commence on 
the First Monday in April. 

HOSPITAL ADYANTAOES. 

Albany Hospital, St. Peter's Hospital, Albany County Hospi- 
tal, Eye and Ear Infirmary, Eye and p]ar Relief, and their Dispen- 
saries, are available to the class for clinical purposes. 

MUSEUM. 

The extensive and complete Museum of the College, which is 
kept open to the public, is of valuable assistance to students. 

CLINICS HELD DURINO THE ENTIRE YEAR. 

Surgical Clinics a-t the Amphitheatre of the Albany Hospital 
on Saturday at 12. Medical Clinics during the week at 11 A. M. 

LABORATORIES. 

The Chemical Laboratory and the Laboratory of Normal and 
Pathological Histology are open to classes in the College Building. 

FEES. 

Matriculation fee $5, Fees for the Course $100. Perpetual 
Lecture Ticket $150. Graduation fee $25. The Spring Lectures 
are free to matriculants. 

For information or Catalogues, address 

!g,Egisti|aii 0^ tl]e ^IHciny JS^eSical ^^cllege, 

3 LANCASTER ST., ALBANY, N. Y. 



fk. 




m 

Albany, N. Y. 



^%^ 



The Rt. Rev. W. C. Doane, S. T. D., Principal and Rector. 

Sister Helen, - • - Head of the House. 

Miss E. W. Boyd, - - - Head of the School. 

With Twenty Te:ichers and Lecturers 



The School provides a full course of study from the Kin- 
dergarten through a carefully prepared Post-Graduate Course, 
based upon that required for the Oxford (Eng.) degree. 

The departments of Music, Modern Languages, Drawing 
and Painting, are under the charge of highly accomplished 
teachers, who have gained a wide reputation for thorough- 
ness and skill. 

Special attention is paid to instruction in Prayer Book 
and Church History. 

Charge for the Year, $350.00 

For new pupils the entrance fee, ----- 25.00 

Music, ------- $100 and 150.00 

German (where French is also studied), _ - _ 30.00 

Oil, Water Colour, and Mineral Painting, each, - 40.00 



ffiuition ^ar^ l>ciy pupils. 



In the Harvard Class, for the year, . - . - $125.00 

" Senior *' u a . - . . 100.00 

Middle *' "a _ . . . 75.00 

*' Junior una . . . 50.00 

" Kinder-Garten Class for the 7 ear, - - - 30.00 








Line of Steamers. 



J. G^. :gkn(ief^. W.M-Wl\itiiey. 



Capt. F. A. HITCHCOCK. 



Capt JOHN I. HITCHCOCK. 



h:otje.XjY te.z:ps. 



I 



On Saturdays and Sundays* Trips eTnery ^o iminmtes* 

FsRE Ten Cents. 12 Tickets, $1.00. 

Fare on Saturdays 5 Cents. 





STEAMER EMITA, 



Capt. CHARLES R. HITCHCOCK. 



Leaves Albany, 10.30 A. M., and 5 P. M. 

SATURDAYS, Leaves New Baltimore at 6.45 P. M., and 
Return to Albany. 

SUNDAYS, Leaves Albany at 9 A. M., and 2 P. M. Leaves 
New Baltimore at 11.30 A. M., and 4 P. M. 



L. H. BURDICK. 



James Taylor. 

BURDICK & TAYLOR, 




481 BROADWAY, 

Hext to Stanwix Hall. ^IBan^ Jl. °5^. 



D. L WEAVER & SON, 

MAXUFACTDREES OF 

AND WALKING CANES, 

66 Hudson Ave., Albany, N. Y. 

Opp. ]Midd!e Dutch Church. 



COVERING and REPAIRING-. 



HUYLER'S 

863 Broadway, New York. 

BRANCHES: 

3 Old Post Office Building, Nassau St., New York. 
339 Fulton St., opp Pierrepont St., Brooklyn. 
4th St. Cor. South 9th St., VVilliamsburgh, E. D. 
Saratoga— Opposite Congress Springs. 
Long Branch— Opposite Ocean House. 
Troy— No. 2 Times Building, 

Alliany Branch, n Mil Pearl St. 



NEW^ EDITION. 




Published by G. (St C.MERRIAM, Springfield, Mass, 

LATEST-LARGEST-BEST. 

Contains oyer 118,000 fords. 

1928 Pages, 3000 Engravings, 

4600 NEW WORDS and Meanings. 
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 

Of over 9700 NAMES. 

.A- CECOICE G-UFT 

For ail .times, 

HOLIDAYS, WEDDING, BIRTHDAY, 

ANNIVERSARY, or any other day; for 

PASTOE, TEACHES, PAEENT, CHILD, FEIEND. 



JOSEPH LORD, 

BookselJQr and StatiouGr, 

19 PHILIP ST., ALBA^TY, N. T. 



GOODS SUITABLE FOR PRESENTS. 

Standard, Theological, School, Medical and 
Miscellaneous Uooks, Fancj- and Plain 
Stationary Cheap. 

A large assortment Second-hand Books. 



THE OKLY OKS IH ALBAKYJ 

WILLIAM E. WHITENS 

44 GREEN STREET. 



JBirds^ Cages UTid 8eed^ 



66 Chestnut Street, Albany, N. Y. 

One Block above the New Capitol. 
ORDERS FOR 

^Iciiits, Souquets and ISoisl^cts, 6rnssEs cinfl 5?irEatT]s. 

WILL RECEIVE PROMPT ATTENTION. 

A.. F. CHA^TFIJ^LD, FLortst, 

ALEX. S. THOMPSON, 

PROFESSOR OF 



YOCIL^AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC, 

35 North Pearl Street, 

' COMMIEIP^m IKSTITinPK. "" 

English, French and Classical School for Young Ladies and Misses. 

131 NORTH PEARL STREET. 

This delightfully located and popular Institution, in its double capacity of boarding and day 
school, has in its general management tlius far given the most unqualified satisfaction, and in the 
arrangements the utmost care has been taken to promote the best interests of both patron and pupil. 

ITEMS. — Building large, well ventilated, and with every desirable modern convenience. 
Graduating Course OF Study complete. Special Course when desired. Sui'ekmor Lvstkic- 
TiON in every department Modern Languages under the direction of native teachers, with 
particular attention to their practical use. Instrumental and Vocal Music taught after the 
most approved methods, with marked success. Painting and Drawing unrivaled — studio a great 
attraction. Discipline such as to cultivate true refinement, and pure Christian principle. Aim to 
secure for the pupils a well-balanced and healthful development of the physical, intellectual and 
moral powers. For any further information, address the Principals, 
Monsieigr and Madame COMMETTE. 

LADIES' Hi &ENTS' FINE BOOTS aM SHOES 

MADE TO ORDER ON SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

Those having trouble in getting Perfect H itting Shoes should call. Satis- 
faction guaranteed. 

A pair of Lasts, guaranteed to fit, made for $2.50, and to customers, gratis. 

Corns, Ingro-wing or Th.ick KTails, Bunions, Inflamed 
Joints, or tender feet treated skillfully -witliout pain. 

5 45 GREEN ST., near Hudson Ave., 




GENERAL 





82 State St., 



:ir. 



^ BOOKS OF ALL BESCRIPTIOHS BOUND in anySTYLE. 

Extra half calf (marble edge) binding 
for Libraries, defies compctilion in reason- 
ableness of price and beauty of finish. 

Designs & Samples for all worRsissned in nnmCers. 

Pamphlets in a neat and durable bind- 
ing for 30 cts. per volume. 

Law Books bound strong and cheap. 
Blank Books of all sizes made to order. 





AT LOW PRICES, and in the BEST STYLE of the ART. 

PHOTO-ELEgTRO PLiTEg and ELEgTROTYPINK, 

HIRAM FERGUSON, 

4L4r8 ISroa^-vv^ai/y, ^ITa^Etny, INT. 1Z"« 



The Undiscovered CoUxNtry. 

ByW.D.HOWELLS. Beautifully prinfed and tastefully bound. $1.50. 



This is unquestionably the greatest novel Mr. Howells has ever written. 
It treats Spiritualism with great skill and fairness; it describes life among the 
Shakers charmingly ; it has an engaging love story; and it is written with the de- 
licious humor and in the facinating style for which all of Mr. Howells's novels 
are distinguished. 

A remarkable novel, of the most piquant originality. — Neiu York Tribune. 



Mr. Howells's Other Writings, 



The Lady of the Aroostook. $1.50. 
Wholesome truth, easy narrative, and the 
daintiest humor, combine to make the novel de- 
lightful on every page. — Hartford Courant. 

Their Wedding Journey- Illustrated 
by Hoppin: $r 50. The Sarne, '"Little 
Classic" style. $1.25. 

With just enough of story and dialogue to give 
to Jt the interest of a novel, it is also one of the 
most charmiig books of travel that we have ever 
seen. — Christian Register (Boston). 

A Chance Acquaintance. Illustra- 
ted, $150. y/i^ .S"«wz^, " Little Classic" style. 
$1.25. 

One can hardly overpraise the charm and grace 
with which Mr Howells has invested the "ac- 
quaintance." and the exquisite delicacy with 
which he has treated the love into which it rip- 
ened. — Boston Advertiser. 



A Foregone Conclusion. $i 50. 

Mr. Howells has before this given us charming 
stories ; but va this last book we have a very 
noble tragedy. — Christian Union. 
Italian Journeys. $1 50. 

The reader who has gone over the ground 
which Mr. Howells describes will be struck with 
the lifelike freshness and accuracy of his 
sketches. — New York Tribiaic. 

Suburban Sketches. Illustrated. — 

$1.53 

.\ charming volume, full of fresh, vivacious, 

witty, and in every wav delightful pictures of life in 

the vicinity ofa great city. — New York Observer. 

Venetian Life. — Including Commercial, 
.Social, Historical, aud Artistic Notes of Ven- 
ice. $1.50 
Mr Howells deserves a place in the first rank 

of American travelers. — Pall Mall Gazette. 



I^p^The above eight volumes, in a box, tastefully bound in cloth, $12.00. 



Out of the Question, A Comedy. 

" Little Classic " style. $1.25. 
This seems to us one of the most charming of 
all Mr. Howells's works. — Boston Advertiser. 



A Counterfeit Presentment. A 
Comedy, " Little Classic" style. $1.25. 

Poems. " Little Classic " style. $1.25. 



For sale by all Booksellers. Sent post-paid, on receipt of prise, by the Publishers, 
HOUOHTON, MIFFLIN" & COMPANY, 

BOTTOM, liJE^^ee. 



Charles O'Brien, 




Jjlevchani bailor 

Leader in Fashion; 

JlLso jjsr stoc:k a. ajE2sr^itA.ij jLS- 
sortm:ent of 



3 k 



v\ 



481 IBr'ocLdsw^cLy ^ 



(STJ!L3Sr"V7-IZ8Z H-A-LL B TJ ILID I 3Sr Gf-,) 



i» Yo, 



VAN VLIET & BATOHELDER'S AGENCY, 

Offxces^ 49 Stat© Staree-fc- 

FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE! 

Accident and Marine Insurance ! 
REAL ESTATE ! 



XjO^ZSTS ! 



LOJ^IsTS ! 



FIRST MORTGAGES on REAL ESTATE negotiated for amounts rela- 
tively greater than Savings Bank are allowed by law to grant. 

Communications are invited from parties having Capital to invest in Bond 
and Mortgage. 

The many applications made to us for money on First Mortgages on City 
Property, enable us to offer Capitalists and others very desirable investments. 

SAVINGS BANK DEPOSITORS who get but 4 per cent interest on 
deposits may, without impairment of security, invest such money in REAL 
ESTATE FIRST MORTGAGES, and obtain 6 PER CENT INTEREST. 






Louis Sautter's 

i 

No. 8 NORTH PEARL STREET 

(4 Doors Irom State St.), 



rl- 




Em. 



1 



Fine Asssortment of 



Terfnraes, Toilet and Fancy Jiriicles 



ALW^AYS IN STOCK. 



THE I-i^A^I^GrEST 






^1 yl 



IN THIS CITY IS 






WESTCOTTS 



.^k.Xjl3.A.l>J"ir, 




Six "Warerooms filled, -with 



PARLOR, CHAMBER, 

DINING-ROOM, LIBRARY AND 

NURSERY FURNITURE, 

Parlor Furniture, all Uplohterei in tie Latest htterns and Sesips a Specialty. 

This Establishment is noted for THOROUGH WORKMANSHIP. 



-A FU_L LINE OF- 



CARPETS, OILCLOTHSIBEDDING 

I Sell for CASH, or on INSTALLMENTS, at the LOWEST 
PRICES. Examine for yourself. 

GOODS PACKED AND SHIPPED FREE. 

REMEMBER THE PLACE, 

J4 NORTH PBdKL STREET. 



AGENCY 

«^ «/ «/ «^ «/ 

d5&dl ST A TE ST.. COR. JAMES SL 



PoliciesWien^ Lowest Curreot Rates Consistent A Safety. 

JAMES HENDRICK, Agent, 

A. D. COLE. JLXjB-A.lsr"Z", 25T. TT. 

liiMMilliliCiimWIMS. 



Manufactxtrers 
of 



SOLUBLE 
BLUES 

re. Laundry 

*'>d Paper 

t^akers. 




5.7.9. 1 r&)l3 BROADWAY^ , ALBANY, nTy. 



m 

REDS 

Of all grades, 

SUPERIOR 

to any Im- 
ported. 



JAMES HENDRICK, Pres't. 



Van Heusen, Charles & Co., 

468 AND 470 BROADWAY, 



TI3:E 03LIDEST IPII^IiVC IHST -A-31.B.A-3Sr"5r- 



Our stock in variety and extent is not surpassed by any other 
in the United States. 

Purchasers are assured of honest dealing, and the lowest prices 

at wholesale and retail. 

"goodyear's crack-proof 




RUBBER BOOTS, RUBBERS 

Alaskas and Arctic Gaiters. 

These goods are manufactured expressly for our Retail 
Trade, and are made of the very finest Para Gum, under the 
original Goodyear Process, and will not break or crack. 

For sale at the 

ALBANY RUBBER DEPOT, 

426 and 428 BROADWAY, 

. HENRY MAYELL & SON. 



SDVCITIEi:, 



Merchant fAiLOR 



16 NORTH PEARL STREET, 



( Perry Building, ) 



^^aL^3B.^l^^. T^e ^'. 



<» ^» 



FOREIGN GOODS R SPECmLTY. 



CALL AND SEE OUR NEW STORE. 

French & Johnson, 




^^S©; 



IHjS^SjH 



35 & 37 Maiden Lane. 



BUSINESS SUITS, $20 to $30. 



www 



FK/Oli.^ S30 TO ^40. 

TEACHER OF THE VOICE! 

Healthful Breathing, with proper Respiratory Action, and 
Vocal attack in Singing and Speaking, a Specialty. 



f ^v • « • 



McARDLE HOUSE, 

Ladies^ and Gentlemen^s Restaurant, 

No. 6 JAMES STREET, ALBAKY, N. Y. 

This Establishment is one of the oldest and most centrally located of any in 
Albany. All the Delicacies of the Season, such as GAME, FISH, FRUIT, 
Etc., served on short notice and in excellent style. A well supplied Bar with 
Imported and Domestic Wines and Liquors. Imported and Domestic Cigars of 
the Best Brands constantly on hand. 

JOHN P. McARDLE, Prop'r. 



EQUITABLE 

LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 



OF NEW YORK. 



ASSETS, - - - $37,366,841.75 

SURPLUS, - - - 7,515,407.75 

The average annual amount of its new Policies issued, has for the 
past eleven years been larger than that of any other company. 

TlsTCONTKSTABLE 

J^ZFTEE. THZK^EE ■2-EA.I2.S. 



ALL KINDS OF POLICIES WRITTEN. 



A return of r2o per cent of premiums paid on Tontine Saving 
Fund Policies of lo years. 

For letters from Policy-Holders, and further information, apply to 

H. C. SEXTON, 

Manager of Central Department, 

46 North Pearl Street, Albany, N. Y. 




Cor. North. Pearl and Pleasant Sts., 



m 



m'.it 



gj\5 c^^ ciftf c~e)^3 OG^s •e)^ 




ies, 
Qneen Anne, 
EastMe 

AND 

Mornini Glory 

Coois, 

Ranges, 

Furnaces. 



AND 



Base Bnrners. 



QUEEN ANNE BASE BURNER, 



We invite the public to inspect our line of goods at our Foundry and Sales- 
rooms before purchasing elsewhere. We guarantee successful operation. 

When Stoves, &c., are purchased direct from us, we give personal attention 
to the filling of orders. Estimates furnished with pleasure, and prices quoted 
will be found satisfactory. Bargains in Stoves slightly used at Fairs. 

LiTTLEFIELD STOVE CO. 



n 



(SKnABE PlANOS.'i) 





AS ^A^ELL AS FOR ALL OTHER KINDS OF 
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS, 

JjTusical Jylerchandise, 

Sheet Jj£nsic, 'Boo'ks, <j:c., 

GO TO 



KEW MUSIC WABEBOOMS, 



f 



ALBANY, N. Y. 



YOU CAN SAVE MONEY. Do not buy an 
instrument until you have first seen our goods and known 
our prices. YOU WILL SAVE MONEY. ^^| 



Pianos and Organs To Rent, j.